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BOOT(8)		       BSD/i386	System Manager's Manual		       BOOT(8)

     boot -- system bootstrapping procedures

     Power fail	and crash recovery.  Normally, the system will reboot itself
     at	power-up or after crashes.  An automatic consistency check of the file
     systems will be performed,	and unless this	fails, the system will resume
     multi-user	operations.

     Cold starts.  Most	i386 PCs attempt to boot first from floppy disk	drive
     0 (sometimes known	as drive A:) and, failing that,	from hard disk drive 0
     (sometimes	known as drive C:, or as drive 0x80 to the BIOS).  Some	BIOSes
     allow you to change this default sequence,	and may	also include a CD-ROM
     drive as a	boot device.

     By	default, a three-stage bootstrap is employed, and control is automati-
     cally passed from the boot	blocks (bootstrap stages one and two) to a
     separate third-stage bootstrap program, loader(8).	 This third stage pro-
     vides more	sophisticated control over the booting process than it is pos-
     sible to achieve in the boot blocks, which	are constrained	by occupying
     limited fixed space on a given disk or slice.

     However, it is possible to	dispense with the third	stage altogether, ei-
     ther by specifying	a kernel name in the boot block	parameter file,
     /boot.config, or, unless option -n	is set,	by hitting a key during	a
     brief pause (while	one of the characters -, \, |, or / is displayed) be-
     fore loader(8) is invoked.	 Booting will also be attempted	at stage two,
     if	the third stage	cannot be loaded.

     The remainder of this subsection deals only with the boot blocks.	The
     loader(8) program is documented separately.

     After the boot blocks have	been loaded, you should	see a prompt similar
     to	the following:

     >>	FreeBSD/i386 BOOT
     Default: 0:ad(0,a)/boot/loader

     The automatic boot	will attempt to	load /boot/loader from partition `a'
     of	either the floppy or the hard disk.  This boot may be aborted by typ-
     ing any character on the keyboard at the `boot:' prompt.  At this time,
     the following input will be accepted:

     ?	     Give a short listing of the files in the root directory of	the
	     default boot device, as a hint about available boot files.	 (A ?
	     may also be specified as the last segment of a path, in which
	     case the listing will be of the relevant subdirectory.)

     bios_drive:interface(unit,[slice,]part)filename [-aCcDdghmnPprsv]
	     Specify boot file and flags.

		     The drive number as recognized by the BIOS.  0 for	the
		     first drive, 1 for	the second drive, etc.

		     The type of controller to boot from.  Note	that the con-
		     troller is	required to have BIOS support since the	BIOS
		     services are used to load the boot	file image.

		     The supported interfaces are:

		     ad	   ST506, IDE, ESDI, RLL disks on a WD100[2367]	or
			   lookalike controller
		     fd	   5 1/4" or 3 1/2" High density floppies
		     da	   SCSI	disk on	any supported SCSI controller

	     unit    The unit number of	the drive on the interface being used.
		     0 for the first drive, 1 for the second drive, etc.

		     The partition letter inside the BSD portion of the	disk.
		     See bsdlabel(8).  By convention, only partition `a' con-
		     tains a bootable image.  If sliced	disks are used ("fdisk
		     partitions"), any slice (1	for the	first slice, 2 for the
		     second slice, etc.) can be	booted from, with the default
		     (if not specified)	being the active slice or, otherwise,
		     the first FreeBSD slice.  If slice	is specified as	0, the
		     first FreeBSD slice (also known as	"compatibility"	slice)
		     is	booted from.

		     The pathname of the file to boot (relative	to the root
		     directory on the specified	partition).  Defaults to
		     /boot/kernel/kernel.  Symbolic links are not supported
		     (hard links are).

	     [-aCcDdghmnPpqrsv]	[-Sspeed]
		     Boot flags:

		     -a	   during kernel initialization, ask for the device to
			   mount as the	root file system.
		     -C	   try to mount	root file system from a	CD-ROM.
		     -c	   this	flag is	currently a no-op.
		     -D	   boot	with the dual console configuration.  In the
			   single configuration, the console will be either
			   the internal	display	or the serial port, depending
			   on the state	of the -h option below.	 In the	dual
			   console configuration, both the internal display
			   and the serial port will become the console at the
			   same	time, regardless of the	state of the -h	op-
		     -d	   enter the DDB kernel	debugger (see ddb(4)) as early
			   as possible in kernel initialization.
		     -g	   use the GDB remote debugging	protocol.
		     -h	   force the serial console.  For instance, if you
			   boot	from the internal console, you can use the -h
			   option to force the kernel to use the serial	port
			   as its console device.  The serial port driver
			   sio(4) (but not uart(4)) has	a flag (0x20) to over-
			   ride	this option.  If that flag is set, the serial
			   port	will always be used as the console, regardless
			   of the -h option described here.
		     -m	   mute	the console to suppress	all console input and
			   output during the boot.
		     -n	   ignore key press to interrupt boot before loader(8)
			   is invoked.
		     -P	   probe the keyboard.	If no keyboard is found, the
			   -D and -h options are automatically set.
		     -p	   pause after each attached device during the device
			   probing phase.
		     -q	   be quiet, do	not write anything to the console un-
			   less	automatic boot fails or	is disabled.  This op-
			   tion	only affects second-stage bootstrap, to	pre-
			   vent	next stages from writing to the	console	use in
			   combination with the	-m option.
		     -r	   use the statically configured default for the de-
			   vice	containing the root file system	(see
			   config(8)).	Normally, the root file	system is on
			   the device that the kernel was loaded from.
		     -s	   boot	into single-user mode; if the console is
			   marked as "insecure"	(see ttys(5)), the root	pass-
			   word	must be	entered.
			   set the speed of the	serial console to speed.  The
			   default is 9600 unless it has been overridden by
			   setting BOOT_COMCONSOLE_SPEED in make.conf(5) and
			   recompiling and reinstalling	the boot blocks.
		     -v	   be verbose during device probing (and later).

     Use the /boot.config file to set the default configuration	options	for
     the boot block code.  See boot.config(5) for more information about the
     /boot.config file.

     /boot.config  parameters for the boot blocks (optional)
     /boot/boot1   first stage bootstrap file
     /boot/boot2   second stage	bootstrap file
     /boot/loader  third stage bootstrap
		   default kernel
		   typical non-default kernel (optional)

     When disk-related errors occur, these are reported	by the second-stage
     bootstrap using the same error codes returned by the BIOS,	for example
     "Disk error 0x1 (lba=0x12345678)".	 Here is a partial list	of these error

     0x1   Invalid argument
     0x2   Address mark	not found
     0x4   Sector not found
     0x8   DMA overrun
     0x9   DMA attempt across 64K boundary
     0xc   Invalid media
     0x10  Uncorrectable CRC/ECC error
     0x20  Controller failure
     0x40  Seek	failed
     0x80  Timeout

     NOTE: On older machines, or otherwise where EDD support (disk packet in-
     terface support) is not available,	all boot-related files and structures
     (including	the kernel) that need to be accessed during the	boot phase
     must reside on the	disk at	or below cylinder 1023 (as the BIOS under-
     stands the	geometry).  When a "Disk error 0x1" is reported	by the second-
     stage bootstrap, it generally means that this requirement has not been
     adhered to.

     ddb(4), boot.config(5), make.conf(5), ttys(5), boot0cfg(8), btxld(8),
     config(8),	gpart(8), gptboot(8), halt(8), loader(8), nextboot(8),
     reboot(8),	shutdown(8)

     The bsdlabel format used by this version of BSD is	quite different	from
     that of other architectures.

     Due to space constraints, the keyboard probe initiated by the -P option
     is	simply a test that the BIOS has	detected an "extended" keyboard.  If
     an	"XT/AT"	keyboard (with no F11 and F12 keys, etc.) is attached, the
     probe will	fail.

BSD				 July 1, 2013				   BSD


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