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curs_terminfo(3X)					     curs_terminfo(3X)

       del_curterm, mvcur, putp, restartterm, set_curterm, setterm, setupterm,
       tigetflag, tigetnum, tigetstr, tiparm, tparm, tputs, vid_attr,
       vid_puts, vidattr, vidputs - curses interfaces to terminfo database

       #include	<curses.h>
       #include	<term.h>

       TERMINAL	*cur_term;

       const char * const boolnames[];
       const char * const boolcodes[];
       const char * const boolfnames[];
       const char * const numnames[];
       const char * const numcodes[];
       const char * const numfnames[];
       const char * const strnames[];
       const char * const strcodes[];
       const char * const strfnames[];

       int setupterm(const char	*term, int filedes, int	*errret);
       int setterm(const char *term);
       TERMINAL	*set_curterm(TERMINAL *nterm);
       int del_curterm(TERMINAL	*oterm);
       int restartterm(const char *term, int filedes, int *errret);

       char *tparm(const char *str, ...);
       int tputs(const char *str, int affcnt, int (*putc)(int));
       int putp(const char *str);

       int vidputs(chtype attrs, int (*putc)(int));
       int vidattr(chtype attrs);
       int vid_puts(attr_t attrs, short	pair, void *opts, int (*putc)(int));
       int vid_attr(attr_t attrs, short	pair, void *opts);

       int mvcur(int oldrow, int oldcol, int newrow, int newcol);

       int tigetflag(const char	*capname);
       int tigetnum(const char *capname);
       char *tigetstr(const char *capname);

       char *tiparm(const char *str, ...);

       These  low-level	 routines must be called by programs that have to deal
       directly	with the terminfo database to handle certain terminal capabil-
       ities, such as programming function keys.  For all other	functionality,
       curses routines are more	suitable and their use is recommended.

       Initially, setupterm should be called.  The high-level curses functions
       initscr	and  newterm call setupterm to initialize the low-level	set of
       terminal-dependent variables [listed in terminfo(5)].

       Applications can	use the	terminal  capabilities	either	directly  (via
       header  definitions),  or by special functions.	The header files curs-
       es.h and	term.h should be included (in this order) to get  the  defini-
       tions for these strings,	numbers, and flags.

       The  terminfo  variables	lines and columns are initialized by setupterm
       as follows:

       o   If use_env(FALSE) has been called, values  for  lines  and  columns
	   specified in	terminfo are used.

       o   Otherwise,  if  the	environment variables LINES and	COLUMNS	exist,
	   their values	are used.  If these environment	variables do not exist
	   and	the program is running in a window, the	current	window size is
	   used.  Otherwise, if	the environment	variables do  not  exist,  the
	   values for lines and	columns	specified in the terminfo database are

       Parameterized strings should be passed  through	tparm  to  instantiate
       them.   All  terminfo strings (including	the output of tparm) should be
       printed with tputs or putp.  Call reset_shell_mode to restore  the  tty
       modes before exiting [see curs_kernel(3X)].

       Programs	which use cursor addressing should

       o   output enter_ca_mode	upon startup and

       o   output exit_ca_mode before exiting.

       Programs	which execute shell subprocesses should

       o   call	 reset_shell_mode  and output exit_ca_mode before the shell is
	   called and

       o   output enter_ca_mode	and call reset_prog_mode after returning  from
	   the shell.

       The  setupterm routine reads in the terminfo database, initializing the
       terminfo	structures, but	does not  set  up  the	output	virtualization
       structures used by curses.  These are its parameters:

	  term is the terminal type, a character string.  If term is null, the
	       environment variable TERM is used.

	       is the file descriptor used for all output.

	       points to an optional location where an error status can	be re-
	       turned  to  the	caller.	 If errret is not null,	then setupterm
	       returns OK or ERR and stores a  status  value  in  the  integer
	       pointed	to by errret.  A return	value of OK combined with sta-
	       tus of 1	in errret is normal.

	       If ERR is returned, examine errret:

	       1    means that the terminal is hardcopy, cannot	 be  used  for
		    curses applications.

		    setupterm  determines  if  the entry is a hardcopy type by
		    checking the hc (hardcopy) capability.

	       0    means that the terminal could not be found,	or that	it  is
		    a  generic	type, having too little	information for	curses
		    applications to run.

		    setupterm determines if the	entry is  a  generic  type  by
		    checking the gn (generic) capability.

	       -1   means that the terminfo database could not be found.

	       If errret is null, setupterm prints an error message upon find-
	       ing an error and	exits.	Thus, the simplest call	is:

		     setupterm((char *)0, 1, (int *)0);,

	       which uses all the defaults and sends the output	to stdout.

       The setterm routine was replaced	by setupterm.  The call:

	     setupterm(term, 1,	(int *)0)

       provides	the same functionality as setterm(term).  The setterm  routine
       is  provided for	BSD compatibility, and is not recommended for new pro-

   The Terminal	State
       The setupterm routine stores its	information about the  terminal	 in  a
       TERMINAL	 structure  pointed to by the global variable cur_term.	 If it
       detects an error, or decides that the terminal is unsuitable  (hardcopy
       or  generic),  it discards this information, making it not available to

       If setupterm is called repeatedly for the same terminal type,  it  will
       reuse  the  information.	  It maintains only one	copy of	a given	termi-
       nal's capabilities in memory.  If it is called for  different  terminal
       types,  setupterm  allocates new	storage	for each set of	terminal capa-

       The set_curterm routine sets cur_term to	nterm, and makes  all  of  the
       terminfo	 boolean,  numeric,  and  string variables use the values from
       nterm.  It returns the old value	of cur_term.

       The del_curterm routine frees the space pointed to by oterm  and	 makes
       it available for	further	use.  If oterm is the same as cur_term,	refer-
       ences to	any of the terminfo boolean,  numeric,	and  string  variables
       thereafter  may	refer  to  invalid  memory locations until another se-
       tupterm has been	called.

       The restartterm routine is similar to  setupterm	 and  initscr,	except
       that it is called after restoring memory	to a previous state (for exam-
       ple, when reloading a game saved	as a core  image  dump).   restartterm
       assumes	that the windows and the input and output options are the same
       as when memory was saved, but the terminal type and baud	 rate  may  be
       different.   Accordingly,  restartterm  saves  various  tty state bits,
       calls setupterm,	and then restores the bits.

   Formatting Output
       The tparm routine instantiates the string str with  parameters  pi.   A
       pointer	is  returned to	the result of str with the parameters applied.
       Application developers should keep in mind these	quirks of  the	inter-

       o   Although  tparm's actual parameters may be integers or strings, the
	   prototype expects long (integer) values.

       o   Aside from the set_attributes (sgr) capability, most	terminal capa-
	   bilities require no more than one or	two parameters.

       tiparm  is  a  newer  form of tparm which uses _stdarg.h_ rather	than a
       fixed-parameter list.  Its numeric parameters are integers (int)	rather
       than longs.

   Output Functions
       The  tputs  routine  applies  padding information to the	string str and
       outputs it:

       o   The str parameter must be a terminfo	string variable	or the	return
	   value from tparm, tiparm, tgetstr, or tgoto.

	   The	tgetstr	and tgoto functions are	part of	the termcap interface,
	   which happens to share this function	name with the terminfo	inter-

       o   affcnt is the number	of lines affected, or 1	if not applicable.

       o   putc	 is a putchar-like routine to which the	characters are passed,
	   one at a time.

       The putp	routine	calls tputs(str, 1, putchar).  The output of putp  al-
       ways goes to stdout, rather than	the filedes specified in setupterm.

       The  vidputs  routine  displays the string on the terminal in the video
       attribute mode attrs, which is any combination of the attributes	listed
       in  curses(3X).	 The characters	are passed to the putchar-like routine

       The vidattr routine is like the vidputs routine,	except that it outputs
       through putchar.

       The  vid_attr  and vid_puts routines correspond to vidattr and vidputs,
       respectively.  They use a set of	arguments for representing  the	 video
       attributes plus color, i.e.,

       o   attrs of type attr_t	for the	attributes and

       o   pair	of type	short for the color-pair number.

       The  vid_attr  and  vid_puts routines are designed to use the attribute
       constants with the WA_ prefix.

       X/Open Curses reserves the opts argument	for future  use,  saying  that
       applications  must provide a null pointer for that argument.  As	an ex-
       tension,	this implementation allows opts	to be used  as	a  pointer  to
       int, which overrides the	pair (short) argument.

       The  mvcur  routine  provides low-level cursor motion.  It takes	effect
       immediately (rather than	at the next refresh).

   Terminal Capability Functions
       The tigetflag, tigetnum and tigetstr routines return the	value  of  the
       capability  corresponding  to the terminfo capname passed to them, such
       as xenl.	 The capname for each capability is given in the table	column
       entitled	capname	code in	the capabilities section of terminfo(5).

       These routines return special values to denote errors.

       The tigetflag routine returns

       -1     if capname is not	a boolean capability, or

       0      if it is canceled	or absent from the terminal description.

       The tigetnum routine returns

       -2     if capname is not	a numeric capability, or

       -1     if it is canceled	or absent from the terminal description.

       The tigetstr routine returns

       (char *)-1
	      if capname is not	a string capability, or

       0      if it is canceled	or absent from the terminal description.

   Terminal Capability Names
       These null-terminated arrays contain

       o   the short terminfo names ("codes"),

       o   the termcap names ("names", and

       o   the long terminfo names ("fnames")

       for each	of the predefined terminfo variables:

	      const char *boolnames[], *boolcodes[], *boolfnames[]
	      const char *numnames[], *numcodes[], *numfnames[]
	      const char *strnames[], *strcodes[], *strfnames[]

       Routines	 that  return  an integer return ERR upon failure and OK (SVr4
       only specifies "an integer value	other than ERR") upon successful  com-
       pletion,	unless otherwise noted in the preceding	routine	descriptions.

       Routines	that return pointers always return NULL	on error.

       X/Open defines no error conditions.  In this implementation

	       returns an error	if its terminal	parameter is null.

	  putp calls tputs, returning the same error-codes.

	       returns an error	if the associated call to setupterm returns an

	       returns an error	if it cannot allocate enough memory, or	create
	       the initial windows (stdscr, curscr, newscr).  Other error con-
	       ditions are documented above.

	       returns an error	if the string parameter	is null.  It does  not
	       detect  I/O errors: X/Open states that tputs ignores the	return
	       value of	the output function putc.

       SVr2 introduced the terminfo feature.  Its programming manual mentioned
       these low-level functions:

       Function	   Description
       fixterm	   restore tty to "in curses" state
       gettmode	   establish current tty modes
       mvcur	   low level cursor motion
       putp	   utility  function that uses tputs to	send char-
		   acters via putchar.
       resetterm   set tty modes to "out of curses" state
       resetty	   reset tty flags to stored value
       saveterm	   save	current	modes as "in curses" state
       savetty	   store current tty flags
       setterm	   establish terminal with given type
       setupterm   establish terminal with given type
       tparm	   instantiate a string	expression with	parameters
       tputs	   apply padding information to	a string
       vidattr	   like	vidputs, but outputs through putchar
       vidputs	   output a string to put terminal in a	 specified
		   video attribute mode

       The  programming	 manual	 also mentioned	functions provided for termcap
       compatibility (commenting that they "may	go away	at a later date"):

       Function	  Description
       tgetent	  look up termcap entry	for given name
       tgetflag	  get boolean entry for	given id
       tgetnum	  get numeric entry for	given id
       tgetstr	  get string entry for given id
       tgoto	  apply	parameters to given capability
       tputs	  apply	padding	to capability, calling
		  a function to	put characters

       Early  terminfo	programs  obtained capability values from the TERMINAL
       structure initialized by	setupterm.

       SVr3 extended terminfo by adding	functions to retrieve capability  val-
       ues (like the termcap interface), and reusing tgoto and tputs:

       Function	   Description
       tigetflag   get boolean entry for given id
       tigetnum	   get numeric entry for given id
       tigetstr	   get string entry for	given id

       SVr3  also replaced several of the SVr2 terminfo	functions which	had no
       counterpart in the termcap interface, documenting them as obsolete:

       Function	   Replaced by
       crmode	   cbreak
       fixterm	   reset_prog_mode
       gettmode	   N/A
       nocrmode	   nocbreak
       resetterm   reset_shell_mode
       saveterm	   def_prog_mode
       setterm	   setupterm

       SVr3 kept the mvcur, vidattr and	vidputs	functions,  along  with	 putp,
       tparm  and  tputs.  The latter were needed to support padding, and han-
       dling functions such as vidattr (which used more	than the  two  parame-
       ters supported by tgoto).

       SVr3  introduced	 the functions for switching between terminal descrip-
       tions, e.g., set_curterm.  The various global variables such  as	 bool-
       names were mentioned in the programming manual at this point.

       SVr4 added the vid_attr and vid_puts functions.

       There are other low-level functions declared in the curses header files
       on Unix systems,	but none were documented.  The functions marked	"obso-
       lete" remained in use by	the Unix vi editor.

   Legacy functions
       X/Open notes that vidattr and vidputs may be macros.

       The  function setterm is	not described by X/Open	and must be considered
       non-portable.  All other	functions are as described by X/Open.

   Legacy data
       setupterm copies	the terminal name to the array ttytype.	 This  is  not
       part of X/Open Curses, but is assumed by	some applications.

       Other  implementions  may not declare the capability name arrays.  Some
       provide them without declaring them.  X/Open does not specify them.

       Extended	terminal capability names, e.g., as defined by tic -x, are not
       stored in the arrays described here.

   Output buffering
       Older  versions	of  ncurses assumed that the file descriptor passed to
       setupterm from initscr or newterm uses buffered I/O, and	would write to
       the  corresponding stream.  In addition to the limitation that the ter-
       minal was left in block-buffered	mode on	exit (like System  V  curses),
       it  was	problematic  because  ncurses  did not allow a reliable	way to
       cleanup on receiving SIGTSTP.

       The current version (ncurses6) uses output buffers managed directly  by
       ncurses.	 Some of the low-level functions described in this manual page
       write to	the standard output.  They are not signal-safe.	 The high-lev-
       el functions in ncurses use alternate versions of these functions using
       the more	reliable buffering scheme.

   Function prototypes
       The X/Open Curses prototypes are	based on the SVr4 curses header	decla-
       rations,	 which	were defined at	the same time the C language was first
       standardized in the late	1980s.

       o   X/Open Curses uses const  less  effectively	than  a	 later	design
	   might,  in  some cases applying it needlessly to values are already
	   constant, and in most cases overlooking parameters  which  normally
	   would  use const.  Using constant parameters	for functions which do
	   not use const may prevent the program from compiling.  On the other
	   hand, writable strings are an obsolescent feature.

	   As  an  extension,  this implementation can be configured to	change
	   the function	prototypes to use the const keyword.  The ncurses  ABI
	   6 enables this feature by default.

       o   X/Open  Curses  prototypes tparm with a fixed number	of parameters,
	   rather than a variable argument list.

	   This	implementation uses a variable argument	list, but can be  con-
	   figured  to	use  the  fixed-parameter list.	 Portable applications
	   should provide 9 parameters after the format; zeroes	are  fine  for
	   this	purpose.

	   In  response	 to review comments by Thomas E. Dickey, X/Open	Curses
	   Issue 7 proposed the	tiparm function	in mid-2009.

   Special TERM	treatment
       If configured to	use the	terminal-driver, e.g., for the MinGW port,

       o   setupterm interprets	a missing/empty	TERM variable as  the  special
	   value "unknown".

       o   setupterm  allows explicit use of the the windows console driver by
	   checking if $TERM is	set to "#win32con" or an abbreviation of  that

   Other portability issues
       In  System  V Release 4,	set_curterm has	an int return type and returns
       OK or ERR.  We have chosen to implement the X/Open Curses semantics.

       In System V Release 4, the third	argument of tputs  has	the  type  int

       At  least one implementation of X/Open Curses (Solaris) returns a value
       other than OK/ERR from tputs.  That returns the length of  the  string,
       and does	no error-checking.

       X/Open  notes  that after calling mvcur,	the curses state may not match
       the actual terminal state, and that an application should touch and re-
       fresh the window	before resuming	normal curses calls.  Both ncurses and
       System V	Release	4 curses implement mvcur using the SCREEN  data	 allo-
       cated  in  either  initscr or newterm.  So though it is documented as a
       terminfo	function, mvcur	is really a curses function which is not  well

       X/Open  states that the old location must be given for mvcur.  This im-
       plementation allows the caller to use -1's for the old  ordinates.   In
       that case, the old location is unknown.

       curses(3X),    curs_initscr(3X),	  curs_kernel(3X),   curs_termcap(3X),
       curs_variables(3X), term_variables(3X), putc(3),	terminfo(5)



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