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PING(8)			FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual		       PING(8)

     ping -- send ICMP or ICMPv6 ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

     ping [-4AaDdfHnoQqRrv] [-.chars] [-C pcp] [-c count] [-G sweepmaxsize]
	  [-g sweepminsize] [-h	sweepincrsize] [-i wait] [-l preload]
	  [-M mask | time] [-m ttl] [-P	policy]	[-p pattern] [-S src_addr]
	  [-s packetsize] [-t timeout] [-W waittime] [-z tos] IPv4-host
     ping [-4AaDdfHLnoQqRrv] [-.chars] [-C pcp]	[-c count] [-I iface]
	  [-i wait] [-l	preload] [-M mask | time] [-m ttl] [-P policy]
	  [-p pattern] [-S src_addr] [-s packetsize] [-T ttl] [-t timeout]
	  [-W waittime]	[-z tos] IPv4-mcast-group
     ping [-6AaDdEfHNnOoquvYyZ]	[-.chars] [-b bufsiz] [-c count] [-e gateway]
	  [-I interface] [-i wait] [-k addrtype] [-l preload] [-m hoplimit]
	  [-P policy] [-p pattern] [-S sourceaddr] [-s packetsize]
	  [-t timeout] [-W waittime] [IPv6-hops	...] IPv6-host

     The ping utility invoked with an IPv4 target (IPv4-host or
     IPv4-mcast-group) uses the	ICMP protocol's	mandatory ECHO_REQUEST data-
     gram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.  ECHO_RE-
     QUEST datagrams ("pings") have an IP and ICMP header, followed by a
     "struct timeval" and then an arbitrary number of "pad" bytes used to fill
     out the packet.

     When invoked with an IPv6 target (IPv6-host), it uses the ICMPv6 proto-
     col's mandatory ICMP6_ECHO_REQUEST	datagram to elicit an ICMP6_ECHO_RE-
     PLY.  ICMP6_ECHO_REQUEST datagrams	have an	IPv6 header and	ICMPv6 header
     formatted as documented in	RFC 2463.

     When invoked with a hostname, the version to which	the target is resolved
     first is used.  In	that case, the options and arguments used must be
     valid for the specific IP version,	otherwise ping exits with an error.
     If	the target is resolved to both IPv4 and	IPv6, the specific IP version
     can be requested by -4 or -6 options, respectively.  For backwards-com-
     patibility, ICMPv6	can also be selected by	invoking the binary as ping6.

   Options common to both IPv4 and IPv6	targets
	     By	default, for every ECHO_REQUEST	sent, a	period "." is printed,
	     while for every ECHO_REPLY	received, a backspace is printed.
	     This option takes an optional string argument listing characters
	     that will be printed one by one in	the provided order instead of
	     the default period.

	     Example usage:

		   ping	-.0123456789

     -A	     Audible.  Output a	bell (ASCII 0x07) character when no packet is
	     received before the next packet is	transmitted.  To cater for
	     round-trip	times that are longer than the interval	between	trans-
	     missions, further missing packets cause a bell only if the	maxi-
	     mum number	of unreceived packets has increased.

     -a	     Audible.  Include a bell (ASCII 0x07) character in	the output
	     when any packet is	received.

     -C	pcp  Add an 802.1p Ethernet Priority Code Point	when sending a packet.
	     0..7 uses that specific PCP, -1 uses the interface	default	PCP
	     (or none).

     -c	count
	     Stop after	sending	(and receiving)	count ECHO_RESPONSE packets.
	     If	this option is not specified, ping will	operate	until inter-

	     For an IPv4 target, if this option	is specified in	conjunction
	     with ping sweeps, each sweep will consist of count	packets.

     -D	     Disable fragmentation.

     -d	     Set the SO_DEBUG option on	the socket being used.

     -f	     Flood ping.  Outputs packets as fast as they come back or one
	     hundred times per second, whichever is more.  Implies -. to print
	     a period for every	ECHO_REQUEST sent and a	backspace for every
	     ECHO_REPLY	received.  This	provides a rapid display of how	many
	     packets are being dropped.	 Only the super-user may use this op-
	     tion.  This can be	very hard on a network and should be used with

     -H	     Hostname output.  Try to do a reverse DNS lookup when displaying
	     addresses.	 This is the opposite of the -n	option.

     -I	iface
	     For an IPv4 target, iface is an IP	address	indentifying an	inter-
	     face from which the packets will be sent.	This flag applies only
	     if	the ping target	is a multicast address.

	     For an IPv6 target, iface is a name of an interface (e.g.,	`em0')
	     from which	the packets will be sent.  This	flag applies if	the
	     ping target is a multicast	address, or link-local/site-local uni-
	     cast address.

     -i	wait
	     Wait wait seconds between sending each packet.  The default is to
	     wait for one second between each packet.  The wait	time may be
	     fractional, but only the super-user may specify values less than
	     1 second.	This option is incompatible with the -f	option.

     -l	preload
	     If	preload	is specified, ping sends that many packets as fast as
	     possible before falling into its normal mode of behavior.	Only
	     the super-user may	use this option.

     -m	ttl  For an IPv4 target, set the IP Time To Live for outgoing packets.
	     If	not specified, the kernel uses the value of the
	     net.inet.ip.ttl MIB variable.

	     For an IPv6 target, set the IPv6 hoplimit.

     -n	     Numeric output only.  No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic
	     names for host addresses.	This is	the opposite of	-H, and	it is
	     the default behavior.

     -o	     Exit successfully after receiving one reply packet.

     -P	policy
	     policy specifies IPsec policy for the ping	session.  For details
	     please refer to ipsec(4) and ipsec_set_policy(3).

     -p	pattern
	     You may specify up	to 16 "pad" bytes to fill out the packet you
	     send.  This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a
	     network.  For example, "-p	ff" will cause the sent	packet to be
	     filled with all ones.

     -q	     Quiet output.  Nothing is displayed except	the summary lines at
	     startup time and when finished.

     -S	src_addr
	     Use the following IP address as the source	address	in outgoing
	     packets.  On hosts	with more than one IP address, this option can
	     be	used to	force the source address to be something other than
	     the IP address of the interface the probe packet is sent on.

	     For IPv4, if the IP address is not	one of this machine's inter-
	     face addresses, an	error is returned and nothing is sent.

	     For IPv6, the source address must be one of the unicast addresses
	     of	the sending node, and must be numeric.

     -s	packetsize
	     Specify the number	of data	bytes to be sent.  The default is 56,
	     which translates into 64 ICMP data	bytes when combined with the 8
	     bytes of ICMP header data.

	     For IPv4, only the	super-user may specify values more than	de-
	     fault.  This option cannot	be used	with ping sweeps.

	     For IPv6, you may need to specify -b as well to extend socket
	     buffer size.

     -t	timeout
	     Specify a timeout,	in seconds, before ping	exits regardless of
	     how many packets have been	received.

     -v	     Verbose output.  ICMP packets other than ECHO_RESPONSE that are
	     received are listed.

     -W	waittime
	     Time in milliseconds to wait for a	reply for each packet sent.
	     If	a reply	arrives	later, the packet is not printed as replied,
	     but considered as replied when calculating	statistics.

   Options only	for IPv4 targets
     -4	     Use IPv4 regardless of how	the target is resolved.

     -G	sweepmaxsize
	     Specify the maximum size of ICMP payload when sending sweeping
	     pings.  This option is required for ping sweeps.

     -g	sweepminsize
	     Specify the size of ICMP payload to start with when sending
	     sweeping pings.  The default value	is 0.

     -h	sweepincrsize
	     Specify the number	of bytes to increment the size of ICMP payload
	     after each	sweep when sending sweeping pings.  The	default	value
	     is	1.

     -L	     Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag	only applies
	     if	the ping destination is	a multicast address.

     -M	mask | time
	     Use ICMP_MASKREQ or ICMP_TSTAMP instead of	ICMP_ECHO.  For	mask,
	     print the netmask of the remote machine.  Set the
	     net.inet.icmp.maskrepl MIB	variable to enable ICMP_MASKREPLY and
	     net.inet.icmp.maskfake if you want	to override the	netmask	in the
	     response.	For time, print	the origination, reception and trans-
	     mission timestamps.  Set the net.inet.icmp.tstamprepl MIB vari-
	     able to enable or disable ICMP_TSTAMPREPLY.

     -Q	     Somewhat quiet output.  Don't display ICMP	error messages that
	     are in response to	our query messages.  Originally, the -v	flag
	     was required to display such errors, but -v displays all ICMP er-
	     ror messages.  On a busy machine, this output can be overbearing.
	     Without the -Q flag, ping prints out any ICMP error messages
	     caused by its own ECHO_REQUEST messages.

     -R	     Record route.  Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in	the ECHO_RE-
	     QUEST packet and displays the route buffer	on returned packets.
	     Note that the IP header is	only large enough for nine such
	     routes; the traceroute(8) command is usually better at determin-
	     ing the route packets take	to a particular	destination.  If more
	     routes come back than should, such	as due to an illegal spoofed
	     packet, ping will print the route list and	then truncate it at
	     the correct spot.	Many hosts ignore or discard the RECORD_ROUTE

     -r	     Bypass the	normal routing tables and send directly	to a host on
	     an	attached network.  If the host is not on a directly-attached
	     network, an error is returned.  This option can be	used to	ping a
	     local host	through	an interface that has no route through it
	     (e.g., after the interface	was dropped by routed(8)).

     -T	ttl  Set the IP	Time To	Live for multicasted packets.  This flag only
	     applies if	the ping destination is	a multicast address.

     -z	tos  Use the specified type of service.

	     hostname or IPv4 address of the final destination node.

	     IPv4 multicast address of the final destination nodes.

   Options only	for IPv6 targets
     -6	     Use IPv6 regardless of how	the target is resolved.

     -b	bufsiz
	     Set socket	buffer size.

     -e	gateway
	     Specifies to use gateway as the next hop to the destination.  The
	     gateway must be a neighbor	of the sending node.

     -k	addrtype
	     Generate ICMPv6 Node Information Node Addresses query, rather
	     than echo-request.	 addrtype must be a string constructed of the
	     following characters.
	     a	     requests unicast addresses	from all of the	responder's
		     interfaces.  If the character is omitted, only those ad-
		     dresses which belong to the interface which has the re-
		     sponder's address are requests.
	     c	     requests responder's IPv4-compatible and IPv4-mapped ad-
	     g	     requests responder's global-scope addresses.
	     s	     requests responder's site-local addresses.
	     l	     requests responder's link-local addresses.
	     A	     requests responder's anycast addresses.  Without this
		     character,	the responder will return unicast addresses
		     only.  With this character, the responder will return
		     anycast addresses only.  Note that	the specification does
		     not specify how to	get responder's	anycast	addresses.
		     This is an	experimental option.

     -N	     Probe node	information multicast group address
	     (ff02::2:ffxx:xxxx).  host	must be	string hostname	of the target
	     (must not be a numeric IPv6 address).  Node information multicast
	     group will	be computed based on given host, and will be used as
	     the final destination.  Since node	information multicast group is
	     a link-local multicast group, outgoing interface needs to be
	     specified by -I option.

	     When specified twice, the address (ff02::2:xxxx:xxxx) is used in-
	     stead.  The former	is in RFC 4620,	the latter is in an old	Inter-
	     net Draft draft-ietf-ipngwg-icmp-name-lookup.  Note that KAME-de-
	     rived implementations including FreeBSD use the latter.

     -O	     Generate ICMPv6 Node Information supported	query types query,
	     rather than echo-request.	-s has no effect if -O is specified.

     -u	     By	default, ping asks the kernel to fragment packets to fit into
	     the minimum IPv6 MTU.  The	-u option will suppress	the behavior
	     in	the following two levels: when the option is specified once,
	     the behavior will be disabled for unicast packets.	 When the op-
	     tion is more than once, it	will be	disabled for both unicast and
	     multicast packets.

     -Y	     Same as -y, but with old packet format based on 03	draft.	This
	     option is present for backward compatibility.  -s has no effect
	     if	-y is specified.

     -y	     Generate ICMPv6 Node Information DNS Name query, rather than
	     echo-request.  -s has no effect if	-y is specified.

	     IPv6 addresses for	intermediate nodes, which will be put into
	     type 0 routing header.

	     IPv6 address of the final destination node.

   Experimental	options	only for IPv6 target
     -E	     Enables transport-mode IPsec encapsulated security	payload.

     -Z	     Enables transport-mode IPsec authentication header.

     When using	ping for fault isolation, it should first be run on the	local
     host, to verify that the local network interface is up and	running.
     Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be "pinged".
     Round-trip	times and packet loss statistics are computed.	If duplicate
     packets are received, they	are not	included in the	packet loss calcula-
     tion, although the	round trip time	of these packets is used in calculat-
     ing the round-trip	time statistics.  When the specified number of packets
     have been sent (and received) or if the program is	terminated with	a
     SIGINT, a brief summary is	displayed, showing the number of packets sent
     and received, and the minimum, mean, maximum, and standard	deviation of
     the round-trip times.

     If	ping receives a	SIGINFO	(see the status	argument for stty(1)) signal,
     the current number	of packets sent	and received, and the minimum, mean,
     maximum, and standard deviation of	the round-trip times will be written
     to	the standard output.

     This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and man-
     agement.  Because of the load it can impose on the	network, it is unwise
     to	use ping during	normal operations or from automated scripts.

     An	IP header without options is 20	bytes.	An ICMP	ECHO_REQUEST packet
     contains an additional 8 bytes worth of ICMP header followed by an	arbi-
     trary amount of data.  When a packetsize is given,	this indicated the
     size of this extra	piece of data (the default is 56).  Thus the amount of
     data received inside of an	IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always
     be	8 bytes	more than the requested	data space (the	ICMP header).

     If	the data space is at least eight bytes large, ping uses	the first
     eight bytes of this space to include a timestamp which it uses in the
     computation of round trip times.  If less than eight bytes	of pad are
     specified,	no round trip times are	given.

     The ping utility will report duplicate and	damaged	packets.  Duplicate
     packets should never occur	when pinging a unicast address,	and seem to be
     caused by inappropriate link-level	retransmissions.  Duplicates may occur
     in	many situations	and are	rarely (if ever) a good	sign, although the
     presence of low levels of duplicates may not always be cause for alarm.
     Duplicates	are expected when pinging a broadcast or multicast address,
     since they	are not	really duplicates but replies from different hosts to
     the same request.

     Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often indicate
     broken hardware somewhere in the ping packet's path (in the network or in
     the hosts).

     The (inter)network	layer should never treat packets differently depending
     on	the data contained in the data portion.	 Unfortunately,	data-dependent
     problems have been	known to sneak into networks and remain	undetected for
     long periods of time.  In many cases the particular pattern that will
     have problems is something	that does not have sufficient "transitions",
     such as all ones or all zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as
     almost all	zeros.	It is not necessarily enough to	specify	a data pattern
     of	all zeros (for example)	on the command line because the	pattern	that
     is	of interest is at the data link	level, and the relationship between
     what you type and what the	controllers transmit can be complicated.

     This means	that if	you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
     have to do	a lot of testing to find it.  If you are lucky,	you may	manage
     to	find a file that either	cannot be sent across your network or that
     takes much	longer to transfer than	other similar length files.  You can
     then examine this file for	repeated patterns that you can test using the
     -p	option of ping.

     The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
     that the packet can go through before being thrown	away.  In current
     practice you can expect each router in the	Internet to decrement the TTL
     field by exactly one.

     The TCP/IP	specification recommends setting the TTL field for IP packets
     to	64.

     The maximum possible value	of this	field is 255, and some UNIX systems
     set the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.  This is why you
     will find you can "ping" some hosts, but not reach	them with telnet(1) or

     In	normal operation ping prints the ttl value from	the packet it re-
     ceives.  When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of
     three things with the TTL field in	its response:

     o	 Not change it;	this is	what BSD systems did before the	4.3BSD-Tahoe
	 release.  In this case	the TTL	value in the received packet will be
	 255 minus the number of routers in the	round-trip path.

     o	 Set it	to 64; this is what current FreeBSD systems do.	 In this case
	 the TTL value in the received packet will be 64 minus the number of
	 routers in the	path from the remote system to the pinging host.

     o	 Set it	to some	other value.  Some machines use	the same value for
	 ICMP packets that they	use for	TCP packets, for example either	30 or
	 60.  Others may use completely	wild values.

     The ping utility exits with one of	the following values:

     0	     At	least one response was heard from the specified	host.

     2	     The transmission was successful but no responses were received.

     any other value
	     An	error occurred.

     The following will	send ICMPv6 echo request to

	   ping	-6 -n

     The following will	probe hostnames	for all	nodes on the network link at-
     tached to wi0 interface.  The address ff02::1 is named the	link-local
     all-node multicast	address, and the packet	would reach every node on the
     network link.

	   ping	-6 -y ff02::1%wi0

     The following will	probe addresses	assigned to the	destination node,

	   ping	-6 -k agl

     netstat(1), icmp(4), icmp6(4), inet6(4), ip6(4), ifconfig(8), routed(8),
     traceroute(8), traceroute6(8)

     A.	Conta and S. Deering, Internet Control Message Protocol	(ICMPv6) for
     the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, RFC 2463, December

     Matt Crawford, IPv6 Node Information Queries, draft-ietf-ipngwg-icmp-
     name-lookups-09.txt, May 2002, work in progress material.

     The ping utility appeared in 4.3BSD.  The ping6 utility with IPv6 support
     first appeared in the WIDE	Hydrangea IPv6 protocol	stack kit.

     IPv6 and IPsec support based on the KAME Project (
     stack was initially integrated into FreeBSD 4.0.

     The ping6 utility was merged to ping in Google Summer of Code 2019.

     The original ping utility was written by Mike Muuss while at the US Army
     Ballistics	Research Laboratory.

     Many Hosts	and Gateways ignore the	IPv4 RECORD_ROUTE option.

     The maximum IP header length is too small for options like	RECORD_ROUTE
     to	be completely useful.  There's not much	that can be done about this,

     Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the	broad-
     cast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.

     The -v option is not worth	much on	busy hosts.

FreeBSD	13.0		       November	20, 2022		  FreeBSD 13.0


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