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CI(1)			    General Commands Manual			 CI(1)

       ci - check in RCS revisions

       ci [options] file ...

       ci  stores new revisions	into RCS files.	 Each pathname matching	an RCS
       suffix is taken to be an	RCS file.  All others are assumed to be	 work-
       ing  files  containing new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of each
       working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only a	 working  file
       is  given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS	subdi-
       rectory and then	in the working file's directory.   For	more  details,
       see FILE	NAMING below.

       For  ci	to work, the caller's login must be on the access list,	except
       if the access list is empty or the caller is the	superuser or the owner
       of  the	file.  To append a new revision	to an existing branch, the tip
       revision	on that	branch must be locked by the caller.  Otherwise,  only
       a  new branch can be created.  This restriction is not enforced for the
       owner of	the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).   A  lock
       held by someone else can	be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless the -f option is given, ci checks	whether	the revision to	be de-
       posited differs from the	preceding one.	If not,	instead	of creating  a
       new  revision  ci reverts to the	preceding one.	To revert, ordinary ci
       removes the working file	and any	lock; ci -l keeps  and	ci -u  removes
       any  lock,  and	then  they both	generate a new working file much as if
       co -l or	co -u had been applied to the preceding	 revision.   When  re-
       verting,	any -n and -s options apply to the preceding revision.

       For  each  revision  deposited,	ci prompts for a log message.  The log
       message should summarize	the change and must be terminated  by  end-of-
       file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are checked
       in ci asks whether to reuse the previous	log message.  If the  standard
       input is	not a terminal,	ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same log
       message for all files.  See also	-m.

       If the RCS file does not	exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents
       of the working file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The
       access list is initialized to empty.  Instead of	the  log  message,  ci
       requests	descriptive text (see -t below).

       The number rev of the deposited revision	can be given by	any of the op-
       tions -f, -i, -I, -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.	 rev can be  symbolic,
       numeric,	 or mixed.  Symbolic names in rev must already be defined; see
       the -n and -N options for assigning names during	checkin.  If rev is $,
       ci  determines  the  revision number from keyword values	in the working

       If rev begins with a period, then  the  default	branch	(normally  the
       trunk) is prepended to it.  If rev is a branch number followed by a pe-
       riod, then the latest revision on that branch is	used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest  one  on
       the branch to which rev belongs,	or must	start a	new branch.

       If  rev	is a branch rather than	a revision number, the new revision is
       appended	to that	branch.	 The level number is obtained by  incrementing
       the  tip	revision number	of that	branch.	 If rev	indicates a non-exist-
       ing branch, that	branch is created with the initial  revision  numbered

       If  rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the
       caller's	last lock.  If the caller has locked the  tip  revision	 of  a
       branch,	the new	revision is appended to	that branch.  The new revision
       number is obtained by incrementing the tip  revision  number.   If  the
       caller locked a non-tip revision, a new branch is started at that revi-
       sion by incrementing the	highest	branch number at that  revision.   The
       default initial branch and level	numbers	are 1.

       If  rev	is  omitted  and the caller has	no lock, but owns the file and
       locking is not set to strict, then the revision is appended to the  de-
       fault branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception:  On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not

       -rrev  Check in revision	rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision)	has an unusual meaning
	      in  ci.  With other RCS commands,	a bare -r option specifies the
	      most recent revision on the default branch, but with ci, a  bare
	      -r option	reestablishes the default behavior of releasing	a lock
	      and removing the working file, and is used to override  any  de-
	      fault -l or -u options established by shell aliases or scripts.

	      works  like  -r,	except it performs an additional co -l for the
	      deposited	revision.  Thus, the deposited revision	is immediately
	      checked out again	and locked.  This is useful for	saving a revi-
	      sion although  one  wants	 to  continue  editing	it  after  the

	      works like -l, except that the deposited revision	is not locked.
	      This lets	one read the working file immediately after checkin.

	      The -l, bare -r, and  -u	options	 are  mutually	exclusive  and
	      silently	override each other.  For example, ci -u -r is equiva-
	      lent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

	      forces a deposit;	the new	revision is deposited even it  is  not
	      different	from the preceding one.

	      searches	the  working  file for keyword values to determine its
	      revision number, creation	date, state, and author	 (see  co(1)),
	      and  assigns these values	to the deposited revision, rather than
	      computing	them locally.  It also generates a default login  mes-
	      sage noting the login of the caller and the actual checkin date.
	      This option is useful for	 software  distribution.   A  revision
	      that  is	sent to	several	sites should be	checked	in with	the -k
	      option at	these sites to preserve	the original number, date, au-
	      thor,  and  state.  The extracted	keyword	values and the default
	      log message can be overridden with the options -d, -m,  -s,  -w,
	      and any option that carries a revision number.

	      quiet  mode;  diagnostic output is not printed.  A revision that
	      is not different from the	preceding one is not deposited,	unless
	      -f is given.

	      initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.
	      This avoids race conditions in certain applications.

	      just checkin and do not initialize; report an error if  the  RCS
	      file does	not already exist.

	      interactive  mode;  the  user is prompted	and questioned even if
	      the standard input is not	a terminal.

	      uses date	for the	checkin	date and time.	The date is  specified
	      in  free format as explained in co(1).  This is useful for lying
	      about the	checkin	date, and for -k if no date is available.   If
	      date  is	empty, the working file's time of last modification is

	      Set the modification time	on any new working file	to be the date
	      of  the retrieved	revision.  For example,	ci -d -M -u f does not
	      alter f's	modification time, even	if f's contents	change due  to
	      keyword substitution.  Use this option with care;	it can confuse

       -mmsg  uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked
	      in.   By convention, log messages	that start with	# are comments
	      and are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs's vc package.	 Also,
	      log  messages  that  start  with	{clumpname} (followed by white
	      space) are meant to be clumped together  if  possible,  even  if
	      they  are	associated with	different files; the {clumpname} label
	      is used only for clumping, and is	not considered to be  part  of
	      the log message itself.

       -nname assigns  the  symbolic name name to the number of	the checked-in
	      revision.	 ci prints an error message if	name  is  already  as-
	      signed to	another	number.

       -Nname same  as	-n,  except that it overrides a	previous assignment of

	      sets the state of	the  checked-in	 revision  to  the  identifier
	      state.  The default state	is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents	of the named file into
	      the RCS file, deleting the existing text.	 The file cannot begin
	      with -.

	      Write descriptive	text from the string into the RCS file,	delet-
	      ing the existing text.

	      The -t option, in	both its forms,	has effect only	during an ini-
	      tial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

	      During  the  initial checkin, if -t is not given,	ci obtains the
	      text from	standard input,	terminated by end-of-file or by	a line
	      containing  . by	itself.	  The user is prompted for the text if
	      interaction is possible; see -I.

	      For backward compatibility with older versions of	RCS, a bare -t
	      option is	ignored.

       -T     Set  the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's time
	      if the former precedes the latter	and there is a	new  revision;
	      preserve	the  RCS  file's  modification time otherwise.	If you
	      have locked a revision, ci usually updates the RCS file's	 modi-
	      fication time to the current time, because the lock is stored in
	      the RCS file and removing	the lock  requires  changing  the  RCS
	      file.   This  can	create an RCS file newer than the working file
	      in one of	two ways: first, ci -M can create a working file  with
	      a	 date  before  the current time; second, when reverting	to the
	      previous revision	the RCS	file can change	while the working file
	      remains unchanged.  These	two cases can cause excessive recompi-
	      lation caused by a make(1) dependency of the working file	on the
	      RCS  file.   The	-T option inhibits this	recompilation by lying
	      about the	RCS file's date.  Use this option with	care;  it  can
	      suppress	recompilation  even when a checkin of one working file
	      should affect another working file associated with the same  RCS
	      file.   For  example,  suppose the RCS file's time is 01:00, the
	      (changed)	working	file's time is 02:00, some other copy  of  the
	      working file has a time of 03:00,	and the	current	time is	04:00.
	      Then ci -d -T sets the RCS file's	time to	02:00 instead  of  the
	      usual 04:00; this	causes make(1) to think	(incorrectly) that the
	      other copy is newer than the RCS file.

	      uses login for the author	field of the deposited revision.  Use-
	      ful  for	lying  about  the  author,  and	for -k if no author is

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1)	for details.

	      specifies	the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty	suffix matches
	      any  pathname ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any
	      pathname of the form RCS/path or path1/RCS/path2.	 The -x	option
	      can  specify  a  list  of	suffixes separated by /.  For example,
	      -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.   If  two
	      or  more	suffixes  are  specified, they are tried in order when
	      looking for an RCS file; the first one that works	 is  used  for
	      that  file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS file can be cre-
	      ated, the	suffixes are tried in order to determine the  new  RCS
	      file's  name.   The  default for suffixes	is installation-depen-
	      dent; normally it	is ,v/ for hosts like Unix that	permit	commas
	      in  filenames,  and  is  empty  (i.e. just the empty suffix) for
	      other hosts.

       -zzone specifies	the date output	format in  keyword  substitution,  and
	      specifies	 the  default time zone	for date in the	-ddate option.
	      The zone should be empty,	a numeric UTC offset, or  the  special
	      string  LT  for local time.  The default is an empty zone, which
	      uses the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone in-
	      dication and with	slashes	separating the parts of	the date; oth-
	      erwise, times are	output in ISO 8601 format with time zone indi-
	      cation.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm Pa-
	      cific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the  time  is
	      output as	follows:

		     option    time output
		     -z	       1990/01/12 04:00:00	  (default)
		     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
		     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

	      The  -z  option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which
	      are always UTC.

       Pairs of	RCS files and working files can	be  specified  in  three  ways
       (see also the example section).

       1)  Both	the RCS	file and the working file are given.  The RCS pathname
       is of the form path1/workfileX and the working pathname is of the  form
       path2/workfile  where  path1/  and  path2/  are	(possibly different or
       empty) paths, workfile is a filename, and X is an RCS suffix.  If X  is
       empty, path1/ must start	with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the	working	file is	created	in the
       current directory and its name is derived from the name of the RCS file
       by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file	is given.  Then	ci considers each RCS suffix X
       in turn,	looking	for an RCS file	of the form path2/RCS/workfileX	or (if
       the former is not found and X is	nonempty) path2/workfileX.

       If  the RCS file	is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks for
       the RCS file first in the directory ./RCS and then in the  current  di-

       ci  reports an error if an attempt to open an RCS file fails for	an un-
       usual reason, even if the RCS file's pathname is	just  one  of  several
       possibilities.	For  example, to suppress use of RCS commands in a di-
       rectory d, create a regular file	named d/RCS so that casual attempts to
       use RCS commands	in d fail because d/RCS	is not a directory.

       Suppose ,v is an	RCS suffix and the current directory contains a	subdi-
       rectory RCS with	an RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the  following  com-
       mands  check  in	a copy of io.c into RCS/io.c,v as the latest revision,
       removing	io.c.

	      ci  io.c;	   ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci	 io.c,v;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c	 io.c,v;
	      ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose instead that the	empty suffix is	an RCS suffix and the  current
       directory  contains a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each
       of the following	commands checks	in a new revision.

	      ci  io.c;	   ci  RCS/io.c;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c;
	      ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

       An RCS file created by ci inherits the  read  and  execute  permissions
       from  the  working  file.  If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves
       its read	and execute permissions.  ci always turns off all  write  per-
       missions	of RCS files.

       Temporary  files	 are  created  in the directory	containing the working
       file, and also in the temporary directory (see  TMPDIR  under  ENVIRON-
       MENT).  A semaphore file	or files are created in	the directory contain-
       ing the RCS file.  With a nonempty suffix, the  semaphore  names	 begin
       with  the  first	 character of the suffix; therefore, do	not specify an
       suffix whose first character could be that of a working filename.  With
       an  empty  suffix,  the semaphore names end with	_ so working filenames
       should not end in _.

       ci never	changes	an RCS or working file.	 Normally, ci unlinks the file
       and  creates  a new one;	but instead of breaking	a chain	of one or more
       symbolic	links to an RCS	file, it unlinks the destination file instead.
       Therefore,  ci breaks any hard or symbolic links	to any working file it
       changes;	and hard links to RCS  files  are  ineffective,	 but  symbolic
       links to	RCS files are preserved.

       The  effective user must	be able	to search and write the	directory con-
       taining the RCS file.  Normally,	the real user must be able to read the
       RCS  and	working	files and to search and	write the directory containing
       the working file; however, some older hosts cannot  easily  switch  be-
       tween real and effective	users, so on these hosts the effective user is
       used for	all accesses.  The effective user is the same as the real user
       unless  your  copies of ci and co have setuid privileges.  As described
       in the next section, these privileges yield extra security if  the  ef-
       fective user owns all RCS files and directories,	and if only the	effec-
       tive user can write RCS directories.

       Users can control access	to RCS files by	setting	the permissions	of the
       directory containing the	files; only users with write access to the di-
       rectory can use RCS commands to change its RCS files.  For example,  in
       hosts  that  allow  a  user to belong to	several	groups,	one can	make a
       group's RCS directories writable	to that	 group	only.	This  approach
       suffices	 for informal projects,	but it means that any group member can
       arbitrarily change the group's RCS files, and can even remove them  en-
       tirely.	 Hence	more  formal projects sometimes	distinguish between an
       RCS administrator, who can change the RCS  files	 at  will,  and	 other
       project	members,  who  can check in new	revisions but cannot otherwise
       change the RCS files.

       To prevent anybody but their RCS	administrator from deleting revisions,
       a set of	users can employ setuid	privileges as follows.

       o Check	that  the host supports	RCS setuid use.	 Consult a trustworthy
	 expert	if there are any doubts.  It is	best  if  the  seteuid	system
	 call  works  as  described  in	Posix 1003.1a Draft 5, because RCS can
	 switch	back and forth easily between real and effective  users,  even
	 if  the  real user is root.  If not, the second best is if the	setuid
	 system	call supports saved setuid (the	{_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of
	 Posix	1003.1-1990); this fails only if the real or effective user is
	 root.	If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it quits immediately.

       o Choose	a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set  of	users.
	 Only  A can invoke the	rcs command on the users' RCS files.  A	should
	 not be	root or	any other user with special powers.   Mutually	suspi-
	 cious sets of users should use	different administrators.

       o Choose	 a pathname B to be a directory	of files to be executed	by the

       o Have A	set up B to contain copies of ci and co	that are setuid	 to  A
	 by  copying the commands from their standard installation directory D
	 as follows:

	      mkdir  B
	      cp  D/c[io]  B
	      chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       o Have each user	prepend	B to their path	as follows:

	      PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
	      set  path=(B  $path)  # C	shell

       o Have A	create each RCS	directory R with write access  only  to	 A  as

	      mkdir  R
	      chmod  go-w  R

       o If  you  want	to  let	only certain users read	the RCS	files, put the
	 users into a group G, and have	A further protect the RCS directory as

	      chgrp  G	R
	      chmod  g-w,o-rwx	R

       o Have  A  copy	old  RCS  files	(if any) into R, to ensure that	A owns

       o An RCS	file's access list limits who can check	in and lock revisions.
	 The default access list is empty, which grants	checkin	access to any-
	 one who can read the RCS file.	 If you	 want  limit  checkin  access,
	 have  A  invoke  rcs -a  on  the  file;  see  rcs(1).	In particular,
	 rcs -e	-aA limits access to just A.

       o Have A	initialize any	new  RCS  files	 with  rcs -i  before  initial
	 checkin, adding the -a	option if you want to limit checkin access.

       o Give setuid privileges	only to	ci, co,	and rcsclean; do not give them
	 to rcs	or to any other	command.

       o Do not	use other setuid commands to invoke RCS	 commands;  setuid  is
	 trickier than you think!

	      options  prepended to the	argument list, separated by spaces.  A
	      backslash	escapes	spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT  options
	      are  prepended to	the argument lists of most RCS commands.  Use-
	      ful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

       TMPDIR Name of the temporary directory.	If not	set,  the  environment
	      variables	TMP and	TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
	      found is taken; if none of them are set,	a  host-dependent  de-
	      fault is used, typically /tmp.

       For  each  revision,  ci	prints the RCS file, the working file, and the
       number of both the deposited and	the preceding revision.	 The exit sta-
       tus is zero if and only if all operations were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 1.6; Release Date:	1999/08/27.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F.	Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995	Paul Eggert.

       co(1), ident(1),	make(1), rcs(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsintro(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2),	rcsfile(5)
       Walter F. Tichy,	RCS--A System for Version Control,  Software--Practice
       _ Experience 15,	7 (July	1985), 637-654.

GNU				  1999/08/27				 CI(1)


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