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csh(1)				 User Commands				csh(1)

       csh - shell command interpreter with a C-like syntax

       csh [-bcefinstvVxX] [argument...]

       csh, the	C shell, is a command interpreter with a syntax	reminiscent of
       the C language. It provides a number of convenient features for	inter-
       active  use  that  are  not  available with the Bourne shell, including
       filename	completion, command aliasing, history substitution,  job  con-
       trol,  and a number of built-in commands. As with the Bourne shell, the
       C shell provides	variable, command and filename substitution.

   Initialization and Termination
       When first started, the C shell normally	 performs  commands  from  the
       .cshrc  file  in	 your home directory, provided that it is readable and
       you either own it or your real group ID matches its group ID.   If  the
       shell  is  invoked with a name that starts with `-', as when started by
       login(1), the shell runs	as a login shell.

       If the shell is a login shell, this is  the  sequence  of  invocations:
       First,  commands	 in  /etc/.login are executed. Next, commands from the
       .cshrc file your	home directory are executed. Then the  shell  executes
       commands	 from the .login file in your home directory; the same permis-
       sion checks as those for	.cshrc are applied to  this  file.  Typically,
       the  .login file	contains commands to specify the terminal type and en-
       vironment. (For an explanation of file interpreters, see	below "Command
       Execution" and exec(2).)

       As a login shell	terminates, it performs	commands from the .logout file
       in your home directory; the same	permission checks as those for	.cshrc
       are applied to this file.

   Interactive Operation
       After  startup  processing  is  complete, an interactive	C shell	begins
       reading commands	from the terminal, prompting with hostname% (or	 host-
       name#  for the privileged user).	The shell then repeatedly performs the
       following actions: a line of command input  is  read  and  broken  into
       words.  This  sequence  of words	is placed on the history list and then
       parsed, as described under USAGE. Finally, the shell executes each com-
       mand in the current line.

   Noninteractive Operation
       When running noninteractively, the shell	does not prompt	for input from
       the terminal. A noninteractive C	shell can execute a  command  supplied
       as  an argument on its command line, or interpret commands from a file,
       also known as a script.

       The following options are supported:

       -b	Forced a "break" from option  processing.  Subsequent  command
		line  arguments	 are  not interpreted as C shell options. This
		allows the passing of options to a script  without  confusion.
		The shell does not run set-user-ID or set-group-ID scripts un-
		less this option is present.

       -c	Executes the first argument, which must	be present.  Remaining
		arguments  are placed in argv, the argument-list variable, and
		passed directly	to csh.

       -e	Exits if a command terminates abnormally or yields  a  nonzero
		exit status.

       -f	Fast start. Reads neither the .cshrc file, nor the .login file
		(if a login shell) upon	startup.

       -i	Forced interactive. Prompts for	command	line  input,  even  if
		the  standard  input does not appear to	be a terminal (charac-
		ter-special device).

       -n	Parses (interprets), but does not execute commands.  This  op-
		tion can be used to check C shell scripts for syntax errors.

       -s	Takes commands from the	standard input.

       -t	Reads  and  executes  a	single command line. A `\' (backslash)
		can be used to escape each newline  for	 continuation  of  the
		command	line onto subsequent input lines.

       -v	Verbose.  Sets	the verbose predefined variable. Command input
		is echoed after	history	substitution, but before other substi-
		tutions	and before execution.

       -V	Sets verbose before reading .cshrc.

       -x	Echo.  Sets  the echo variable.	Echoes commands	after all sub-
		stitutions and just before execution.

       -X	Sets echo before reading .cshrc.

       Except with the options -c, -i, -s, or -t, the first nonoption argument
       is  taken  to be	the name of a command or script. It is passed as argu-
       ment zero, and subsequent arguments are added to	the argument list  for
       that command or script.

   Filename Completion
       When  enabled by	setting	the variable filec, an interactive C shell can
       complete	a partially typed filename or user name. When  an  unambiguous
       partial	filename is followed by	an ESC character on the	terminal input
       line, the shell fills in	the remaining characters of a  matching	 file-
       name from the working directory.

       If  a  partial filename is followed by the EOF character	(usually typed
       as Control-d), the shell	 lists	all  filenames	that  match.  It  then
       prompts	once  again, supplying the incomplete command line typed in so

       When the	last (partial) word begins with	a tilde	 (~),  the  shell  at-
       tempts  completion  with	a user name, rather than a file	in the working

       The terminal bell signals errors	or multiple matches. This bell	signal
       can  be inhibited by setting the	variable nobeep. You can exclude files
       with certain suffixes by	listing	those suffixes in  the	variable  fig-
       nore.  If,  however,  the only possible completion includes a suffix in
       the list, it is not ignored. fignore does not  affect  the  listing  of
       filenames by the	EOF character.

   Lexical Structure
       The  shell  splits  input lines into words at space and tab characters,
       except as noted below. The characters &,	|, ;, <, >, (, and ) form sep-
       arate  words;  if  paired,  the	pairs  form  single words. These shell
       metacharacters can be made part of other	words, and their special mean-
       ing  can	be suppressed by preceding them	with a `\' (backslash).	A new-
       line preceded by	a \ is equivalent to a space character.

       In addition, a string enclosed in matched pairs of  single-quotes  ('),
       double-quotes ("), or backquotes	(`), forms a partial word. Metacharac-
       ters in such a string, including	any space or tab  characters,  do  not
       form  separate words. Within pairs of backquote (`) or double-quote (")
       characters, a newline preceded by a `\' (backslash) gives a  true  new-
       line  character.	 Additional  functions	of  each type of quote are de-
       scribed,	below, under Variable Substitution, Command Substitution,  and
       Filename	Substitution.

       When  the shell's input is not a	terminal, the character	# introduces a
       comment that continues to the end of the	input line. Its	special	 mean-
       ing is suppressed when preceded by a \ or enclosed in matching quotes.

   Command Line	Parsing
       A  simple  command  is  composed	of a sequence of words.	The first word
       (that is	not part of an I/O redirection)	specifies the  command	to  be
       executed.  A simple command, or a set of	simple commands	separated by |
       or |& characters, forms a pipeline. With	|, the standard	output of  the
       preceding  command  is  redirected to the standard input	of the command
       that follows. With |&, both the standard	error and the standard	output
       are redirected through the pipeline.

       Pipelines  can  be  separated by	semicolons (;),	in which case they are
       executed	sequentially. Pipelines	that are separated by &&  or  ||  form
       conditional  sequences in which the execution of	pipelines on the right
       depends upon the	success	or failure, respectively, of the  pipeline  on
       the left.

       A  pipeline or sequence can be enclosed within parentheses `()' to form
       a simple	command	that can be a component	in a pipeline or sequence.

       A sequence of pipelines can be executed asynchronously or "in the back-
       ground"	by  appending  an `&'; rather than waiting for the sequence to
       finish before issuing a prompt, the shell displays the job number  (see
       Job Control, below) and associated process IDs and prompts immediately.

   History Substitution
       History	substitution  allows  you  to  use words from previous command
       lines in	the command line you are typing. This simplifies spelling cor-
       rections	 and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. Com-
       mand lines are saved in the history list, the size  of  which  is  con-
       trolled by the history variable.	The most recent	command	is retained in
       any case. A history substitution	begins with  a	!  (although  you  can
       change  this with the histchars variable) and may occur anywhere	on the
       command line; history substitutions do not nest.	The ! can  be  escaped
       with \ to suppress its special meaning.

       Input lines containing history substitutions are	echoed on the terminal
       after being expanded, but before	any other substitutions	take place  or
       the command gets	executed.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a	command	line entry in the his-
       tory list.

       !			       Start a	history	 substitution,	except
				       when  followed  by  a  space character,
				       tab, newline, = or (.

       !!			       Refer to	the previous command.  By  it-
				       self,  this  substitution  repeats  the
				       previous	command.

       !n			       Refer to	command	line n.

       !-n			       Refer to	the current command line minus

       !str			       Refer to	the most recent	command	start-
				       ing with	str.

       !?str?			       Refer to	the most recent	 command  con-
				       taining str.

       !?str? additional	       Refer  to  the most recent command con-
				       taining str and	append	additional  to
				       that referenced command.

       !{command} additional	       Refer to	the most recent	command	begin-
				       ning with command and append additional
				       to that referenced command.

       ^previous_word^replacement^     Repeat  the  previous  command line re-
				       placing the string  previous_word  with
				       the string replacement. This is equiva-
				       lent to the history substitution:


				       To re-execute a specific	previous  com-
				       mand AND	make such a substitution, say,
				       re-executing command #6,


   Word	Designators
       A `:' (colon) separates the event specification from the	word  designa-
       tor.  It	can be omitted if the word designator begins with a ^, $, *, -
       or %. If	the word is to be selected from	the previous command, the sec-
       ond  !  character  can be omitted from the event	specification. For in-
       stance, !!:1 and	!:1 both refer to the first word of the	previous  com-
       mand, while !!$ and !$ both refer to the	last word in the previous com-
       mand. Word designators include:

       #	The entire command line	typed so far.

       0	The first input	word (command).

       n	The n'th argument.

       ^	The first argument, that is, 1.

       $	The last argument.

       %	The word matched by the	?s search.

       x-y	A range	of words; -y abbreviates 0-y.

       *	All the	arguments, or a	null value if there is just  one  word
		in the event.

       x*	Abbreviates x-$.

       x-	Like x*	but omitting word $.

       After  the  optional  word designator, you can add one of the following
       modifiers, preceded by a	:.

       h	Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.

       r	Remove a trailing suffix of the	form `.xxx', leaving the base-

       e	Remove all but the suffix, leaving the Extension.

       s/l/r/	Substitute r for l.

       t	Remove all leading pathname components,	leaving	the tail.

       &	Repeat the previous substitution.

       g	Apply  the  change  to the first occurrence of a match in each
		word, by prefixing the above (for example, g&).

       p	Print the new command but do not execute it.

       q	Quote the substituted words, escaping further substitutions.

       x	Like q,	but break into words at	each space character,  tab  or

       Unless  preceded	 by a g, the modification is applied only to the first
       string that matches l; an error results if no string matches.

       The left-hand side of substitutions are not  regular  expressions,  but
       character  strings. Any character can be	used as	the delimiter in place
       of /. A backslash quotes	the delimiter character. The character	&,  in
       the  right  hand	side, is replaced by the text from the left-hand-side.
       The & can be quoted with	a backslash. A null l uses the previous	string
       either  from  a	l or from a contextual scan string s from !?s. You can
       omit the	rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately  follows  r;  the
       rightmost ? in a	context	scan can similarly be omitted.

       Without	an  event  specification, a history reference refers either to
       the previous command, or	to a previous history reference	on the command
       line (if	any).

   Quick Substitution
       ^l^r^	This is	equivalent to the history substitution:


       The  C  shell maintains a list of aliases that you can create, display,
       and modify using	the alias and unalias commands.	The shell  checks  the
       first word in each command to see if it matches the name	of an existing
       alias. If it does, the command is reprocessed with the alias definition
       replacing  its  name; the history substitution mechanism	is made	avail-
       able as though that command were	the previous input line.  This	allows
       history	substitutions,	escaped	with a backslash in the	definition, to
       be replaced with	actual command line arguments when the alias is	 used.
       If  no  history	substitution  is  called for, the arguments remain un-

       Aliases can be nested. That is, an alias	 definition  can  contain  the
       name  of	 another alias.	Nested aliases are expanded before any history
       substitutions is	applied. This is useful	in pipelines such as

       alias lm	'ls -l \!* | more'

       which when called, pipes	the output of ls(1) through more(1).

       Except for the first word, the name of the alias	may not	appear in  its
       definition,  nor	in any alias referred to by its	definition. Such loops
       are detected, and cause an error	message.

   I/O Redirection
       The following metacharacters indicate that the subsequent word  is  the
       name  of	a file to which	the command's standard input, standard output,
       or standard error is redirected;	this word is  variable,	 command,  and
       filename	expanded separately from the rest of the command.


	   Redirect the	standard input.


	   Read	 the standard input, up	to a line that is identical with word,
	   and place the resulting lines in a temporary	file. Unless  word  is
	   escaped or quoted, variable and command substitutions are performed
	   on these lines. Then, the pipeline is invoked  with	the  temporary
	   file	 as  its  standard  input.  word is not	subjected to variable,
	   filename, or	command	substitution, and each line is compared	to  it
	   before any substitutions are	performed by the shell.

       >   >!	>&   >&!

	   Redirect the	standard output	to a file. If the file does not	exist,
	   it is created. If it	does exist, it is  overwritten;	 its  previous
	   contents are	lost.

	   When	 set,  the variable noclobber prevents destruction of existing
	   files. It also prevents redirection to terminals and	/dev/null, un-
	   less	one of the ! forms is used. The	& forms	redirect both standard
	   output and the standard error (diagnostic output) to	the file.

       >>   >>&	  >>!	>>&!

	   Append the standard output. Like >, but places output at the	end of
	   the	file rather than overwriting it. If noclobber is set, it is an
	   error for the file not to exist, unless one of the !	forms is used.
	   The	&  forms append	both the standard error	and standard output to
	   the file.

   Variable Substitution
       The C shell maintains a set of variables, each of which is composed  of
       a  name	and  a value. A	variable name consists of up to	20 letters and
       digits, and starts with a letter	(the underscore	is considered  a  let-
       ter).   A  variable's  value  is	a space-separated list of zero or more

       To refer	to a variable's	value, precede its name	with  a	 `$'.  Certain
       references  (described below) can be used to select specific words from
       the value, or to	display	other information about	the  variable.	Braces
       can  be	used to	insulate the reference from other characters in	an in-
       put-line	word.

       Variable	substitution takes place after the  input  line	 is  analyzed,
       aliases	are  resolved, and I/O redirections are	applied. Exceptions to
       this are	variable references in I/O redirections	 (substituted  at  the
       time the	redirection is made), and backquoted strings (see Command Sub-

       Variable	substitution can be suppressed by preceding the	$  with	 a  \,
       except  within double-quotes where it always occurs. Variable substitu-
       tion is suppressed inside of single-quotes. A $ is escaped if  followed
       by a space character, tab or newline.

       Variables can be	created, displayed, or destroyed using the set and un-
       set commands. Some variables are	maintained or used by the  shell.  For
       instance,  the  argv variable contains an image of the shell's argument
       list. Of	the variables used by the shell, a  number  are	 toggles;  the
       shell  does  not	care what their	value is, only whether they are	set or

       Numerical values	can be operated	on as numbers (as with the @  built-in
       command).  With	numeric	operations, an empty value is considered to be
       zero. The second	and subsequent words of	multiword values are  ignored.
       For  instance, when the verbose variable	is set to any value (including
       an empty	value),	command	input is echoed	on the terminal.

       Command and filename substitution is subsequently applied to the	 words
       that  result  from the variable substitution, except when suppressed by
       double-quotes, when noglob is set (suppressing filename	substitution),
       or  when	 the  reference	is quoted with the :q modifier.	Within double-
       quotes, a reference is expanded to form (a portion of) a	quoted string;
       multiword  values  are expanded to a string with	embedded space charac-
       ters. When the :q modifier is applied to	the reference, it is  expanded
       to  a list of space-separated words, each of which is quoted to prevent
       subsequent command or filename substitutions.

       Except as noted below, it is an error to	refer to a  variable  that  is
       not set.

       $var	       These are replaced by words from	the value of var, each
       ${var}	       separated by a space character. If var is  an  environ-
		       ment variable, its value	is returned (but `:' modifiers
		       and the other forms given below are not available).

       $var[index]     These select only the indicated words from the value of
       ${var[index]}   var.  Variable  substitution is applied to index, which
		       may consist of (or result in) a either  single  number,
		       two  numbers  separated by a `-', or an asterisk. Words
		       are indexed starting from 1; a `*' selects  all	words.
		       If  the	first  number  of  a range is omitted (as with
		       $argv[-2]), it defaults to 1. If	the last number	 of  a
		       range  is  omitted  (as with $argv[1-]),	it defaults to
		       $#var (the word count). It is not an error for a	 range
		       to  be  empty  if  the  second  argument	is omitted (or
		       within range).

       $#name	       These give the number of	words in the variable.

       $0	       This substitutes	the name of the	file from  which  com-
		       mand  input  is	being  read  except  for  setuid shell
		       scripts.	An error occurs	if the name is not known.

       $n	       Equivalent to $argv[n].

       $*	       Equivalent to $argv[*].

       The modifiers :e, :h, :q, :r, :t, and :x	can be	applied	 (see  History
       Substitution),  as can :gh, :gt,	and :gr. If {} (braces)	are used, then
       the modifiers must appear within	the braces. The	current	implementation
       allows only one such modifier per expansion.

       The following references	may not	be modified with : modifiers.

       $?var	       Substitutes  the	 string	 1 if var is set or 0 if it is
       ${?var}	       not set.

       $?0	       Substitutes 1 if	the current input filename is known or
		       0 if it is not.

       $$	       Substitutes the process number of the (parent) shell.

       $<	       Substitutes  a  line  from  the standard	input, with no
		       further interpretation thereafter. It can  be  used  to
		       read from the keyboard in a C shell script.

   Command and Filename	Substitutions
       Command and filename substitutions are applied selectively to the argu-
       ments of	built-in commands. Portions of expressions that	are not	evalu-
       ated are	not expanded. For non-built-in commands, filename expansion of
       the command name	is done	separately from	that of	the argument list; ex-
       pansion occurs in a subshell, after I/O redirection is performed.

   Command Substitution
       A  command  enclosed  by	backquotes (`...`) is performed	by a subshell.
       Its standard output is broken into separate words at each space charac-
       ter,  tab and newline; null words are discarded.	This text replaces the
       backquoted string on the	current	command	 line.	Within	double-quotes,
       only  newline  characters force new words; space	and tab	characters are
       preserved. However, a final newline is ignored. It is therefore	possi-
       ble for a command substitution to yield a partial word.

   Filename Substitution
       Unquoted	 words	containing any of the characters *, ?, [ or {, or that
       begin with ~, are expanded (also	known as globbing)  to	an  alphabeti-
       cally sorted list of filenames, as follows:

       *	       Match any (zero or more)	characters.

       ?	       Match any single	character.

       [...]	       Match  any  single character in the enclosed list(s) or
		       range(s). A list	is a string of characters.  A range is
		       two  characters	separated  by a	dash (-), and includes
		       all the characters in between in	 the  ASCII  collating
		       sequence	(see ascii(5)).

       { str, str, ... }{b,a}	expands	 to  `b'  `a',
		       (not  `a' `b').	As special cases, the characters { and
		       }, along	with the string	{}, are	passed undisturbed.

       ~[user]	       Your home directory, as indicated by the	value  of  the
		       variable	 home,	or  that  of user, as indicated	by the
		       password	entry for user.

       Only the	patterns *, ? and [...]	imply pattern matching;	an  error  re-
       sults if	no filename matches a pattern that contains them. The `.' (dot
       character), when	it is the first	character in a	filename  or  pathname
       component,  must	 be  matched  explicitly.  The	/ (slash) must also be
       matched explicitly.

   Expressions and Operators
       A number	of C shell built-in commands accept expressions, in which  the
       operators are similar to	those of C and have the	same precedence. These
       expressions typically appear in the @, exit, if,	 set  and  while  com-
       mands, and are often used to regulate the flow of control for executing
       commands. Components of an expression are separated by white space.

       Null or missing values are considered 0.	The result of all  expressions
       is a string, which may represent	decimal	numbers.

       The following C shell operators are grouped in order of precedence:

       (...)		       grouping

       >~		       one's complement

       !		       logical negation

       *   /   %	       multiplication,	division, remainder. These are
			       right associative, which	can lead to unexpected
			       results.	Combinations should be grouped explic-
			       itly with parentheses.

       +   -		       addition, subtraction (also right associative)

       <<   >>		       bitwise shift left, bitwise shift right

       <   >   <=   >=	       less than, greater than,	less than or equal to,
			       greater than or equal to

       ==   !=	 =~   !~       equal  to,  not equal to, filename-substitution
			       pattern match (described	below),	 filename-sub-
			       stitution pattern mismatch

       &		       bitwise AND

       ^		       bitwise XOR (exclusive or)

       |		       bitwise inclusive OR

       &&		       logical AND

       ||		       logical OR

       The  operators:	==, !=,	=~, and	!~ compare their arguments as strings;
       other operators use numbers. The	operators =~ and !~ each check whether
       or  not a string	to the left matches a filename substitution pattern on
       the right. This reduces the need	for switch  statements	when  pattern-
       matching	between	strings	is all that is required.

       Also available are file inquiries:

       -r filename     Return  true,  or 1 if the user has read	access.	Other-
		       wise it returns false, or 0.

       -w filename     True if the user	has write access.

       -x filename     True if the user	has execute permission (or search per-
		       mission on a directory).

       -e filename     True if filename	exists.

       -o filename     True if the user	owns filename.

       -z filename     True if filename	is of zero length (empty).

       -f filename     True if filename	is a plain file.

       -d filename     True if filename	is a directory.

       If  filename  does not exist or is inaccessible,	then all inquiries re-
       turn false.

       An inquiry as to	the success of a command is also available:

       { command }     If command runs successfully, the expression  evaluates
		       to  true, 1. Otherwise, it evaluates to false, 0. Note:
		       Conversely, command itself typically returns 0 when  it
		       runs successfully, or some other	value if it encounters
		       a problem. If you want to get at	the  status  directly,
		       use  the	 value of the status variable rather than this

   Control Flow
       The shell contains a number of commands to regulate the flow of control
       in scripts and within limits, from the terminal.	These commands operate
       by forcing the shell either to reread input (to loop), or to skip input
       under certain conditions	(to branch).

       Each  occurrence	of a foreach, switch, while, if...then and else	built-
       in command must appear as the first word	on its own input line.

       If the shell's input is not seekable and	a loop is being	read, that in-
       put is buffered.	The shell performs seeks within	the internal buffer to
       accomplish the rereading	implied	by the loop. (To the extent that  this
       allows, backward	goto commands will succeed on nonseekable inputs.)

   Command Execution
       If the command is a C shell built-in command, the shell executes	it di-
       rectly. Otherwise, the shell searches for a file	by that	name with exe-
       cute  access. If	the command name contains a /, the shell takes it as a
       pathname, and searches for it. If the command name does not  contain  a
       /,  the	shell attempts to resolve it to	a pathname, searching each di-
       rectory in the path variable for	the command. To	speed the search,  the
       shell  uses  its	hash table (see	the rehash built-in command) to	elimi-
       nate directories	that have no applicable	files.	This  hashing  can  be
       disabled	with the -c or -t, options, or the unhash built-in command.

       As a special case, if there is no / in the name of the script and there
       is an alias for the word	shell, the expansion of	 the  shell  alias  is
       prepended  (without  modification)  to the command line.	The system at-
       tempts to execute the  first  word  of  this  special  (late-occurring)
       alias,  which should be a full pathname.	Remaining words	of the alias's
       definition, along with the text of the input line, are treated as argu-

       When a pathname is found	that has proper	execute	permissions, the shell
       forks a new process and passes it, along	with  its  arguments,  to  the
       kernel  using  the  execve() system call	(see exec(2)). The kernel then
       attempts	to overlay the new process with	the desired  program.  If  the
       file  is	 an executable binary (in a.out(4) format) the kernel succeeds
       and begins executing the	new process. If	the file is a  text  file  and
       the  first  line	begins with #!,	the next word is taken to be the path-
       name of a shell (or command) to interpret that script. Subsequent words
       on  the	first line are taken as	options	for that shell.	The kernel in-
       vokes (overlays)	the indicated shell, using the name of the  script  as
       an argument.

       If neither of the above conditions holds, the kernel cannot overlay the
       file and	the execve() call fails	(see exec(2)). The C  shell  then  at-
       tempts to execute the file by spawning a	new shell, as follows:

	 o  If the first character of the file is a #, a C shell is invoked.

	 o  Otherwise, a Bourne	shell is invoked.

   Signal Handling
       The  shell normally ignores QUIT	signals. Background jobs are immune to
       signals generated from the keyboard,  including	hangups	 (HUP).	 Other
       signals	have  the  values that the C shell inherited from its environ-
       ment. The shell's handling of interrupt and  terminate  signals	within
       scripts	can be controlled by the onintr	built-in command. Login	shells
       catch the TERM signal. Otherwise, this signal is	 passed	 on  to	 child
       processes.  In  no  case	 are  interrupts allowed when a	login shell is
       reading the .logout file.

   Job Control
       The shell associates a numbered job with	each command sequence to  keep
       track of	those commands that are	running	in the background or have been
       stopped with TSTP signals (typically Control-z).	When a command or com-
       mand  sequence  (semicolon separated list) is started in	the background
       using the & metacharacter, the shell displays a line with the job  num-
       ber in brackets and a list of associated	process	numbers:

       [1] 1234

       To see the current list of jobs,	use the	jobs built-in command. The job
       most recently stopped (or put into the background if none are  stopped)
       is referred to as the current job and is	indicated with a `+'. The pre-
       vious job is indicated with a `-'. When the current job	is  terminated
       or  moved  to the foreground, this job takes its	place (becomes the new
       current job).

       To manipulate jobs, refer to the	bg, fg,	kill,  stop,  and  %  built-in

       A  reference  to	 a  job	begins with a `%'. By itself, the percent-sign
       refers to the current job.

       %   %+	%%     The current job.

       %-	       The previous job.

       %j	       Refer to	job j as in: `kill -9 %j'. j can be a job num-
		       ber,  or	 a  string that	uniquely specifies the command
		       line by which it	was started; `fg %vi'  might  bring  a
		       stopped vi job to the foreground, for instance.

       %?string	       Specify	the  job  for  which the command line uniquely
		       contains	string.

       A job running in	the background stops when it attempts to read from the
       terminal.  Background jobs can normally produce output, but this	can be
       suppressed using	the `stty tostop' command.

   Status Reporting
       While running interactively, the	shell tracks the status	 of  each  job
       and  reports  whenever the job finishes or becomes blocked. It normally
       displays	a message to this effect as it issues a	prompt,	 in  order  to
       avoid  disturbing  the  appearance  of your input. When set, the	notify
       variable	indicates that the shell is to report status  changes  immedi-
       ately.  By default, the notify command marks the	current	process; after
       starting	a background job, type notify to mark it.

       Built-in	commands are executed within the C shell. If a	built-in  com-
       mand  occurs as any component of	a pipeline except the last, it is exe-
       cuted in	a subshell.


	   Null	command. This command is interpreted, but performs no action.

       alias [ name [ def ] ]

	   Assign def to the alias name. def is	a list of words	that may  con-
	   tain	 escaped  history-substitution metasyntax. name	is not allowed
	   to be alias or unalias. If def is omitted, the  current  definition
	   for	the alias name is displayed. If	both name and def are omitted,
	   all aliases are displayed with their	definitions.

       bg [ %job ... ]

	   Run the current or specified	jobs in	the background.


	   Resume execution after the end of the nearest enclosing foreach  or
	   while  loop.	 The  remaining	 commands on the current line are exe-
	   cuted. This allows multilevel breaks	to be written  as  a  list  of
	   break commands, all on one line.


	   Break from a	switch,	resuming after the endsw.

       case label:

	   A label in a	switch statement.

       cd [dir ]
       chdir [dir ]

	   Change  the shell's working directory to directory dir. If no argu-
	   ment	is given, change to the	home directory of the user. If dir  is
	   a  relative	pathname not found in the current directory, check for
	   it in those directories listed in the cdpath	variable.  If  dir  is
	   the name of a shell variable	whose value starts with	a /, change to
	   the directory named by that value.


	   Continue execution of the next iteration of the  nearest  enclosing
	   while or foreach loop.


	   Labels  the	default	case in	a switch statement. The	default	should
	   come	after all case labels. Any remaining commands on  the  command
	   line	are first executed.

       dirs [-l]

	   Print  the  directory stack,	most recent to the left. The first di-
	   rectory shown is the	current	directory. With	the -l argument,  pro-
	   duce	 an  unabbreviated  printout;  use  of	the ~ notation is sup-

       echo [-n] list

	   The words in	list are written to the	shell's	standard output, sepa-
	   rated  by space characters. The output is terminated	with a newline
	   unless the -n option	is used. csh  will,  by	 default,  invoke  its
	   built-in  echo,  if	echo  is called	without	the full pathname of a
	   Unix	command, regardless of the configuration  of  your  PATH  (see

       eval argument...

	   Reads  the arguments	as input to the	shell and executes the result-
	   ing command(s). This	is usually used	to execute commands  generated
	   as the result of command or variable	substitution. See tset(1B) for
	   an example of how to	use eval.

       exec command

	   Execute command in place of the current shell, which	terminates.

       exit [(expr)]

	   The calling shell or	shell script exits, either with	the  value  of
	   the	status	variable or with the value specified by	the expression

       fg [%job	]

	   Bring the current or	specified job into the foreground.

       foreach var (wordlist)

	   The variable	var is successively set	to each	 member	 of  wordlist.
	   The	sequence of commands between this command and the matching end
	   is executed for each	new value of var. Both foreach	and  end  must
	   appear alone	on separate lines.

	   The	built-in  command continue may be used to terminate the	execu-
	   tion	of the current iteration of the	loop and the built-in  command
	   break  may  be  used	to terminate execution of the foreach command.
	   When	this command is	read from the terminal,	the loop is read  once
	   prompting with ? before any statements in the loop are executed.

       glob wordlist

	   Perform filename expansion on wordlist. Like	echo, but no \ escapes
	   are recognized. Words are delimited by NULL characters in the  out-

       goto label

	   The specified label is a filename and a command expanded to yield a
	   label. The shell rewinds its	input as much as possible and searches
	   for	a  line	 of  the form label: possibly preceded by space	or tab
	   characters. Execution continues after the indicated line. It	is  an
	   error  to jump to a label that occurs between a while or for	built-
	   in command and its corresponding end.


	   Print a statistics line indicating how effective the	internal  hash
	   table  for  the  path  variable  has	been at	locating commands (and
	   avoiding execs). An exec is attempted for  each  component  of  the
	   path	 where	the hash function indicates a possible hit and in each
	   component that does not begin with a	`/'. These statistics only re-
	   flect  the effectiveness of the path	variable, not the cdpath vari-

       history [-hr] [ n ]

	   Display the history list; if	n is given, display only  the  n  most
	   recent events.

	   -r	    Reverse  the  order	 of  printout  to be most recent first
		    rather than	oldest first.

	   -h	    Display the	history	list without leading numbers. This  is
		    used  to  produce files suitable for sourcing using	the -h
		    option to source.

       if (expr	)command

	   If the specified expression evaluates to true, the  single  command
	   with	 arguments  is executed. Variable substitution on command hap-
	   pens	early, at the same time	it does	for the	rest of	 the  if  com-
	   mand.  command  must	be a simple command, not a pipeline, a command
	   list, or a parenthesized command list. Note:	I/O redirection	occurs
	   even	 if  expr  is  false,  when command is not executed (this is a

       if (expr) then
       else if (expr2) then

	   If expr is true, commands up	to the first else are executed.	Other-
	   wise,  if  expr2  is	true, the commands between the else if and the
	   second else are executed. Otherwise,	commands between the else  and
	   the	endif  are  executed. Any number of else if pairs are allowed,
	   but only one	else. Only one endif is	needed,	but  it	 is  required.
	   The words else and endif must be the	first nonwhite characters on a
	   line. The if	must appear alone on its input line or after an	else.

       jobs [-l]

	   List	the active jobs	under job control.

	   -l	    List process IDs, in addition to the normal	information.

       kill [ -sig ] [ pid ] [ %job ] ...
       kill -l

	   Send	the TERM (terminate) signal, by	default, or the	signal	speci-
	   fied,  to  the specified process ID,	the job	indicated, or the cur-
	   rent	job. Signals are either	given by number	or by name.  There  is
	   no  default.	Typing kill does not send a signal to the current job.
	   If the signal being sent is TERM (terminate)	or HUP (hangup),  then
	   the job or process is sent a	CONT (continue)	signal as well.

	   -l	    List the signal names that can be sent.

       limit [-h] [resource [max-use ] ]

	   Limit  the  consumption  by	the  current process or	any process it
	   spawns, each	not to exceed max-use on the  specified	 resource.  If
	   max-use  is	omitted, print the current limit. If resource is omit-
	   ted,	display	all limits. Run	the sysdef(1M) command to display max-
	   imum	 limits	for certain resources in your system (although it does
	   not report stack size). The values reported are in hexadecimal, but
	   can be translated into decimal numbers using	the bc(1) command.

	   -h	    Use	hard limits instead of the current limits. Hard	limits
		    impose a ceiling on	the values of the current limits. Only
		    the	privileged user	may raise the hard limits.

	   resource is one of:

	   cputime		   Maximum CPU seconds per process.

	   filesize		   Largest single file allowed.	Limited	to the
				   size	of the filesystem. (See	df(1M)).

	   datasize (heapsize)	   Maximum data	size (including	stack) for the
				   process.  This  is the size of your virtual
				   memory See swap(1M).

	   stacksize		   Maximum stack size for the process. The de-
				   fault  stack	 size  is 2**64	bytes. You can
				   use limit(1)	to change this default	within
				   a shell.

	   coredumpsize		   Maximum  size  of  a	core dump (file). This
				   limited to the size of the filesystem.

	   descriptors		   Maximum number  of  file  descriptors.  Run

	   memorysize		   Maximum size	of virtual memory.

	   max-use is a	number,	with an	optional scaling factor, as follows:

	   nh		   Hours (for cputime).

	   nk		   n  kilobytes.  This	is  the	 default  for  all but

	   nm		   n megabytes or minutes (for cputime).

	   mm:ss	   Minutes and seconds (for cputime).

	   Example of limit: To	limit the size	of  a  core  file  dump	 to  0
	   Megabytes, type the following:

	   limit coredumpsize 0M

       login [username|	-p ]

	   Terminate  a	 login	shell and invoke login(1). The .logout file is
	   not processed. If username is omitted, login	prompts	for  the  name
	   of a	user.

	   -p	    Preserve the current environment (variables).


	   Terminate a login shell.

       nice [+n	|-n ] [command ]

	   Increment  the  process priority value for the shell	or for command
	   by n. The higher the	priority value,	the lower the  priority	 of  a
	   process,  and the slower it runs. When given, command is always run
	   in a	subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in simple if
	   commands  apply.  If	 command is omitted, nice increments the value
	   for the current shell. If no	increment is specified,	nice sets  the
	   process  priority  value to 4. The range of process priority	values
	   is from -20 to 20. Values of	n outside this range set the value  to
	   the lower, or to the	higher boundary, respectively.

	   +n	    Increment the process priority value by n.

	   -n	    Decrement  by  n.  This  argument  can be used only	by the
		    privileged user.

       nohup [command ]

	   Run command with HUPs  ignored.  With  no  arguments,  ignore  HUPs
	   throughout the remainder of a script. When given, command is	always
	   run in a subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in  sim-
	   ple	if  statements apply. All processes detached with & are	effec-
	   tively nohup'd.

       notify [%job] ...

	   Notify the user asynchronously when the status of the  current  job
	   or specified	jobs changes.

       onintr [-| label]

	   Control  the	 action	of the shell on	interrupts. With no arguments,
	   onintr restores the default action of the shell on interrupts. (The
	   shell  terminates shell scripts and returns to the terminal command
	   input level). With the - argument, the  shell  ignores  all	inter-
	   rupts.  With	a label	argument, the shell executes a goto label when
	   an interrupt	is received or a child process terminates  because  it
	   was interrupted.

       popd [+n	]

	   Pop	the  directory stack and cd to the new top directory. The ele-
	   ments of the	directory stack	are numbered from 0  starting  at  the

	   +n	    Discard the	n'th entry in the stack.

       pushd [+n |dir]

	   Push	 a  directory onto the directory stack.	With no	arguments, ex-
	   change the top two elements.

	   +n	    Rotate the n'th entry to the top of	the stack  and	cd  to

	   dir	    Push  the  current	working	 directory  onto the stack and
		    change to dir.


	   Recompute the internal hash table of	the  contents  of  directories
	   listed  in the path variable	to account for new commands added. Re-
	   compute the internal	hash table  of	the  contents  of  directories
	   listed in the cdpath	variable to account for	new directories	added.

       repeat count command

	   Repeat command count	times. command is subject to the same restric-
	   tions as with the one-line if statement.

       set [var	[= value ] ]
       set var[n] = word

	   With	no arguments, set displays the values of all shell  variables.
	   Multiword  values  are  displayed as	a parenthesized	list. With the
	   var argument	alone, set assigns an empty (null) value to the	 vari-
	   able	 var. With arguments of	the form var = value set assigns value
	   to var, where value is one of:

	   word		   A single word (or quoted string).

	   (wordlist)	   A space-separated list of words enclosed in	paren-

	   Values are command and filename expanded before being assigned. The
	   form	set var[n] = word replaces the n'th word in a multiword	 value
	   with	word.

       setenv [VAR [word ] ]

	   With	 no arguments, setenv displays all environment variables. With
	   the VAR argument, setenv sets the environment variable VAR  to have
	   an  empty  (null)  value. (By convention, environment variables are
	   normally given upper-case names.) With both VAR and word arguments,
	   setenv  sets	the environment	variable NAME to the value word, which
	   must	be either a single word	or a quoted string. The	most  commonly
	   used	environment variables, USER, TERM, and PATH, are automatically
	   imported to and exported from the csh  variables  user,  term,  and
	   path.  There	 is  no	need to	use setenv for these. In addition, the
	   shell sets the PWD environment variable from	the csh	 variable  cwd
	   whenever the	latter changes.

	   The	environment  variables LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, LC_COL-
	   LATE,  LC_NUMERIC,  and  LC_MONETARY	 take  immediate  effect  when
	   changed within the C	shell.

	   If  any  of	the  LC_*  variables  (LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME,
	   LC_COLLATE, LC_NUMERIC,  and	LC_MONETARY) (see environ(5)) are  not
	   set	in  the	 environment, the operational behavior of csh for each
	   corresponding locale	category is determined by  the	value  of  the
	   LANG	environment variable.  If LC_ALL is set, its contents are used
	   to override both the	LANG and the other LC_*	variables. If none  of
	   the	above  variables  is  set  in  the environment,	the "C"	 (U.S.
	   style) locale determines how	csh behaves.

	   LC_CTYPE	   Determines  how  csh	  handles   characters.	  When
			   LC_CTYPE  is	 set to	a valid	value, csh can display
			   and handle  text  and  filenames  containing	 valid
			   characters for that locale.

	   LC_MESSAGES	   Determines  how diagnostic and informative messages
			   are presented. This includes	the language and style
			   of the messages and the correct form	of affirmative
			   and negative	responses.  In	the  "C"  locale,  the
			   messages are	presented in the default form found in
			   the program itself (in most cases, U.S./English).

	   LC_NUMERIC	   Determines the value	of the radix character	(deci-
			   mal	point  (".")  in  the "C" locale) and thousand
			   separator (empty string ("")	in the "C" locale).

       shift [variable ]

	   The components of argv, or variable,	if supplied,  are  shifted  to
	   the	left,  discarding  the first component.	It is an error for the
	   variable not	to be set or to	have a null value.

       source [-h] name

	   Reads commands from name. source commands may  be  nested,  but  if
	   they	 are  nested too deeply	the shell may run out of file descrip-
	   tors. An error in a sourced file at any level terminates all	nested
	   source commands.

	   -h	    Place  commands  from  the	file  name on the history list
		    without executing them.

       stop %jobid ...

	   Stop	the current or specified background job.

       stop pid	...

	   Stop	the specified process, pid. (see ps(1)).


	   Stop	the shell in its tracks, much as if it had been	 sent  a  stop
	   signal  with	 ^Z. This is most often	used to	stop shells started by

       switch (string)
       case label:

	   Each	label is successively matched, against the  specified  string,
	   which  is first command and filename	expanded. The file metacharac-
	   ters	*, ? and [...] may be used in the case labels, which are vari-
	   able	expanded. If none of the labels	match before a "default" label
	   is found, execution begins after  the  default  label.   Each  case
	   statement and the default statement must appear at the beginning of
	   a line. The command breaksw continues execution  after  the	endsw.
	   Otherwise  control falls through subsequent case and	default	state-
	   ments as with C. If no label	matches	and there is no	default,  exe-
	   cution continues after the endsw.

       time [command ]

	   With	 no argument, print a summary of time used by this C shell and
	   its children. With an optional command, execute command and print a
	   summary  of the time	it uses. As of this writing, the time built-in
	   command does	NOT compute the	last 6 fields of output, rendering the
	   output to erroneously report	the value "0" for these	fields.

		   example %time ls -R
		   9.0u	11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

	   (See	 below	the  "Environment Variables and	Predefined Shell Vari-
	   ables" sub-section on the time variable.)

       umask [value ]

	   Display the file creation mask. With	value, set the	file  creation
	   mask.  With	value  given in	octal, the user	can turn off any bits,
	   but cannot turn on bits to allow new	permissions. Common values in-
	   clude  077,	restricting  all  permissions from everyone else; 002,
	   giving complete access  to  the  group,  and	 read  (and  directory
	   search)  access  to	others;	 or  022,  giving  read	(and directory
	   search) but not write permission to the group and others.

       unalias pattern

	   Discard aliases that	match  (filename  substitution)	 pattern.  All
	   aliases are removed by `unalias *'.


	   Disable the internal	hash tables for	the path and cdpath variables.

       unlimit [-h] [resource ]

	   Remove  a limitation	on resource. If	no resource is specified, then
	   all resource	limitations are	removed. See the  description  of  the
	   limit command for the list of resource names.

	   -h	    Remove corresponding hard limits. Only the privileged user
		    may	do this.

       unset pattern

	   Remove variables whose names	match (filename	substitution) pattern.
	   All	variables  are	removed	by `unset *'; this has noticeably dis-
	   tasteful side effects.

       unsetenv	variable

	   Remove variable from	the environment. As with unset,	pattern	match-
	   ing is not performed.


	   Wait	 for  background  jobs	to finish (or for an interrupt)	before

       while (expr)

	   While expr is true (evaluates to nonzero), repeat commands  between
	   the while and the matching end statement. break and continue	may be
	   used	to terminate or	continue the loop prematurely. The  while  and
	   end must appear alone on their input	lines. If the shell's input is
	   a terminal, it prompts for commands with a question-mark until  the
	   end command is entered and then performs the	commands in the	loop.

       % [job ]	[&]

	   Bring  the current or indicated job to the foreground. With the am-
	   persand, continue running job in the	background.

       @ [var =expr]
       @ [var[n]=expr]

	   With	no arguments, display the values for all shell variables. With
	   arguments,  set  the	variable var, or the n'th word in the value of
	   var,	to the value that expr evaluates to. (If [n] is	supplied, both
	   var and its n'th component must already exist.)

	   If  the  expression	contains the characters	>, <, &, or |, then at
	   least this part of expr must	be placed within parentheses.

	   The operators *=, +=, and so	forth, are  available  as  in  C.  The
	   space separating the	name from the assignment operator is optional.
	   Spaces are, however,	mandatory in  separating  components  of  expr
	   that	would otherwise	be single words.

	   Special  postfix operators, ++ and --, increment or decrement name,

   Environment Variables and Predefined	Shell Variables
       Unlike the Bourne shell,	the C shell maintains  a  distinction  between
       environment variables, which are	automatically exported to processes it
       invokes,	and shell variables, which are not. Both  types	 of  variables
       are  treated similarly under variable substitution.  The	shell sets the
       variables argv, cwd, home, path,	prompt,	shell, and  status  upon  ini-
       tialization.  The  shell	 copies	the environment	variable USER into the
       shell variable user, TERM into term, and	HOME  into  home,  and	copies
       each  back  into	the respective environment variable whenever the shell
       variables are reset. PATH and path are similarly	handled. You need only
       set  path  once	in the .cshrc or .login	file. The environment variable
       PWD is set from cwd whenever the	latter changes.	 The  following	 shell
       variables have predefined meanings:

       argv	       Argument	 list. Contains	the list of command line argu-
		       ments supplied to the current invocation	of the	shell.
		       This  variable  determines  the value of	the positional
		       parameters $1, $2, and so on.

       cdpath	       Contains	a list of directories to be  searched  by  the
		       cd, chdir, and popd commands, if	the directory argument
		       each accepts is not a subdirectory of the  current  di-

       cwd	       The full	pathname of the	current	directory.

       echo	       Echo  commands (after substitutions) just before	execu-

       fignore	       A list of filename suffixes to ignore  when  attempting
		       filename	completion. Typically the single word `.o'.

       filec	       Enable filename completion, in which case the Control-d
		       character EOT and the ESC character have	 special  sig-
		       nificance  when typed in	at the end of a	terminal input

		       EOT	Print a	list of	all filenames that start  with
				the preceding string.

		       ESC	Replace	 the preceding string with the longest
				unambiguous extension.

       hardpaths       If set, pathnames in the	directory stack	 are  resolved
		       to contain no symbolic-link components.

       histchars       A  two-character	string.	The first character replaces !
		       as the history-substitution character. The  second  re-
		       places the carat	(^) for	quick substitutions.

       history	       The  number  of lines saved in the history list.	A very
		       large number may	use up all of the C shell's memory. If
		       not  set,  the  C shell saves only the most recent com-

       home	       The user's home directory. The filename expansion of  ~
		       refers to the value of this variable.

       ignoreeof       If set, the shell ignores EOF from terminals. This pro-
		       tects against accidentally killing a C shell by	typing
		       a Control-d.

       mail	       A  list	of files where the C shell checks for mail. If
		       the first word of the value is a	number,	it specifies a
		       mail checking interval in seconds (default 5 minutes).

       nobeep	       Suppress	the bell during	command	completion when	asking
		       the C shell to extend an	ambiguous filename.

       noclobber       Restrict	output redirection so that existing files  are
		       not  destroyed  by accident. > redirections can only be
		       made to new files. >> redirections can only be made  to
		       existing	files.

       noglob	       Inhibit	filename  substitution.	This is	most useful in
		       shell scripts once filenames (if	any) are obtained  and
		       no further expansion is desired.

       nonomatch       Return  the  filename substitution pattern, rather than
		       an error, if the	pattern	is not matched.	Malformed pat-
		       terns still result in errors.

       notify	       If  set,	the shell notifies you immediately as jobs are
		       completed, rather than waiting until just before	 issu-
		       ing a prompt.

       path	       The  list  of  directories  in which to search for com-
		       mands. path is initialized from the  environment	 vari-
		       able  PATH,  which  the	C  shell updates whenever path
		       changes.	A null word ('') specifies the current	direc-
		       tory.  The  default  is typically (/usr/bin .). One may
		       override	this initial search path upon csh start-up  by
		       setting it in .cshrc or .login (for login shells	only).
		       If path becomes unset, only full	 pathnames  will  exe-
		       cute.  An  interactive  C  shell	will normally hash the
		       contents	 of  the  directories  listed  after   reading
		       .cshrc, and whenever path is reset. If new commands are
		       added, use the rehash command to	update the table.

       prompt	       The string an interactive C shell prompts with.	Nonin-
		       teractive  shells  leave	 the  prompt  variable	unset.
		       Aliases and other commands in the .cshrc	file that  are
		       only useful interactively, can be placed	after the fol-
		       lowing test: `if	 ($?prompt  ==	0)  exit',  to	reduce
		       startup	time  for  noninteractive  shells.  A !	in the
		       prompt string is	replaced by the	current	event  number.
		       The  default  prompt  is	hostname% for mere mortals, or
		       hostname# for the privileged user.

		       The setting of $prompt has three	meanings:

		       $prompt not set	       non-interactive	 shell,	  test

		       $prompt set but == ""   .cshrc  called  by the which(1)

		       $prompt set and != ""   normal interactive shell.

       savehist	       The number of lines from	 the  history  list  that  are
		       saved  in ~/.history when the user logs out. Large val-
		       ues for savehist	slow down the C	shell during startup.

       shell	       The file	in which the C shell resides. This is used  in
		       forking	shells	to  interpret  files that have execute
		       bits set, but that are not executable by	the system.

       status	       The status returned by the most recent command. If that
		       command	terminated  abnormally,	 0200  is added	to the
		       status. Built-in	commands that fail return exit	status
		       1; all other built-in commands set status to 0.

       time	       Control	automatic  timing of commands. Can be supplied
		       with one	or two values.	The  first  is	the  reporting
		       threshold  in  CPU  seconds.  The second	is a string of
		       tags and	text indicating	which resources	to report  on.
		       A tag is	a percent sign (%) followed by a single	upper-
		       case letter (unrecognized tags print as text):

		       %D	Average	amount of unshared data	space used  in

		       %E	Elapsed	(wallclock) time for the command.

		       %F	Page faults.

		       %I	Number of block	input operations.

		       %K	Average	amount of unshared stack space used in

		       %M	Maximum	real memory used during	 execution  of
				the process.

		       %O	Number of block	output operations.

		       %P	Total  CPU time	-- U (user) plus S (system) --
				as a percentage	of E (elapsed) time.

		       %S	Number of seconds of CPU time consumed by  the
				kernel on behalf of the	user's process.

		       %U	Number	of  seconds of CPU time	devoted	to the
				user's process.

		       %W	Number of swaps.

		       %X	Average	amount of shared memory	used in	 Kilo-

		       The  default  summary  display outputs from the %U, %S,
		       %E, %P, %X, %D, %I, %O, %F, and %W tags,	in that	order.

       verbose	       Display each command after history  substitution	 takes

   Large File Behavior
       See  largefile(5)  for  the description of the behavior of csh when en-
       countering files	greater	than or	equal to 2 Gbyte (2**31	bytes).

       ~/.cshrc		       Read at beginning of execution by each shell.

       ~/.login		       Read by login shells after .cshrc at login.

       ~/.logout	       Read by login shells at logout.

       ~/.history	       Saved history for use at	next login.

       /usr/bin/sh	       The Bourne shell, for shell scripts not	start-
			       ing with	a `#'.

       /tmp/sh*		       Temporary file for `<<'.

       /etc/passwd	       Source of home directories for `~name'.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |

       bc(1),	echo(1),   limit(1),   login(1),   ls(1),  more(1),  pfcsh(1),
       pfexec(1), ps(1), sh(1),	shell_builtins(1), tset(1B), which(1), df(1M),
       swap(1M),   sysdef(1M), access(2), exec(2), fork(2), pipe(2), a.out(4),
       environ(4),   ascii(5),	 attributes(5),	  environ(5),	 largefile(5),

       You have	stopped	jobs.

	   You	attempted to exit the C	shell with stopped jobs	under job con-
	   trol. An immediate second attempt to	exit will succeed, terminating
	   the stopped jobs.

       The use of setuid shell scripts is strongly discouraged.

       Words  can  be  no  longer  than	1024 bytes. The	system limits argument
       lists to	1,048,576 bytes. However, the maximum number of	arguments to a
       command for which filename expansion applies is 1706. Command substitu-
       tions may expand	to no more characters than are allowed in the argument
       list.  To  detect looping, the shell restricts the number of alias sub-
       stitutions on a single line to 20.

       When a command is restarted from	a stop,	the shell prints the directory
       it started in if	this is	different from the current directory; this can
       be misleading (that is, wrong) as the job may have changed  directories

       Shell  built-in	functions  are	not stoppable/restartable. Command se-
       quences of the form a ; b ; c are  also	not  handled  gracefully  when
       stopping	 is  attempted.	 If you	suspend	b, the shell never executes c.
       This is especially noticeable if	the expansion results from  an	alias.
       It  can	be  avoided by placing the sequence in parentheses to force it
       into a subshell.

       Control over terminal output after processes are	started	is  primitive;
       use the Sun Window system if you	need better output control.

       Commands	within loops, prompted for by ?, are not placed	in the history

       Control structures should be parsed rather  than	 being	recognized  as
       built-in	 commands. This	would allow control commands to	be placed any-
       where, to be combined with |, and to be used with & and ; metasyntax.

       It should be possible to	use the	: modifiers on the output  of  command
       substitutions. There are	two problems with : modifier usage on variable
       substitutions: not all of the modifiers are  available,	and  only  one
       modifier	per substitution is allowed.

       The  g (global) flag in history substitutions applies only to the first
       match in	each word, rather than all matches in all  words.  The	common
       text editors consistently do the	latter when given the g	flag in	a sub-
       stitution command.

       Quoting conventions are confusing. Overriding the escape	 character  to
       force  variable	substitutions within double quotes is counterintuitive
       and inconsistent	with the Bourne	shell.

       Symbolic	links can fool the shell. Setting the hardpaths	variable alle-
       viates this.

       It is up	to the user to manually	remove all duplicate pathnames accrued
       from using built-in commands as

       set path	= pathnames


       setenv PATH = pathnames

       more than once. These often occur because a shell script	 or  a	.cshrc
       file does something like

       `set path=(/usr/local /usr/hosts	$path)'

       to ensure that the named	directories are	in the pathname	list.

       The  only  way  to  direct the standard output and standard error sepa-
       rately is by invoking a subshell, as follows:

       command > outfile ) >& errorfile

       Although	robust enough for general use, adventures  into	 the  esoteric
       periphery of the	C shell	may reveal unexpected quirks.

       If  you start csh as a login shell and you do not have a	.login in your
       home directory, then the	csh reads in the /etc/.login.

       When the	shell executes a shell script that attempts to execute a  non-
       existent	command	interpreter, the shell returns an erroneous diagnostic
       message that the	shell script file does not exist.

       As of this writing, the time built-in command does not compute the last
       6  fields  of  output,  rendering  the output to	erroneously report the
       value "0" for these fields:

	       example %time ls	-R
	       9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k	0+0io 0pf+0w

SunOS 5.10			  8 Apr	2004				csh(1)


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