Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
UUlib(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	      UUlib(3)

       Convert::UUlib -	Perl interface to the uulib library (a.k.a.

	use Convert::UUlib ':all';

	# read all the files named on the commandline and decode them
	# into the CURRENT directory. See below	for a longer example.
	LoadFile $_ for	@ARGV;

	for my $uu (GetFileList) {
	   if ($uu->state & FILE_OK) {
	     print $uu->filename, "\n";

       Read the	file doc/library.pdf from the distribution for in-depth
       information about the C-library used in this interface, and the rest of
       this document and especially the	non-trivial decoder program at the

   Action code constants
	 ACT_IDLE      we don't	do anything
	 ACT_SCANNING  scanning	an input file
	 ACT_DECODING  decoding	into a temp file
	 ACT_COPYING   copying temp to target
	 ACT_ENCODING  encoding	a file

   Message severity levels
	 MSG_MESSAGE   just a message, nothing important
	 MSG_NOTE      something that should be	noticed
	 MSG_WARNING   important msg, processing continues
	 MSG_ERROR     processing has been terminated
	 MSG_FATAL     decoder cannot process further requests
	 MSG_PANIC     recovery	impossible, app	must terminate

	 OPT_VERSION   version number MAJOR.MINORplPATCH (ro)
	 OPT_FAST      assumes only one	part per file
	 OPT_DUMBNESS  switch off the program's	intelligence
	 OPT_BRACKPOL  give numbers in [] higher precendence
	 OPT_VERBOSE   generate	informative messages
	 OPT_DESPERATE try to decode incomplete	files
	 OPT_IGNREPLY  ignore RE:plies (off by default)
	 OPT_OVERWRITE whether it's OK to overwrite ex.	files
	 OPT_SAVEPATH  prefix to save-files on disk
	 OPT_IGNMODE   ignore the original file	mode
	 OPT_DEBUG     print messages with FILE/LINE info
	 OPT_ERRNO     get last	error code for RET_IOERR (ro)
	 OPT_PROGRESS  retrieve	progress information
	 OPT_USETEXT   handle text messages
	 OPT_PREAMB    handle Mime preambles/epilogues
	 OPT_TINYB64   detect short B64	outside	of Mime
	 OPT_ENCEXT    extension for single-part encoded files
	 OPT_REMOVE    remove input files after	decoding (dangerous)
	 OPT_MOREMIME  strict MIME adherence
	 OPT_DOTDOT    ".."-unescaping has not yet been	done on	input files
	 OPT_RBUF      set default read	I/O buffer size	in bytes
	 OPT_WBUF      set default write I/O buffer size in bytes
	 OPT_AUTOCHECK automatically check file	list after every loadfile

   Result/Error	codes
	 RET_OK	       everything went fine
	 RET_IOERR     I/O Error - examine errno
	 RET_NOMEM     not enough memory
	 RET_ILLVAL    illegal value for operation
	 RET_NODATA    decoder didn't find any data
	 RET_NOEND     encoded data wasn't ended properly
	 RET_UNSUP     unsupported function (encoding)
	 RET_EXISTS    file exists (decoding)
	 RET_CONT      continue	-- special from	ScanPart
	 RET_CANCEL    operation canceled

   File	States
	This code is zero, i.e.	"false":

	 UUFILE_READ   Read in,	but not	further	processed

	The following state codes are or'ed together:

	 FILE_MISPART  Missing Part(s) detected
	 FILE_NOBEGIN  No 'begin' found
	 FILE_NOEND    No 'end'	found
	 FILE_NODATA   File does not contain valid uudata
	 FILE_OK       All Parts found,	ready to decode
	 FILE_ERROR    Error while decoding
	 FILE_DECODED  Successfully decoded
	 FILE_TMPFILE  Temporary decoded file exists

   Encoding types
	 UU_ENCODED    UUencoded data
	 B64_ENCODED   Mime-Base64 data
	 XX_ENCODED    XXencoded data
	 BH_ENCODED    Binhex encoded
	 PT_ENCODED    Plain-Text encoded (MIME)
	 QP_ENCODED    Quoted-Printable	(MIME)
	 YENC_ENCODED  yEnc encoded (non-MIME)

   Initializing	and cleanup
       Initialize is automatically called when the module is loaded and
       allocates quite a small amount of memory	for todays machines ;) CleanUp
       releases	that again.

       On my machine, a	fairly complete	decode with DBI	backend	needs about
       10MB RSS	to decode 20000	files.

	   Release memory, file	items and clean	up files. Should be called
	   after a decoidng run, if you	want to	start a	new one.

   Setting and querying	options
       $option = GetOption OPT_xxx
       SetOption OPT_xxx, opt-value

       See the "OPT_xxx" constants above to see	which options exist.

   Setting various callbacks
       SetMsgCallback [callback-function]
       SetBusyCallback [callback-function]
       SetFileCallback [callback-function]
       SetFNameFilter [callback-function]

   Call	the currently selected FNameFilter
       $file = FNameFilter $file

   Loading sourcefiles,	optionally fuzzy merge and start decoding
       ($retval, $count) = LoadFile $fname, [$id, [$delflag, [$partno]]]
	   Load	the given file and scan	it for encoded contents. Optionally
	   tag it with the given id, and if $delflag is	true, delete the file
	   after it is no longer necessary. If you are certain of the part
	   number, you can specify it as the last argument.

	   A better (usually faster) way of doing this is using	the
	   "SetFNameFilter" functionality.

       $retval = Smerge	$pass
	   If you are desperate, try to	call "Smerge" with increasing $pass
	   values, beginning at	0, to try to merge parts that usually would
	   not have been merged.

	   Most	probably this will result in garbled files, so never do	this
	   by default, except:

	   If the "OPT_AUTOCHECK" option has been disabled (by default it is
	   enabled) to speed up	file loading, then you have to call "Smerge
	   -1" after loading all files as an additional	pre-pass (which	is
	   normally done by "LoadFile").

       $item = GetFileListItem $item_number
	   Return the $item structure for the $item_number'th found file, or
	   "undef" of no file with that	number exists.

	   The first file has number 0,	and the	series has no holes, so	you
	   can iterate over all	files by starting with zero and	incrementing
	   until you hit "undef".

	   This	function has to	walk the linear	list of	fils on	each access,
	   so if you want to iterate over all items, it	is usually faster to
	   use "GetFileList".

       @items =	GetFileList
	   Similar to "GetFileListItem", but returns all files in one go.

   Decoding files
       $retval = $item->rename ($newname)
	   Change the ondisk filename where the	decoded	file will be saved.

       $retval = $item->decode_temp
	   Decode the file into	a temporary location, use "$item->infile" to
	   retrieve the	temporary filename.

       $retval = $item->remove_temp
	   Remove the temporarily decoded file again.

       $retval = $item->decode ([$target_path])
	   Decode the file to its destination, or the given target path.

       $retval = $item->info (callback-function)

   Querying (and setting) item attributes
       $state	 = $item->state
       $mode	 = $item->mode ([newmode])
       $uudet	 = $item->uudet
       $size	 = $item->size
       $filename = $item->filename ([newfilename})
       $subfname = $item->subfname
       $mimeid	 = $item->mimeid
       $mimetype = $item->mimetype
       $binfile	 = $item->binfile

   Information about source parts
       $parts =	$item->parts
	   Return information about all	parts (source files) used to decode
	   the file as a list of hashrefs with the following structure:

	      partno   => <integer describing the part number, starting	with 1>,
	      #	the following member sonly exist when they contain useful information
	      sfname   => <local pathname of the file where this part is from>,
	      filename => <the ondisk filename of the decoded file>,
	      subfname => <used	to cluster postings, possibly the posting filename>,
	      subject  => <the subject of the posting/mail>,
	      origin   => <the possible	source (From) address>,
	      mimetype => <the possible	mimetype of the	decoded	file>,
	      mimeid   => <the id part of the Content-Type>,

	   Usually you are interested mostly the "sfname" and possibly the
	   "partno" and	"filename" members.

   Functions below are not documented and not very well	tested - feedback

       Functions found in this module but not documented in the	uulib

       $msg = straction	ACT_xxx
	   Return a human readable string representing the given action	code.

       $msg = strerror RET_xxx
	   Return a human readable string representing the given error code.

       $str = strencoding xxx_ENCODED
	   Return the name of the encoding type	as a string.

       $str = strmsglevel MSG_xxx
	   Returns the message level as	a string.

       SetFileNameCallback $cb
	   Sets	(or queries) the FileNameCallback, which is called whenever
	   the decoding	library	can't find a filename and wants	to extract a
	   filename from the subject line of a posting.	The callback will be
	   called with two arguments, the subject line and the current
	   candidate for the filename. The latter argument can be "undef",
	   which means that no filename	could be found (and likely no one
	   exists, so it is safe to also return	"undef"	in this	case). If it
	   doesn't return anything (not	even "undef"!),	then nothing happens,
	   so this is a	no-op callback:

	      sub cb {
		 return	();

	   If it returns "undef", then this indicates that no filename could
	   be found. In	all other cases, the return value is taken to be the

	   This	is a slightly more useful callback:

	     sub cb {
		return unless $_[1]; # skip "Re:"-plies	et al.
		my ($subject, $filename) = @_;
		# if we	find some *.rar, take it
		return $1 if $subject =~ /(\w+\.rar)/;
		# otherwise just pass what we have
		return ();

       The general workflow for	decoding is like this:

       1. Configure options with "SetOption" or	"SetXXXCallback".
       2. Load all source files	with "LoadFile".
       3. Optionally "Smerge".
       4. Iterate over all "GetFileList" items (i.e. result files).
       5. "CleanUp" to delete files and	free items.

       What follows is the file	"example-decoder" from the distribution	that
       illustrates the above worklfow in a non-trivial example.


	  # decode all the files in the	directory uusrc/ and copy
	  # the	resulting files	to uudst/

	  use Convert::UUlib ':all';

	  sub namefilter {
	     my	($path)	= @_;



	  sub busycb {
	     my	($action, $curfile, $partno, $numparts,	$percent, $fsize) = @_;
	     print "busy_callback(", (join ",",@_), ")\n";

	  SetOption OPT_RBUF, 128*1024;
	  SetOption OPT_WBUF, 1024*1024;
	  SetOption OPT_IGNMODE, 1;
	  SetOption OPT_IGNMODE, 1;
	  SetOption OPT_VERBOSE, 1;

	  # show the three ways	you can	set callback functions.	I normally
	  # prefer the one with	the sub	inplace.
	  SetFNameFilter \&namefilter;

	  SetBusyCallback "busycb", 333;

	  SetMsgCallback sub {
	     my	($msg, $level) = @_;
	     print uc strmsglevel $_[1], ": $msg\n";

	  # the	following non-trivial FileNameCallback takes care
	  # of some subject lines not detected properly	by uulib:
	  SetFileNameCallback sub {
	     return unless $_[1]; # skip "Re:"-plies et	al.
	     local $_ =	$_[0];

	     # the following rules are rather effective	on some	newsgroups,
	     # like, where non-mime, uuencoded	data
	     # is very common

	     # if we find some *.rar, take it as the filename
	     return $1 if /(\S{3,}\.(?:[rstuvwxyz]\d\d|rar))\s/i;

	     # one common subject format
	     return $1 if /- "(.{2,}?\..+?)" (?:yenc )?\(\d+\/\d+\)/i;

	     # - filename.par (04/55)
	     return $1 if /- "?(\S{3,}\.\S+?)"?	(?:yenc	)?\(\d+\/\d+\)/i;

	     # - (xxx) No. 1 sayuri81.jpg 756565 bytes
	     # - (20 files) No.17 Roseanne.jpg [2/2]
	     return $1 if /No\.[ 0-9]+ (\S+\....) (?:\d+ bytes )?\[/;

	     # try to detect some common forms of filenames
	     return $1 if /([a-z0-9_\-+.]{3,}\.[a-z]{3,4}(?:.\d+))/i;

	     # otherwise just pass what	we have

	  # now	read all files in the directory	uusrc/*
	  for (<uusrc/*>) {
	     my	($retval, $count) = LoadFile ($_, $_, 1);
	     print "file($_), status(",	strerror $retval, ") parts($count)\n";

	  SetOption OPT_SAVEPATH, "uudst/";

	  # now	wade through all files and their source	parts
	  for my $uu (GetFileList) {
	     print "file ", $uu->filename, "\n";
	     print " state ", $uu->state, "\n";
	     print " mode ", $uu->mode,	"\n";
	     print " uudet ", strencoding $uu->uudet, "\n";
	     print " size ", $uu->size,	"\n";
	     print " subfname ", $uu->subfname,	"\n";
	     print " mimeid ", $uu->mimeid, "\n";
	     print " mimetype ", $uu->mimetype,	"\n";

	     # print additional	info about all parts
	     print " parts";
	     for ($uu->parts) {
		for my $k (sort	keys %$_) {
		   print " $k=$_->{$k}";
		print "\n";


	     if	(my $err = $uu->decode)	{
		print "	ERROR ", strerror $err,	"\n";
	     } else {
		print "	successfully saved as uudst/", $uu->filename, "\n";

	  print	"cleanup...\n";


       This module supports the	perlmulticore standard (see
       <> for more info) for the following
       functions - generally these are functions accessing the disk and/or
       using considerable CPU time:


       The perl	interpreter will be reacquired/released	on every callback
       invocation, so for performance reasons, callbacks should	be avoided if
       that is costly.

       Future versions might enable multicore support for more functions.

       The original uulib library this module uses was written at a time where
       main memory of measured in megabytes and	buffer overflows as a security
       thign didn't exist. While a lot of security fixes have been applied
       over the	years (includign some defense in depth mechanism that can
       shield against a	lot of as-of-yet undetected bugs), using this library
       for security purposes requires care.

       Likewise, file sizes when the uulib library was written were tiny
       compared	to today, so do	not expect this	library	to handle files	larger
       than 2GB.

       Lastly, this module uses	a very "C-like"	interface, which means it
       doesn't protect you from	invalid	points as you might expect from	"more
       perlish"	modules	- for example, accessing a file	item object after
       callinbg	"CleanUp" will likely result in	crashes, memory	corruption, or

       Marc Lehmann <>, the original uulib library was
       written by Frank	Pilhofer <>, and later
       heavily bugfixed	by Marc	Lehmann.

       perl(1),	uudeview homepage at

perl v5.32.1			  2020-02-29			      UUlib(3)


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help