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AMD(8)			  BSD System Manager's Manual			AMD(8)

     amd -- automatically mount	file systems

     amd -H
     amd [-F conf_file]
     amd [-nprvHS] [-a mount_point] [-c	duration] [-d domain] [-k kernel-arch]
	 [-l logfile] [-o op_sys_ver] [-t timeout.retransmit] [-w interval]
	 [-x log-option] [-y YP-domain]	[-C cluster-name] [-D option]
	 [-F conf_file]	[-O op_sys_name] [-T tag] [directory mapname
	 [-map-options]] ...

     Amd is a daemon that automatically	mounts filesystems whenever a file or
     directory within that filesystem is accessed.  Filesystems	are automati-
     cally unmounted when they appear to be quiescent.

     Amd operates by attaching itself as an NFS	server to each of the speci-
     fied directories.	Lookups	within the specified directories are handled
     by	amd, which uses	the map	defined	by mapname to determine	how to resolve
     the lookup.  Generally, this will be a host name, some filesystem infor-
     mation and	some mount options for the given filesystem.

     In	the first form depicted	above, amd will	print a	short help string.  In
     the second	form, if no options are	specified, or if the -F	is used, amd
     will read configuration parameters	from the file conf_file	which defaults
     to	/etc/amd.conf.	The last form is described below.

     -a	temporary-directory
	     Specify an	alternative location for the real mount	points.	 The
	     default is	/.amd_mnt.

     -c	duration
	     Specify a duration, in seconds, that a looked up name remains
	     cached when not in	use.  The default is 5 minutes.

     -d	domain
	     Specify the local domain name.  If	this option is not given the
	     domain name is determined from the	hostname.

     -k	kernel-arch
	     Specifies the kernel architecture.	 This is used solely to	set
	     the ${karch} selector.

     -l	logfile
	     Specify a logfile in which	to record mount	and unmount events.
	     If	logfile	is the string syslog, the log messages will be sent to
	     the system	log daemon by syslog(3).  The default syslog facility
	     used is LOG_DAEMON.  If you wish to change	it, append its name to
	     the log file name,	delimited by a single colon.  For example, if
	     logfile is	the string "syslog:local7" then	amd will log messages
	     via syslog(3) using the LOG_LOCAL7	facility (if it	exists on the

     -n	     Normalize hostnames.  The name referred to	by ${rhost} is normal-
	     ized relative to the host database	before being used.  The	effect
	     is	to translate aliases into ``official'' names.

     -o	op_sys_ver
	     Override the compiled-in version number of	the operating system.
	     Useful when the built in version is not desired for backward com-
	     patibility	reasons.  For example, if the build in version is
	     "2.5.1", you can override it to "5.5.1", and use older maps that
	     were written with the latter in mind.

     -p	     Print PID.	 Outputs the process-id	of amd to standard output
	     where it can be saved into	a file.

     -r	     Restart existing mounts.  Amd will	scan the mount file table to
	     determine which filesystems are currently mounted.	 Whenever one
	     of	these would have been auto-mounted, amd	inherits it.

     -t	timeout.retransmit
	     Specify the NFS timeout interval, in tenths of a second, between
	     NFS/RPC retries (for UDP only).  The default is 0.8 seconds.  The
	     second value alters the restransmit counter, which	defaults to 11
	     retransmissions.  Both of these values are	used by	the kernel to
	     communicate with amd.  Useful defaults are	supplied if either or
	     both values are missing.

	     Amd relies	on the kernel RPC retransmit mechanism to trigger
	     mount retries.  The values	of these parameters change the overall
	     retry interval.  Too long an interval gives poor interactive re-
	     sponse; too short an interval causes excessive retries.

     -v	     Version.  Displays	version	and configuration information on stan-
	     dard error.

     -w	interval
	     Specify an	interval, in seconds, between attempts to dismount
	     filesystems that have exceeded their cached times.	 The default
	     is	2 minutes.

     -x	options
	     Specify run-time logging options.	The options are	a comma	sepa-
	     rated list	chosen from: fatal, error, user, warn, info, map,
	     stats, all.

     -y	domain
	     Specify an	alternative NIS	domain from which to fetch the NIS
	     maps.  The	default	is the system domain name.  This option	is ig-
	     nored if NIS support is not available.

     -C	cluster-name
	     Specify an	alternative HP-UX cluster name to use.

     -D	option
	     Select from a variety of debug options.  Prefixing	an option with
	     the string	no reverses the	effect of that option.	Options	are
	     cumulative.  The most useful option is all.

	     Since -D is only used for debugging other options are not docu-
	     mented here: the current supported	set of options is listed by
	     the -v option and a fuller	description is available in the	pro-
	     gram source.

     -F	conf_file
	     Specify an	amd configuration file to use.	See amd.conf(5)	for
	     description of this file's	format.	 This configuration file is
	     used to specify any options in lieu of typing many	of them	on the
	     command line.  The	amd.conf file includes directives for every
	     command line option amd has, and many more	that are only avail-
	     able via the configuration	file facility.	The configuration file
	     specified by this option is processed after all other options
	     have been processed, regardless of	the actual location of this
	     option on the command line.

     -H	     Print help	and usage string.

     -O	op_sys_name
	     Override the compiled-in name of the operating system.  Useful
	     when the built in name is not desired for backward	compatibility
	     reasons.  For example, if the build in name is "sunos5", you can
	     override it to "sos5" and use older maps which were written with
	     the latter	in mind.

     -S	     Do	not lock the running executable	pages of amd into memory.  To
	     improve amd's performance,	systems	that support the plock(3)
	     call, could lock the amd process into memory.  This way there is
	     less chance the operating system will schedule, page out, and
	     swap the amd process as needed.  This tends to improve amd's per-
	     formance, at the cost of reserving	the memory used	by the amd
	     process (making it	unavailable for	other processes).  If this be-
	     havior is not desired, use	the -S option.

     -T	tag  Specify a tag to use with amd.conf(5).  All Map entries tagged
	     with tag will be processed.  Map entries that are not tagged are
	     always processed.	Map entries that are tagged with a tag other
	     than tag will not be processed.

	   directory under which filesystems are dynamically mounted

	   default configuration file

     Some care may be required when creating a mount map.

     Symbolic links on an NFS filesystem can be	incredibly inefficient.	 In
     most implementations of NFS, their	interpolations are not cached by the
     kernel and	each time a symbolic link is encountered during	a lookuppn
     translation it costs an RPC call to the NFS server.  A large improvement
     in	real-time performance could be gained by adding	a cache	somewhere.
     Replacing symlink(2) with a suitable incarnation of the auto-mounter re-
     sults in a	large real-time	speedup, but also causes a large number	of
     process context switches.

     A weird imagination is most useful	to gain	full advantage of all the fea-

     domainname(1), hostname(1), syslog(3), amd.conf(5), mtab(5), amq(8),
     mount(8), umount(8)

     Amd - The 4.4 BSD Automounter.

     Jan-Simon Pendry <>, Department of	Computing, Imperial
     College, London, UK.

     Erez Zadok	<>, Department of Computer Science, Colum-
     bia University, New York, USA.

     Other authors and contributors to am-utils	are listed in the AUTHORS file
     distributed with am-utils.

     The amd utility first appeared in 4.4BSD.

BSD				April 19, 1994				   BSD


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