Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
BT_FORMAT_NAMES(1)		    btparse		    BT_FORMAT_NAMES(1)

       bt_format_names - formatting BibTeX names for consistent	output

	  bt_name_format * bt_create_name_format (char * parts,
						  boolean abbrev_first);
	  void bt_free_name_format (bt_name_format * format);
	  void bt_set_format_text (bt_name_format * format,
				   bt_namepart part,
				   char	* pre_part,
				   char	* post_part,
				   char	* pre_token,
				   char	* post_token);
	  void bt_set_format_options (bt_name_format * format,
				      bt_namepart part,
				      boolean abbrev,
				      bt_joinmethod join_tokens,
				      bt_joinmethod join_part);
	  char * bt_format_name	(bt_name * name, bt_name_format	* format);

       After splitting a name into its components parts	(represented as	a
       "bt_name" structure), you often want to put it back together again as a
       single string in	a consistent way.  btparse provides a very flexible
       way to do this, generally in two	stages:	first, you create a "name
       format" which describes how to put the tokens and parts of any name
       back together, and then you apply the format to a particular name.

       The "name format" is encapsulated in a "bt_name_format" structure,
       which is	created	with "bt_create_name_format()".	 This function
       includes	some clever trickery that means	you can	usually	get away with
       calling it alone, and not need to do any	customization of the format.
       If you do need to customize the format, though, "bt_set_format_text()"
       and "bt_set_format_options()" provide that capability.

       The format controls the following:

       o   which name parts are	printed, and in	what order (e.g. "first	von
	   last	jr", or	"von last jr first")

       o   the text that precedes and follows each part	(e.g. if the first
	   name	follows	the last name, you probably want a comma before	the
	   `first' part: "Smith, John" rather than "Smith John")

       o   the text that precedes and follows each token (e.g. if the first
	   name	is abbreviated,	you may	want a period after each token:	"J. R.
	   Smith" rather than "J R Smith")

       o   the method used to join the tokens of each part together

       o   the method used to join each	part to	the following part

       All of these except the list of parts to	format are kept	in arrays
       indexed by name part: for example, the structure	has a field

	  char * post_token[BT_MAX_NAMEPARTS]

       and "post_token[BTN_FIRST]" ("BTN_FIRST"	is from	the "bt_namepart"
       "enum") is the string to	be added after each token in the first
       name---for example, "." if the first name is to be abbreviated in the
       conventional way.

       Yet another "enum", "bt_joinmethod", describes the available methods
       for joining tokens together.  Note that there are two sets of join
       methods in a name format: between tokens	within a single	part, and
       between the tokens of two different parts.  The first allows you, for
       example,	to change "J R Smith" (first name abbreviated with no post-
       token text but tokens joined by a space)	to "JR Smith" (the same, but
       first-name tokens jammed	together).  The	second is mainly used to
       ensure that "von" and "last" name-parts may be joined with a tie:
       "de~Roche" rather than "de Roche".

       The token join methods are:

	   Insert a "discretionary tie"	between	tokens.	 That is, either a
	   space or a "tie" is inserted, depending on context.	(A "tie,"
	   otherwise known as unbreakable space, is currently hard-coded as
	   "~"---from TeX.)

	   The format is then applied to a particular name by
	   "bt_format_name()", which returns a new string.

	   Always insert a space between tokens.

	   Always insert a "tie" ("~") between tokens.

	   Insert nothing between tokens---just	jam them together.

       Tokens are joined together, and thus the	choice of whether to insert a
       "discretionary tie" is made, at two places: within a part and between
       two parts.  Naturally, this only	applies	when "BTJ_MAYTIE" was supplied
       as the token-join method; "BTJ_SPACE" and "BTJ_FORCETIE"	always insert
       either a	space or tie, and "BTJ_NOTHING"	always adds nothing between
       tokens.	Within a part, ties are	added after a the first	token if it is
       less than three characters long,	and before the last token.  Between
       parts, a	tie is added only if the preceding part	consisted of single
       token that was less than	three characters long.	In all other cases,
       spaces are inserted.  (This implementation slavishly follows BibTeX.)

	      bt_name_format * bt_create_name_format (char * parts,
						      boolean abbrev_first)

	   Creates a name format for a given set of parts, with	variations for
	   the most common forms of customization---the	order of parts and
	   whether to abbreviate the first name.

	   The "parts" parameter specifies which parts to include in a
	   formatted name, as well as the order	in which to format them.
	   "parts" must	be a string of four or fewer characters, each of which
	   denotes one of the four name	parts: for instance, "vljf" means to
	   format all four parts in "von last jr first"	order.	No characters
	   outside of the set "fvlj" are allowed, and no characters may	be
	   repeated.  "abbrev_first" controls whether the `first' part will be
	   abbreviated (i.e., only the first letter from each token will be

	   In addition to simply setting the list of parts to format and the
	   "abbreviate"	flag for the first name, "bt_create_name_format()"
	   initializes the entire format structure so as to minimize the need
	   for further customizations:

	   o   The "token join method"---what to insert	between	tokens of the
	       same part---is set to "BTJ_MAYTIE" (discretionary tie) for all

	   o   The "part join method"---what to	insert after the final token
	       of a particular part, assuming there are	more parts to
	       come---is set to	"BTJ_SPACE" for	the `first', `last', and `jr'
	       parts.  If the `von' part is present and	immediately precedes
	       the `last' part (which will almost always be the	case),
	       "BTJ_MAYTIE" is used to join `von' to `last'; otherwise,	`von'
	       also gets "BTJ_SPACE" for the inter-part	join method.

	   o   The abbreviation	flag is	set to "FALSE" for the `von', `last',
	       and `jr'	parts; for `first', the	abbreviation flag is set to
	       whatever	you pass in as "abbrev_first".

	   o   Initially, all "surrounding text" (pre-part, post-part, pre-
	       token, and post-token) for all parts is set to the empty
	       string.	Then a few tweaks are done, depending on the
	       "abbrev_first" flag and the order of tokens.  First, if
	       "abbrev_first" is "TRUE", the post-token	text for first name is
	       set to "."---this changes "J R Smith" to	"J. R. Smith", which
	       is usually the desired form.  (If you don't want	the periods,
	       you'll have to set the post-token text yourself with

	       Then, if	`jr' is	present	and immediately	after `last' (almost
	       always the case), the pre-part text for `jr' is set to ", ",
	       and the inter-part join method for `last' is set	to
	       "BTJ_NOTHING".  This changes "John Smith	Jr" (where the space
	       following "Smith" comes from formatting the last	name with a
	       "BTJ_SPACE" inter-part join method) to "John Smith, Jr" (where
	       the ", "	is now associated with "Jr"---that way,	if there is no
	       `jr' part, the ", " will	not be printed.)

	       Finally,	if `first' is present and immediately follows either
	       `jr' or `last' (which will usually be the case in "last-name
	       first" formats),	the same sort of trickery is applied: the pre-
	       part text for `first' is	set to ", ", and the part join method
	       for the preceding part (either `jr' or `last') is set to

	   While all these rules are rather complicated, they mean that	you
	   are usually freed from having to do any customization of the	name
	   format.  Certainly this is the case if you only need	"fvlj" and
	   "vljf" part orders, only want to abbreviate the first name, want
	   periods after abbreviated tokens, non-breaking spaces in the
	   "right" places, and commas in the conventional places.

	   If you want something out of	the ordinary---for instance,
	   abbreviated tokens jammed together with no puncuation, or
	   abbreviated last names---you'll need	to customize the name format a
	   bit with "bt_set_format_text()" and "bt_set_format_options()".

	      void bt_free_name_format (bt_name_format * format)

	   Frees a name	format created by "bt_create_name_format()".

	      void bt_set_format_text (bt_name_format *	format,
				       bt_namepart part,
				       char * pre_part,
				       char * post_part,
				       char * pre_token,
				       char * post_token)

	   Allows you to customize some	or all of the surrounding text for a
	   single name part.  Supply "NULL" for	any chunk of text that you
	   don't want to change.

	   For instance, say you want a	name format that will abbreviate first
	   names, but without any punctuation after the	abbreviated tokens.
	   You could create and	customize the format as	follows:

	      format = bt_create_name_format ("fvlj", TRUE);
	      bt_set_format_text (format,
				  BTN_FIRST,	   /* name-part	to customize */
				  NULL,	NULL,	   /* pre- and post- part text */
				  NULL,	"");	   /* empty string for post-token */

	   Without the "bt_set_format_text()" call, "format" would result in
	   names formatted like	"J. R. Smith".	After setting the post-token
	   text	for first names	to "", this name would become "J R Smith".

	      void bt_set_format_options (bt_name_format * format,
					  bt_namepart part,
					  boolean abbrev,
					  bt_joinmethod	join_tokens,
					  bt_joinmethod	join_part)

	   Allows further customization	of a name format: you can set the
	   abbreviation	flag and the two token-join methods.  Alas, there is
	   no mechanism	for leaving a value unchanged; you must	set everything
	   with	"bt_set_format_options()".

	   For example,	let's say that just dropping periods from abbreviated
	   tokens in the first name isn't enough; you really want to save
	   space by jamming the	abbreviated tokens together: "JR Smith"	rather
	   than	"J R Smith"  Assuming the two calls in the above example have
	   been	done, the following will finish	the job:

	      bt_set_format_options (format, BTN_FIRST,
				     TRUE,	   /* keep same	value for abbrev flag */
				     BTJ_NOTHING,  /* jam tokens together */
				     BTJ_SPACE);   /* space after final	token of part */

	   Note	that we	unfortunately had to know (and supply) the current
	   values for the abbreviation flag and	post-part join method, even
	   though we were only setting the intra-part join method.

	      char * bt_format_name (bt_name * name, bt_name_format * format)

	   Once	a name format has been created and customized to your heart's
	   content, you	can use	it to format any number	of names that have
	   been	split with "bt_split_name" (see	bt_split_names).  Simply pass
	   the name structure and name format structure, and a newly-allocated
	   string containing the formatted name	will be	returned to you.  It
	   is your responsibility to "free()" this string.

       btparse,	bt_split_names

       Greg Ward <>

btparse, version 0.88		  2019-04-29		    BT_FORMAT_NAMES(1)


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help