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DA(4)			 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			 DA(4)

     da	-- SCSI	Direct Access device driver

     device da

     The da driver provides support for	all SCSI devices of the	direct access
     class that	are attached to	the system through a supported SCSI Host
     Adapter.  The direct access class includes	disk, magneto-optical, and
     solid-state devices.

     A SCSI Host adapter must also be separately configured into the system
     before a SCSI direct access device	can be configured.

     The da driver allows the disk to have two levels of partitioning.	One
     layer, called the "slice layer", is used to separate the FreeBSD areas of
     the disk from areas used by other operating systems.  The second layer is
     the native	4.4BSD partitioning scheme, disklabel(5), which	is used	to
     subdivide the FreeBSD slices into areas for individual file systems and
     swap spaces.  For more information, see fdisk(8) and disklabel(8),	re-

     If	an uninitialized disk is opened, the slice table will be initialized
     with a fictitious FreeBSD slice spanning the entire disk.	Similarly, if
     an	uninitialized (or non-FreeBSD) slice is	opened,	its disklabel will be
     initialized with parameters returned by the drive and a single `c'	parti-
     tion encompassing the entire slice.

     Many direct access	devices	are equipped with read and/or write caches.
     Parameters	affecting the device's cache are stored	in mode	page 8,	the
     caching control page.  Mode pages can be examined and modified via	the
     camcontrol(8) utility.

     The read cache is used to store data from device-initiated	read ahead op-
     erations as well as frequently used data.	The read cache is transparent
     to	the user and can be enabled without any	adverse	effect.	 Most devices
     with a read cache come from the factory with it enabled.  The read	cache
     can be disabled by	setting	the RCD	(Read Cache Disable) bit in the
     caching control mode page.

     The write cache can greatly decrease the latency of write operations and
     allows the	device to reorganize writes to increase	efficiency and perfor-
     mance.  This performance gain comes at a price.  Should the device	lose
     power while its cache contains uncommitted	write operations, these	writes
     will be lost.  The	effect of a loss of write transactions on a file sys-
     tem is non-deterministic and can cause corruption.	 Most devices age
     write transactions	to limit vulnerability to a few	transactions recently
     reported as complete, but it is none-the-less recommended that systems
     with write	cache enabled devices reside on	an Uninterruptible Power Sup-
     ply (UPS).	 The da	device driver ensures that the cache and media are
     synchronized upon final close of the device or an unexpected shutdown
     (panic) event.  This ensures that it is safe to disconnect	power once the
     operating system has reported that	it has halted.	The write cache	can be
     enabled by	setting	the WCE	(Write Cache Enable) bit in the	caching	con-
     trol mode page.

     The da device driver will take full advantage of the SCSI feature known
     as	tagged queueing.  Tagged queueing allows the device to process multi-
     ple transactions concurrently, often re-ordering them to reduce the num-
     ber and length of seeks.  To ensure that transactions to distant portions
     of	the media, which may be	deferred indefinitely by servicing requests
     nearer the	current	head position, are completed in	a timely fashion, an
     ordered tagged transaction	is sent	every 15 seconds during	continuous de-
     vice operation.

     Direct Access devices have	the capability of mapping out portions of de-
     fective media.  Media recovery parameters are located in mode page	1, the
     Read-Write	Error Recovery mode page.  The most important media remapping
     features are 'Auto	Write Reallocation' and	'Auto Read Reallocation' which
     can be enabled via	the AWRE and ARRE bits,	respectively, of the Read-
     Write Error Recovery page.	 Many devices do not ship from the factory
     with these	feature	enabled.  Mode pages can be examined and modified via
     the camcontrol(8) utility.

     It	is only	necessary to explicitly	configure one da device; data struc-
     tures are dynamically allocated as	disks are found	on the SCSI bus.

     The following ioctl(2) calls apply	to SCSI	disks as well as to other
     disks.  They are defined in the header file <sys/disklabel.h>.

     DIOCSBAD	 Usually used to set up	a bad-block mapping system on the
		 disk.	SCSI drives incorporate	their own bad-block mapping so
		 this command is not implemented.

     DIOCGDINFO	 Read, from the	kernel,	the in-core copy of the	disklabel for
		 the drive.  This may be a fictitious disklabel	if the drive
		 has never been	initialized, in	which case it will contain in-
		 formation read	from the SCSI inquiry commands.

     DIOCSDINFO	 Give the driver a new disklabel to use.  The driver will not
		 write the new disklabel to the	disk.

     DIOCWLABEL	 Enable	or disable the driver's	software write protect of the
		 disklabel on the disk.

     DIOCWDINFO	 Give the driver a new disklabel to use.  The driver will
		 write the new disklabel to the	disk.

     The following variables are available as both sysctl(8) variables and
     loader(8) tunables:

	 This variable determines how many times the da	driver will retry a
	 READ or WRITE command.	 This does not affect the number of retries
	 used during probe time	or for the da driver dump routine.  This value
	 currently defaults to 4.

	 This variable determines how long the da driver will wait before tim-
	 ing out an outstanding	command.  The units for	this value are sec-
	 onds, and the default is currently 60 seconds.

	 This variable determines what the minimum READ/WRITE CDB size is for
	 a given da unit.  (The	%d above denotes the unit number of the	da
	 driver	instance, e.g. 1, 2, 4,	8, etc.)  Valid	minimum	command	size
	 values	are 6, 10, 12 and 16 bytes.  The default is 6 bytes.

	 The da	driver issues a	CAM Path Inquiry CCB at	probe time to deter-
	 mine whether the protocol the device in question speaks (e.g. ATAPI)
	 typically doesn't allow 6 byte	commands.  If it doesn't, the da
	 driver	will default to	using at least 10 byte CDBs.  If a 6 byte READ
	 or WRITE fails	with an	ILLEGAL	REQUEST	error, the da driver will then
	 increase the default CDB size for the device to 10 bytes and retry
	 the command.  CDB size	is always chosen as the	smallest READ/WRITE
	 CDB that will satisfy the specified minimum command size, and the LBA
	 and length of the READ	or WRITE in question.  (e.g., a	write to an
	 LBA larger than 2^32 will require a 16	byte CDB.)

     If	a device becomes invalidated (media is removed,	device becomes unre-
     sponsive) the disklabel and information held within the kernel about the
     device will be invalidated.  To avoid corruption of a newly inserted
     piece of media or a replacement device, all accesses to the device	will
     be	discarded until	the last file descriptor referencing the old device is
     closed.  During this period, all new open attempts	will be	rejected.

     /dev/dausn	    raw	mode SCSI disk unit u, slice n,	accessed as an unpar-
		    titioned device
     /dev/daup	    raw	mode SCSI disk unit u, first FreeBSD slice, partition
     /dev/dausnp    raw	mode SCSI disk unit u, nth slice, partition p


     ad(4), disklabel(5), disklabel(8),	fdisk(8)

     The da driver was written for the CAM SCSI	subsystem by Justin T. Gibbs.
     Many ideas	were gleaned from the sd device	driver written and ported from
     Mach 2.5 by Julian	Elischer.  Support for slices was written by Bruce

BSD			       September 2, 2003			   BSD


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