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DEBOOTSTRAP(8)		    Debian GNU/Linux manual		DEBOOTSTRAP(8)

       debootstrap - Bootstrap a basic Debian system

       debootstrap [OPTION...]	SUITE TARGET [MIRROR [SCRIPT]]

       debootstrap [OPTION...]	--second-stage

       debootstrap  bootstraps a basic Debian system of	SUITE into TARGET from
       MIRROR by running SCRIPT.  MIRROR can be	an http:// or https:// URL,  a
       file:///	URL, or	an ssh:/// URL.

       The  SUITE  may	be a release code name (eg, sid, stretch, jessie) or a
       symbolic	name (eg, unstable, testing, stable, oldstable)

       Notice that file:/ URLs are translated to file:/// (correct  scheme  as
       described  in  RFC1738 for local	filenames), and	file://	will not work.
       ssh://USER@HOST/PATH URLs are retrieved using scp; use of ssh-agent  or
       similar is strongly recommended.

       Debootstrap  can	be used	to install Debian in a system without using an
       installation disk but can also be used to run a different Debian	flavor
       in  a chroot environment.  This way you can create a full (minimal) De-
       bian installation which can be used for testing purposes	(see the EXAM-
       PLES  section).	 If you	are looking for	a chroot system	to build pack-
       ages please take	a look at pbuilder.

	      Set the target architecture (use if dpkg isn't installed).   See
	      also --foreign.

	      Comma separated list of packages which will be added to download
	      and extract lists.

	      Comma separated list of packages	which  will  be	 removed  from
	      download	and extract lists.  WARNING: you can and probably will
	      exclude essential	packages, be careful using this	option.

	      Also use packages	from the listed	suites of the archive.

	      Use packages from	the listed components of the archive.

	      By default, debootstrap will attempt  to	automatically  resolve
	      any  missing  dependencies, warning if any are found.  Note that
	      this is not a complete dependency	resolve	in the sense  of  dpkg
	      or  apt,	and  that  it is far better to specify the entire base
	      system than rely on this option.	With this option set, this be-
	      haviour is disabled.

	      If  you  want  to	 record	additional dependencies	when resolving
	      package dependencies, set	this option to track them through  de-

	      Name  of	the  bootstrap	script variant to use.	Currently, the
	      variants supported are minbase,  which  only  includes  required
	      packages	and  apt;  buildd,  which installs the build-essential
	      packages and fakechroot, which  installs	the  packages  without
	      root  privileges.	 The default, with no --variant=X argument, is
	      to create	a base Debian installation with	all packages of	prior-
	      ity required and important, including apt.

	      Create  /{bin,sbin,lib}/ symlinks	pointing to their counterparts
	      in /usr/.	 (Default for most variants.)

	      Do not create /{bin,sbin,lib}/ symlinks pointing to their	 coun-
	      terparts in /usr/.  (Default for the buildd variant.)

	      Override	the  default  keyring for the distribution being boot-
	      strapped,	and use	KEYRING	to check signatures of	retrieved  Re-
	      lease files.

	      Disables checking	gpg signatures of retrieved Release files.

	      Forces  checking	Release	 file  signatures, disabling automatic
	      fallback to HTTPS	in case	of  a  missing	keyring.  Incompatible
	      with the previous	option.

	      Produce more info	about downloading.

	      Print  the  packages  to	be  installed, and exit.  Note that an
	      empty or non-existing TARGET directory must be specified so that
	      debootstrap can download Packages	files to determine which pack-
	      ages should be installed,	and to resolve dependencies. The  TAR-
	      GET  directory  will be deleted unless --keep-debootstrap-dir is

	      Download packages, but don't perform installation.

	      Do the initial unpack phase of bootstrapping only,  for  example
	      if the target architecture does not match	the host architecture.
	      A	copy of	debootstrap sufficient for  completing	the  bootstrap
	      process  will  be	 installed  as /debootstrap/debootstrap	in the
	      target filesystem.  You can run it with the  --second-stage  op-
	      tion to complete the bootstrapping process.

	      Complete	the bootstrapping process.  Other arguments are	gener-
	      ally not needed.

	      Run second stage in a subdirectory instead of root. (can be used
	      to create	a foreign chroot) (requires --second-stage)

	      Don't delete the /debootstrap directory in the target after com-
	      pleting the installation.

	      Cache .deb files under directory.	It should be an	absolute path.

	      Acquire .debs from gzipped tarball FILE (specified with absolute
	      path) instead of downloading via HTTP(S).

	      Instead  of  bootstrapping,  make	 a gzipped tarball (written to
	      FILE) of the downloaded packages.	 The resulting tarball may  be
	      passed  to a later --unpack-tarball.  Note that an empty or non-
	      existing TARGET directory	must be	specified so that  debootstrap
	      can  download packages to	prepare	the tarball. The TARGET	direc-
	      tory will	be deleted unless --keep-debootstrap-dir is specified.

	      Used for internal	purposes by the	debian-installer

	      Override automatic .deb extractor	selection to TYPE.   Supported
	      extractors are: dpkg-deb and ar.

	      Do not check certificate against certificate authorities

	      Use the client certificate stored	in file	(PEM)

	      Read the private key from	file

	      Determine	 the  path to the InRelease file of the	suite relative
	      to the normal position of	an InRelease file

       To setup	a stretch system:

	    debootstrap	stretch	./stretch-chroot

	    debootstrap	stretch	./stretch-chroot file:///LOCAL_MIRROR/debian

       Full process to create a	complete Debian	installation of	sid (unstable)
       in a chroot:

	    main # debootstrap sid sid-root
	    [ ... watch	it download the	whole system ]
	    main # echo	"proc sid-root/proc proc defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
	    main # mount proc sid-root/proc -t proc
	    main # echo	"sysfs sid-root/sys sysfs defaults 0 0"	>> /etc/fstab
	    main # mount sysfs sid-root/sys -t sysfs
	    main # cp /etc/hosts sid-root/etc/hosts
	    main # chroot sid-root /bin/bash

       debootstrap  was	 written by Anthony Towns <>.  This man-
       page was	written	by Matt	Kraai <>.

Debian Project			  2001-04-27			DEBOOTSTRAP(8)


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