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CHOWN(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		      CHOWN(8)

     chown -- change file owner	and group

     chown [-fhv] [-R [-H | -L | -P]] owner[:group] file ...
     chown [-fhv] [-R [-H | -L | -P]] :group file ...

     The chown utility changes the user	ID and/or the group ID of the speci-
     fied files.  Symbolic links named by arguments are	silently left un-
     changed unless -h is used.

     The options are as	follows:

     -H	     If	the -R option is specified, symbolic links on the command line
	     are followed.  (Symbolic links encountered	in the tree traversal
	     are not followed.)

     -L	     If	the -R option is specified, all	symbolic links are followed.

     -P	     If	the -R option is specified, no symbolic	links are followed.
	     This is the default.

     -R	     Change the	user ID	and/or the group ID of the specified directory
	     trees (recursively, including their contents) and files.  Beware
	     of	unintentionally	matching the ".." hard link to the parent di-
	     rectory when using	wildcards like ".*".

     -f	     Don't report any failure to change	file owner or group, nor mod-
	     ify the exit status to reflect such failures.

     -h	     If	the file is a symbolic link, change the	user ID	and/or the
	     group ID of the link itself.

     -v	     Cause chown to be verbose,	showing	files as the owner is modi-
	     fied.  If the -v flag is specified	more than once,	chown will
	     print the filename, followed by the old and new numeric
	     user/group	ID.

     The -H, -L	and -P options are ignored unless the -R option	is specified.
     In	addition, these	options	override each other and	the command's actions
     are determined by the last	one specified.

     The owner and group operands are both optional, however, one must be
     specified.	 If the	group operand is specified, it must be preceded	by a
     colon (``:'') character.

     The owner may be either a numeric user ID or a user name.	If a user name
     is	also a numeric user ID,	the operand is used as a user name.  The group
     may be either a numeric group ID or a group name.	If a group name	is
     also a numeric group ID, the operand is used as a group name.

     The ownership of a	file may only be altered by a super-user for obvious
     security reasons.

     The chown utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an	error occurs.

     Previous versions of the chown utility used the dot (``.'') character to
     distinguish the group name.  This has been	changed	to be a	colon (``:'')
     character so that user and	group names may	contain	the dot	character.

     On	previous versions of this system, symbolic links did not have owners.

     The -v option is non-standard and its use in scripts is not recommended.

     chgrp(1), find(1),	chown(2), fts(3), symlink(7)

     The chown utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2") compli-

     A chown utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T	UNIX.

BSD				April 25, 2003				   BSD


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