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X(7)		       Miscellaneous Information Manual			  X(7)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The  X  Window System is	a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and	graphics machines.  It should be rela-
       tively  straightforward to build	the X Consortium software distribution
       on most ANSI C and POSIX	compliant systems.  Commercial implementations
       are also	available for a	wide range of platforms.

       The  X Consortium requests that the following names be used when	refer-
       ring to this software:

				   X Window System
				    X Version 11
			     X Window System, Version 11

       X Window	System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.

       X Window	System servers run on computers	 with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to	and accepts output requests from vari-
       ous client programs through a variety of	different interprocess	commu-
       nication	 channels.   Although  the  most common	case is	for the	client
       programs	to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other	machines (including machines with dif-
       ferent architectures and	operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text	 and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color	displays.  For a full explana-
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib -	C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the	X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
       the core	X Consortium distribution include: a terminal emulator,	xterm;
       a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console redirect pro-
       gram, xconsole; a mail interface, xmh; a	 bitmap	 editor,  bitmap;  re-
       source listing/manipulation tools, appres, editres; access control pro-
       grams, xauth, xhost, and	iceauth;  user	preference  setting  programs,
       xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
       oclock; a font displayer, (xfd; utilities for listing information about
       fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
       xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,	 xwud,
       and  xmag; a performance	measurement utility, x11perf; a	font compiler,
       bdftopcf; a font	server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
       fstobdf;	 an X Image Extension exerciser, xieperf; a display server and
       related utilities, Xserver, rgb,	mkfontdir; remote execution utilities,
       rstart  and  xon; a clipboard manager, xclipboard; keyboard description
       compiler	and related utilities, xkbcomp,	xkbprint, xkbbell, xkbevd, xk-
       bvleds,	and  xkbwatch; a utility to terminate clients, xkill; an opti-
       mized X protocol	proxy, lbxproxy; a firewall security  proxy,  xfwp;  a
       proxy  manager  to  control them, proxymngr; a utility to find proxies,
       xfindproxy; Netscape Navigator Plug-ins,  and;
       an RX MIME-type helper program, xrx; and	a utility to cause part	or all
       of the screen to	be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many other utilities, window managers, games, toolkits,	etc.  are  in-
       cluded  as  user-contributed software in	the X Consortium distribution,
       or are available	using anonymous	ftp on the Internet.   See  your  site
       administrator for details.

       There  are  two main ways of getting the	X server and an	initial	set of
       client applications started.  The particular  method  used  depends  on
       what  operating system you are running and whether or not you use other
       window systems in addition to X.

       xdm (the	X Display Manager)
	       If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
	       administrator can set your machine up to	use the	X Display Man-
	       ager xdm.  This program is typically started by the  system  at
	       boot time and takes care	of keeping the server running and get-
	       ting users logged in.  If you are running xdm, you will	see  a
	       window on the screen welcoming you to the system	and asking for
	       your username and password.  Simply type	them in	as  you	 would
	       at  a  normal terminal, pressing	the Return key after each.  If
	       you make	a mistake, xdm will display an error message  and  ask
	       you  to	try again.  After you have successfully	logged in, xdm
	       will start up your X environment.  By default, if you  have  an
	       executable  file	 named	.xsession  in your home	directory, xdm
	       will treat it as	a program (or shell script) to run to start up
	       your  initial  clients  (such  as terminal emulators, clocks, a
	       window manager, user settings for things	like  the  background,
	       the  speed  of the pointer, etc.).  Your	site administrator can
	       provide details.

       xinit (run manually from	the shell)
	       Sites that support more than one	window system might choose  to
	       use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
	       for your	machine, your site administrator  will	probably  have
	       provided	a program named	"x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
	       do site-specific	initialization (such as	loading	convenient de-
	       fault  resources, running a window manager, displaying a	clock,
	       and starting several terminal emulators)	in  a  nice  way.   If
	       not, you	can build such a script	using the xinit	program.  This
	       utility simply runs one user-specified  program	to  start  the
	       server,	runs another to	start up any desired clients, and then
	       waits for either	to finish.  Since either or both of the	 user-
	       specified  programs  may	be a shell script, this	gives substan-
	       tial flexibility	at the expense of a nice interface.  For  this
	       reason, xinit is	not intended for end users.

       From  the  user's perspective, every X server has a display name	of the


       This information	is used	by the application to determine	how it	should
       connect	to  the	 server	 and which screen it should use	by default (on
       displays	with multiple monitors):

	       The hostname specifies the name of the  machine	to  which  the
	       display is physically connected.	 If the	hostname is not	given,
	       the most	efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
	       machine will be used.

	       The  phrase "display" is	usually	used to	refer to collection of
	       monitors	that share  a  common  keyboard	 and  pointer  (mouse,
	       tablet,	etc.).	 Most  workstations tend to only have one key-
	       board, and therefore, only  one	display.   Larger,  multi-user
	       systems,	however, frequently have several displays so that more
	       than one	person can be doing graphics work at once.   To	 avoid
	       confusion, each display on a machine is assigned	a display num-
	       ber (beginning at 0) when the X	server	for  that  display  is
	       started.	  The display number must always be given in a display

	       Some displays share a single keyboard and pointer among two  or
	       more  monitors.	Since each monitor has its own set of windows,
	       each screen is assigned a screen	number (beginning at  0)  when
	       the X server for	that display is	started.  If the screen	number
	       is not given, screen 0 will be used.

       On POSIX	systems, the default display name is stored  in	 your  DISPLAY
       environment  variable.  This variable is	set automatically by the xterm
       terminal	emulator.  However, when you log into  another	machine	 on  a
       network,	you will need to set DISPLAY by	hand to	point to your display.
       For example,

	   % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
	   $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
       The xon script can be used to start an X	program	on a  remote  machine;
       it automatically	sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally,	 most X	programs accept	a command line option of -display dis-
       playname	to temporarily override	the contents of	DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly	used to	pop windows on another person's	screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm	pointing back to your display.
       For example,

	   % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
	   % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X  servers  listen for connections on a variety of different communica-
       tions channels (network byte  streams,  shared  memory,	etc.).	 Since
       there  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The host-
       name part of the	display	name is	used to	determine the type of  channel
       (also  called  a	transport layer) to be used.  X	servers	generally sup-
       port the	following types	of connections:

	       The hostname part of the	 display  name	should	be  the	 empty
	       string.	 For  example:	 :0, :1, and :0.1.  The	most efficient
	       local transport will be chosen.

	       The hostname part of the	display	name should be the server  ma-
	       chine's	IP  address  name.   Full  Internet names, abbreviated
	       names,  and  IP	addresses  are	all  allowed.	For   example:,	expo:0,, bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

	       The  hostname part of the display name should be	the server ma-
	       chine's nodename, followed by two colons	instead	of  one.   For
	       example:	 myws::0, big::1, and hydra::0.1.

       An  X  server can use several types of access control.  Mechanisms pro-
       vided in	Release	6 are:
	   Host	Access			 Simple	host-based access control.
	   MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1		 Shared	plain-text "cookies".
	   XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1		 Secure	DES based private-keys.
	   SUN-DES-1			 Based on Sun's	secure rpc system.
	   MIT-KERBEROS-5		 Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user.

       Xdm initializes access control for the server and  also	places	autho-
       rization	 information  in a file	accessible to the user.	 Normally, the
       list of hosts from which	connections  are  always  accepted  should  be
       empty,  so that only clients with are explicitly	authorized can connect
       to the display.	When you add entries to	the host  list	(with  xhost),
       the  server  no	longer	performs any authorization on connections from
       those machines.	Be careful with	this.

       The file	from which Xlib	extracts authorization data can	 be  specified
       with  the  environment  variable	 XAUTHORITY,  and defaults to the file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists	when a
       user logs in.

       If you use several machines and share a common  home  directory	across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never	really
       have to worry about authorization files,	the system  should  work  cor-
       rectly  by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are machine-
       independent, you	can simply copy	the files to share  them.   To	manage
       authorization  files,  use  xauth.   This program allows	you to extract
       records and insert them into other files.  Using	this, you can send au-
       thorization  to	remote	machines when you login, if the	remote machine
       does not	share a	common home directory with your	local  machine.	  Note
       that  authorization  information	transmitted ``in the clear'' through a
       network file system or using ftp	or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a  network
       eavesdropper,  and as such may enable unauthorized access.  In many en-
       vironments, this	level of security is not a concern, but	if it is,  you
       need  to	 know the exact	semantics of the particular authorization data
       to know if this is actually a problem.

       For more	information on access control, see the Xsecurity manual	page.

       One of the advantages of	using window systems instead of	hardwired ter-
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size or location	on the screen.	Although the layout of	windows	 on  a
       display	is  controlled	by the window manager that the user is running
       (described below), most X programs accept a command  line  argument  of
       the  form  -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH, HEIGHT, XOFF,
       and YOFF	are numbers) for specifying a preferred	size and location  for
       this application's main window.

       The  WIDTH  and	HEIGHT parts of	the geometry specification are usually
       measured	in either pixels or characters,	depending on the  application.
       The  XOFF and YOFF parts	are measured in	pixels and are used to specify
       the distance of the window from the left	or right and  top  and	bottom
       edges  of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
       from the	indicated edge of the screen to	the corresponding edge of  the
       window.	The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left	edge of	the window is to be placed XOFF	pixels in from
	       the left	edge of	the screen (i.e., the X	coordinate of the win-
	       dow's  origin  will  be	XOFF).	XOFF may be negative, in which
	       case the	window's left edge will	be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be  placed  XOFF  pixels  in
	       from  the  right	 edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
	       which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has	similar	meanings:

       +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to	be YOFF	pixels below  the  top
	       edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori-
	       gin will	be YOFF).  YOFF	may be negative,  in  which  case  the
	       window's	top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The  bottom  edge  of the window	is to be YOFF pixels above the
	       bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF	may be negative, in which case
	       the window's bottom edge	will be	off the	screen.

       Offsets must be given as	pairs; in other	words, in order	to specify ei-
       ther XOFF or YOFF both must be present.	Windows	can be placed  in  the
       four corners of the screen using	the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand	corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand	corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following	examples, a terminal emulator is placed	in roughly the
       center of the screen and	a load average monitor,	mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

	   xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
	   xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
	   xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
	   xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The  layout  of windows on the screen is	controlled by special programs
       called window managers.	Although many window managers will honor geom-
       etry specifications as given, others may	choose to ignore them (requir-
       ing the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen  with
       the pointer, for	example).

       Since  window  managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
       variety of different user interfaces can	be built.   The	 X  Consortium
       distribution comes with a window	manager	named twm which	supports over-
       lapping windows,	popup menus, point-and-click  or  click-to-type	 input
       models, title bars, nice	icons (and an icon manager for those who don't
       like separate icon windows).

       See the user-contributed	software in the	X Consortium distribution  for
       other popular window managers.

       Collections  of	characters  for	 displaying  text and symbols in X are
       known as	fonts.	A font typically contains images that share  a	common
       appearance  and	look  nice together (for example, a single size, bold-
       ness, slant, and	character set).	 Similarly, collections	of fonts  that
       are  based on a common type face	(the variations	are usually called ro-
       man, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique,	and bold oblique)  are	called

       Fonts  come  in	various	 sizes.	 The X server supports scalable	fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create	a font of arbitrary size from a	single
       source  for  the	 font.	The server supports scaling from outline fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi-
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An  X  server can obtain	fonts from individual files stored in directo-
       ries in the file	system,	or from	one or more font servers,  or  from  a
       mixtures	 of  directories  and  font  servers.	The list of places the
       server looks when trying	to find	a font is controlled by	its font path.
       Although	 most  installations  will  choose to have the server start up
       with all	of the commonly	used font directories in the  font  path,  the
       font  path  can be changed at any time with the xset program.  However,
       it is important to  remember  that  the	directory  names  are  on  the
       server's	machine, not on	the application's.

       Bitmap  font  files are usually created by compiling a textual font de-
       scription into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are created
       by running the mkfontdir	program	in the directory containing the	source
       or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added to	a  di-
       rectory,	 mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the new
       fonts.  To make the server reread the font  database,  reset  the  font
       path  with  the	xset program.  For example, to add a font to a private
       directory, the following	commands could be used:

	   % cp	newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
	   % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
	   % xset fp rehash

       The xfontsel and	xlsfonts programs can be used to  browse  through  the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names	tend to	be fairly long as they
       contain all of the information needed to	uniquely  identify  individual
       fonts.	However,  the  X server	supports wildcarding of	font names, so
       the full	specification


       might be	abbreviated as:


       Because the shell also has special meanings for	*  and	?,  wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

	   % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The  xlsfonts program can be used to list all of	the fonts that match a
       given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.	  This
       will  usually  list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
       the base	scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a  specific	 size,
       replace	one  of	 the  first two	zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
       containing the first zero is for	the pixel size;	replace	it with	a spe-
       cific height in pixels to name a	font at	that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing	the second zero	is for the point size; replace it with
       a  specific size	in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the inch)
       to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width	field,
       measured	in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.

       One of the following forms can be used to name a	font server  that  ac-
       cepts TCP connections:


       The hostname specifies the name (or decimal numeric address) of the ma-
       chine on	which the font server is running.  The port is the decimal TCP
       port  on	which the font server is listening for connections.  The cata-
       loguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a separator.

       Examples: tcp/, tcp/

       One of the following forms can be used to name a	font server  that  ac-
       cepts DECnet connections:


       The nodename specifies the name (or decimal numeric address) of the ma-
       chine on	which the font server is running.  The objname	is  a  normal,
       case-insensitive	 DECnet	 object	 name.	 The cataloguelist specifies a
       list of catalogue names,	with '+' as a separator.

       Examples: DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT,  decnet/44.70::font$special/sym-

       Most  applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources
       or command line arguments) the colors of	various	elements in  the  text
       and  graphics  they display.  A color can be specified either by	an ab-
       stract color name, or by	a numerical color specification.  The  numeri-
       cal specification can identify a	color in either	device-dependent (RGB)
       or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example,	"red", "blue".
       A  value	 for  this  abstract name is obtained by searching one or more
       color name databases.  Xlib first searches  zero	 or  more  client-side
       databases;  the number, location, and content of	these databases	is im-
       plementation dependent.	If the name is not found, the color is	looked
       up  in the X server's database.	The text form of this database is com-
       monly stored in the file	__projectroot__/lib/X11/rgb.txt.

       A numerical color specification consists	of a color space  name	and  a
       set of values in	the following syntax:


       An  RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix	"rgb:" and has
       the following syntax:


	       _red_, _green_, _blue_ := h | hh	| hhh |	hhhh
	       h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the	 value	scaled
       in  8  bits, hhh	the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the value	scaled
       in 16 bits, respectively.  These	values are passed directly  to	the  X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors	can be represented as:

	   black		rgb:0/0/0
	   red			rgb:ffff/0/0
	   green		rgb:0/ffff/0
	   blue			rgb:0/0/ffff
	   yellow		rgb:ffff/ffff/0
	   magenta		rgb:ffff/0/ffff
	   cyan			rgb:0/ffff/ffff
	   white		rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For  backward  compatibility,  an  older	 syntax	for RGB	Device is sup-
       ported, but its continued use is	not encouraged.	 The syntax is an ini-
       tial  sharp  sign character followed by a numeric specification,	in one
       of the following	formats:

	   #RGB			     (4	bits each)
	   #RRGGBB		     (8	bits each)
	   #RRRGGGBBB		     (12 bits each)
	   #RRRRGGGGBBBB	     (16 bits each)

       The R, G, and B represent single	hexadecimal digits.  When  fewer  than
       16 bits each are	specified, they	represent the most-significant bits of
       the value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are	scaled).   For
       example,	#3a7 is	the same as #3000a0007000.

       An  RGB intensity specification is identified by	the prefix "rgbi:" and
       has the following syntax:


       The red,	green, and blue	are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They	represent linear intensity values, with	1.0 indicating
       full intensity, 0.5 half	intensity, and so on.  These  values  will  be
       gamma  corrected	 by Xlib before	being sent to the X server.  The input
       format for these	values is an optional sign, a string of	numbers	possi-
       bly containing a	decimal	point, and an optional exponent	field contain-
       ing an E	or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The standard device-independent string specifications have the  follow-
       ing syntax:

	   CIEXYZ:_X_/_Y_/_Z_		  (none, 1, none)
	   CIEuvY:_u_/_v_/_Y_		  (~.6,	~.6, 1)
	   CIExyY:_x_/_y_/_Y_		  (~.75, ~.85, 1)
	   CIELab:_L_/_a_/_b_		  (100,	none, none)
	   CIELuv:_L_/_u_/_v_		  (100,	none, none)
	   TekHVC:_H_/_V_/_C_		  (360,	100, 100)

       All  of	the  values  (C, H, V, X, Y, Z,	a, b, u, v, y, x) are floating
       point values.  Some of the values are constrained to  be	 between  zero
       and  some upper bound; the upper	bounds are given in parentheses	above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits  possibly	 containing  a decimal point, and an optional exponent
       field consisting	of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an	optional  '+'  or  '-'
       followed	by a string of digits.

       For  more  information on device	independent color, see the Xlib	refer-
       ence manual.

       The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:	server-specific	 codes
       (called	keycodes)  which represent the physical	keys, and server-inde-
       pendent symbols (called keysyms)	which represent	the letters  or	 words
       that  appear  on	 the keys.  Two	tables are kept	in the server for con-
       verting keycodes	to keysyms:

       modifier	list
	       Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known  as
	       modifier	 and are used to select	different symbols that are at-
	       tached to a single key (such as Shift-a generates a capital  A,
	       and  Control-l  generates  a control character ^L).  The	server
	       keeps a list of keycodes	corresponding to the various  modifier
	       keys.  Whenever a key is	pressed	or released, the server	gener-
	       ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated	key as
	       well  as	 a  mask that specifies	which of the modifier keys are
	       currently pressed.  Most	servers	set up this list to  initially
	       contain	the various shift, control, and	shift lock keys	on the

       keymap table
	       Applications translate event keycodes and modifier  masks  into
	       keysyms	using  a  keysym table which contains one row for each
	       keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
	       is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
	       conventions.  The exact semantics of how	the  table  is	inter-
	       preted  to  produce  keysyms depends on the particular program,
	       libraries, and language input method used,  but	the  following
	       conventions  for	 the first four	keysyms	in each	row are	gener-
	       ally adhered to:

       The first four elements of the  list  are  split	 into  two  groups  of
       keysyms.	  Group	 1 contains the	first and second keysyms; Group	2 con-
       tains the third and fourth keysyms.  Within each	group,	if  the	 first
       element	is alphabetic and the the second element is the	special	keysym
       NoSymbol, then the group	is treated as equivalent to a group  in	 which
       the first element is the	lowercase letter and the second	element	is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups	is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by  attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that	key to any one
       of the modifiers	Mod1  through  Mod5.   This  modifier  is  called  the
       ``group	modifier.''   Group  1 is used when the	group modifier is off,
       and Group 2 is used when	the group modifier is on.

       Within a	group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first  keysym  is  used when the	Shift and Lock modifiers are off.  The
       second keysym is	used when the Shift modifier is	on, when the Lock mod-
       ifier  is on and	the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when the
       Lock modifier is	on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.   Otherwise,  when
       the  Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as	CapsLock, the state of
       the Shift modifier is applied first to select a	keysym;	 but  if  that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the	corresponding uppercase	keysym
       is used instead.

       Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command line  options
       and  arguments.	All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
       automatically accept the	following options:

       -display	display
	       This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
	       This option specifies the initial size and location of the win-

       -bg color, -background color
	       Either  option  specifies the color to use for the window back-

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
	       Either option specifies the color to use	for the	window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth	number
	       Either option specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor-

       -fg color, -foreground color
	       Either option specifies the color to use	for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
	       Either option specifies the font	to use for displaying text.

	       This  option  indicates that the	user would prefer that the ap-
	       plication's windows initially not be visible as if the  windows
	       had  be immediately iconified by	the user.  Window managers may
	       choose not to honor the application's request.

	       This option specifies the name under which  resources  for  the
	       application  should  be	found.	This option is useful in shell
	       aliases to distinguish between invocations of  an  application,
	       without	resorting  to  creating	 links to alter	the executable
	       file name.

       -rv, -reverse
	       Either option indicates that the	program	 should	 simulate  re-
	       verse  video  if	possible, often	by swapping the	foreground and
	       background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
	       correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

	       This  option indicates that the program should not simulate re-
	       verse video.  This is used to override any defaults  since  re-
	       verse video doesn't always work properly.

	       This  option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within which
	       two communicating applications must respond to one another  for
	       a selection request.

	       This  option  indicates that requests to	the X server should be
	       sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor-
	       mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
	       get reported immediately	after they occur.  This	 option	 turns
	       off  the	buffering so that the application can be debugged.  It
	       should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
	       This option specifies the title to be  used  for	 this  window.
	       This  information is sometimes used by a	window manager to pro-
	       vide some sort of header	identifying the	window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
	       This option specifies the language, territory, and codeset  for
	       use in resolving	resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       This option specifies a resource	name and value to override any
	       defaults.  It is	also very useful for  setting  resources  that
	       don't have explicit command line	arguments.

       To make the tailoring of	applications to	personal preferences easier, X
       provides	a mechanism for	storing	default	values for  program  resources
       (e.g. background	color, window title, etc.)  Resources are specified as
       strings that are	read in	from various places  when  an  application  is
       run.  Program components	are named in a hierarchical fashion, with each
       node in the hierarchy identified	by a class and an instance  name.   At
       the top level is	the class and instance name of the application itself.
       By convention, the class	name of	the application	is  the	 same  as  the
       program	name,  but  with  the first letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or
       Emacs) although some programs that begin	with  the  letter  ``x''  also
       capitalize the second letter for	historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources	is:

       ResourceLine	 = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec	| <empty line>
       Comment		 = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile	 = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName	WhiteSpace
       FileName		 = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec	 = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName	 = [Binding] {Component	Binding} ComponentName
       Binding		 = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace	 = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component	 = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName	 = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar		 = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value		 = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements	 separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly	braces
       ({...}) indicate	zero or	more repetitions  of  the  enclosed  elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate	that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with  the  con-
       tents  of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in lowercase.
       The filename is interpreted relative to the directory of	 the  file  in
       which  the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no	direc-
       tory or contains	a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence	of two or more Binding
       characters,  the	sequence will be replaced with single "." character if
       the sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the	sequence  will
       be replaced with	a single "*" character.

       A  resource database never contains more	than one entry for a given Re-
       sourceName.  If a resource file contains	multiple lines with  the  same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any  whitespace	character  before  or after the	name or	colon in a Re-
       sourceSpec are ignored.	To allow a Value to begin with whitespace, the
       two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by	space) is rec-
       ognized and replaced by a space character, and  the  two-character  se-
       quence  ``\tab''	 (backslash  followed by horizontal tab) is recognized
       and replaced by a horizontal tab	character.  To allow a Value  to  con-
       tain  embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n'' is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.	To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the	two-character sequence
       ``\newline'' (backslash followed	by newline) is recognized and  removed
       from the	value.	To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character	codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each	n is a digit character
       in  the	range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and	replaced with a	single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the  two-character  sequence  ``\\''  is	recognized and replaced	with a
       single backslash.

       When an application looks for the value of a resource, it  specifies  a
       complete	 path  in  the	hierarchy, with	both class and instance	names.
       However,	resource values	are usually given with only  partially	speci-
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a	loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven-
       ing components, including none.	A period (.) is	a tight	binding	and is
       used to separate	immediately adjacent components.  A question mark  (?)
       is  used	to match any single component name or class.  A	database entry
       cannot end in a loose binding; the final	 component  (which  cannot  be
       "?")  must  be  specified.   The	lookup algorithm searches the resource
       database	for the	entry that most	closely	matches	(is most specific for)
       the full	name and class being queried.  When more than one database en-
       try matches the full name and class, precedence rules are used  to  se-
       lect just one.

       The  full  name	and class are scanned from left	to right (from highest
       level in	the hierarchy to lowest), one component	at a  time.   At  each
       level,  the corresponding component and/or binding of each matching en-
       try is determined, and these matching components	and bindings are  com-
       pared  according	 to precedence rules.  Each of the rules is applied at
       each level, before moving to the	next level, until  a  rule  selects  a
       single entry over all others.  The rules	(in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An	entry that contains a matching component (whether name,	class,
	    or "?")  takes precedence over entries that	elide the level	 (that
	    is,	entries	that match the level in	a loose	binding).

       2.   An	entry  with a matching name takes precedence over both entries
	    with a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An	 entry
	    with a matching class takes	precedence over	entries	that match us-
	    ing	"?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
	    preceded by	a loose	binding.

       Programs	 based	on  the	 X Tookit Intrinsics obtain resources from the
       following sources (other	programs usually support some subset of	 these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER	root window property
	       Any global resources that should	be available to	clients	on all
	       machines	should be stored in the	RESOURCE_MANAGER  property  on
	       the  root  window  of  the first	screen using the xrdb program.
	       This is frequently taken	care of	when  the  user	 starts	 up  X
	       through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES	root window property
	       Any  resources  specific	 to  a given screen (e.g. colors) that
	       should be available to clients on all machines should be	stored
	       in  the	SCREEN_RESOURCES  property  on the root	window of that
	       screen.	The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
	       place  them  in RESOURCE_MANAGER	or SCREEN_RESOURCES, as	appro-

       application-specific files
	       Directories named by the	environment variable  XUSERFILESEARCH-
	       PATH  or	 the  environment  variable XAPPLRESDIR	(which names a
	       single directory	and should end with a '/' on  POSIX  systems),
	       plus   directories   in	 a   standard	place  (usually	 under
	       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/, but	this can be overridden with the	XFILE-
	       SEARCHPATH  environment variable) are searched for for applica-
	       tion-specific resources.	 For example, application default  re-
	       sources	are  usually kept in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/.
	       See the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C	Language Interface manual  for

	       Any  user-  and	machine-specific resources may be specified by
	       setting the XENVIRONMENT	environment variable to	the name of  a
	       resource	 file to be loaded by all applications.	 If this vari-
	       able is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname  is
	       looked  for  instead,  where  hostname  is the name of the host
	       where the application is	executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       Resources can also be specified from the	command	line.  The re-
	       sourcestring  is	 a  single  resource  name  and	value as shown
	       above.  Note that if the	string contains	characters interpreted
	       by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must	be quoted.  Any	number
	       of -xrm arguments may be	given on the command line.

       Program resources are organized into groups  called  classes,  so  that
       collections  of	individual  resources  (each  of  which	are called in-
       stances)	can be set all at once.	 By convention,	the instance name of a
       resource	 begins	 with  a lowercase letter and class name with an upper
       case letter.  Multiple word resources are concatenated with  the	 first
       letter  of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics	will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
	       This resource specifies the color to use	for the	 window	 back-

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       This  resource specifies	the width in pixels of the window bor-

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       This resource specifies the color to use	for the	window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics	also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics	within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of	color displays will frequently
       want to set Background and Foreground classes to	 particular  defaults.
       Specific	 color	instances  such	as text	cursors	can then be overridden
       without having to define	all of the related resources.  For example,

	   bitmap*Dashed:  off
	   XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
	   XTerm*multiScroll:  on
	   XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
	   XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
	   XTerm*curses:  on
	   XTerm*Font:	6x10
	   XTerm*scrollBar: on
	   XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
	   XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
	   XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
	   XTerm*cutNewline: off
	   XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
	   XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
	   XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
	   XLoad*Background: gold
	   XLoad*Foreground: red
	   XLoad*highlight: black
	   XLoad*borderWidth: 0
	   emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
	   emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
	   emacs*Foreground:  white
	   emacs*Cursor:  white
	   emacs*BorderColor:  white
	   emacs*Font:	6x10
	   xmag*geometry: -0-0
	   xmag*borderColor:  white

       If these	resources were stored in a file	 called	 .Xresources  in  your
       home  directory,	 they  could be	added to any existing resources	in the
       server with the following command:

	   % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This is frequently how user-friendly startup  scripts  merge  user-spe-
       cific  defaults	into any site-wide defaults.  All sites	are encouraged
       to set up convenient ways of automatically loading resources.  See  the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

	      This  is	the only mandatory environment variable. It must point
	      to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

	      This must	point to a file	that contains authorization data.  The
	      default	is   $HOME/.Xauthority.	 See  Xsecurity(7),  xauth(1),
	      xdm(1), Xau(3).

	      This must	point to a file	that contains authorization data.  The
	      default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

	      The  first non-empty value among these three determines the cur-
	      rent locale's facet for character	handling,  and	in  particular
	      the  default  text  encoding.  See  locale(7), setlocale(3), lo-

	      This variable can	be set to contain additional  information  im-
	      portant  for  the	 current  locale  setting.  Typically  set  to
	      @im=_input-method_ to enable  a  particular  input  method.  See

	      This  must point to a directory containing the locale.alias file
	      and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
	      default value is __projectroot__/lib/X11/locale.

	      This must	point to a file	containing X resources.	The default is
	      $HOME/.Xdefaults-_hostname_. Unlike __projectroot__/lib/X11/Xre-
	      sources, it is consulted each time an X application starts.

	      This  must  contain  a  colon  separated list of path templates,
	      where libXt will search for resource files.  The	default	 value
	      consists of


	      A	path template is transformed to	a pathname by substituting:

		  %N =>	name (basename)	being searched for
		  %T =>	type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S =>	suffix being searched for
		  %C =>	value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L =>	the locale name
		  %l =>	the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t =>	the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c =>	the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This  must  contain  a  colon  separated list of path templates,
	      where libXt will search for user dependent resource  files.  The
	      default value is:


	      $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

	      A	path template is transformed to	a pathname by substituting:

		  %N =>	name (basename)	being searched for
		  %T =>	type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S =>	suffix being searched for
		  %C =>	value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L =>	the locale name
		  %l =>	the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t =>	the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c =>	the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This  must  point	 to a base directory where the user stores his
	      application dependent  resource  files.  The  default  value  is
	      $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

	      This  must point to a file containing nonstandard	keysym defini-
	      tions.  The default value	is __projectroot__/lib/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must	point to a color name database file. The default value
	      is __projectroot__/lib/X11/Xcms.txt.

	      This must	point to a configuration file for the Xft library. The
	      default value is __projectroot__/lib/X11/XftConfig.

	      This serves as main identifier for resources  belonging  to  the
	      program  being executed. It defaults to the basename of pathname
	      of the program.

	      Denotes the session manager the application should connect.  See
	      xsm(1), rstart(1).

	      Setting	this  variable	to  a  non-empty  value	 disables  the
	      XFree86-Bigfont extension. This extension	is a mechanism to  re-
	      duce  the	 memory	consumption of big fonts by use	of shared mem-


	      These variables influence	the X Keyboard Extension.

       The following is	a collection of	sample command lines for some  of  the
       more  frequently	 used  commands.  For more information on a particular
       command,	please refer to	that command's manual page.

	   %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
	   %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
	   %  mkfontdir	/usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xmodmap $HOME/
	   %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
	   %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
	   %  xset q
	   %  twm
	   %  xmag
	   %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
	   %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
	   %  xbiff -update 20
	   %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
	   %  xwininfo -root
	   %  xdpyinfo -display	joesworkstation:0
	   %  xhost -joesworkstation
	   %  xrefresh
	   %  xwd | xwud
	   %  bitmap 32x32
	   %  xcalc -bg	blue -fg magenta
	   %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0	-name myxterm $*
	   %  xon filesysmachine xload

       A wide variety of error messages	are generated from  various  programs.
       The  default  error  handler  in	Xlib (also used	by many	toolkits) uses
       standard	resources to construct diagnostic messages when	errors	occur.
       The  defaults  for  these  messages  are	 usually  stored in __project-
       root__/lib/X11/XErrorDB.	 If this file is not present,  error  messages
       will be rather terse and	cryptic.

       When  the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter errors converting resource
       strings to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are  usu-
       ally  printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one set
       of resources across a variety of	displays (e.g. color  vs.  monochrome,
       lots  of	 fonts	vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.	 This behavior
       can be overridden by the	setting	the StringConversionsWarning resource.

       To force	the X Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string	conversion er-
       ror messages, the following resource should be placed in	the file  that
       gets  loaded  onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property	using the xrdb program
       (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home directory):

	   *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular  application,
       the appropriate instance	name can be placed before the asterisk:

	   xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       XProjectTeam(7),	 XStandards(7),	 Xsecurity(7), appres(1), bdftopcf(1),
       bitmap(1), editres(1), fsinfo(1), fslsfonts(1), fstobdf(1), iceauth(1),
       imake(1),  lbxproxy(1), makedepend(1), mkfontdir(1), oclock(1), proxym-
       ngr(1), rgb(1), resize(1), rstart(1), smproxy(1),  twm(1),  x11perf(1),
       x11perfcomp(1),	xauth(1),  xclipboard(1),  xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xcon-
       sole(1),	xdm(1),	xdpyinfo(1), xfd(1), xfindproxy(1),  xfs(1),  xfwp(1),
       xhost(1),  xieperf(1),  xinit(1),  xkbbell(1),  xkbcomp(1),  xkbevd(1),
       xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1), xkbwatch(1), xkill(1),	xlogo(1), xlsatoms(1),
       xlsclients(1),	xlsfonts(1),   xmag(1),	 xmh(1),  xmodmap(1),  xon(1),
       xprop(1), xrdb(1), xrefresh(1), xrx(1), xset(1),	 xsetroot(1),  xsm(1),
       xstdcmap(1),   xterm(1),	 xwd(1),  xwininfo(1),	xwud(1).   Xserver(1),
       Xdec(1),	XmacII(1), Xsun(1), Xnest(1), Xvfb(1), XFree86(1), XDarwin(1),
       kbd_mode(1),  Xlib - C Language X Interface, and	X Toolkit Intrinsics -
       C Language Interface

       X Window	System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.

       A cast of  thousands,  literally.   The	Release	 6.3  distribution  is
       brought	to you by X Consortium,	Inc.  The names	of all people who made
       it a reality will be found  in  the  individual	documents  and	source
       files.	The staff members at the X Consortium responsible for this re-
       lease are: Donna	Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emeritus),	 Kaleb
       Keithley,  Matt Landau (emeritus), Ralph	Mor (emeritus),	Janet O'Hallo-
       ran, Bob	Scheifler, Ralph Swick,	 Dave  Wiggins	(emeritus),  and  Reed

       The X Window System standard was	originally developed at	the Laboratory
       for Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,  and
       all  rights  thereto  were  assigned  to	the X Consortium on January 1,
       1994.  X	Consortium, Inc. closed	its doors on December 31,  1996.   All
       rights  to  the X Window	System have been assigned to the Open Software

XFree86				 Version 4.4.0				  X(7)


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