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dpkg(1)				  dpkg suite			       dpkg(1)

       dpkg - package manager for Debian

       dpkg [option...]	action

       This  manual is intended	for users wishing to understand	dpkg's command
       line options and	package	states in more detail than  that  provided  by
       dpkg --help.

       It  should not be used by package maintainers wishing to	understand how
       dpkg will install their packages. The descriptions of  what  dpkg  does
       when installing and removing packages are particularly inadequate.

       dpkg  is	 a  tool to install, build, remove and manage Debian packages.
       The primary and more user-friendly front-end for	dpkg  is  aptitude(1).
       dpkg  itself  is	controlled entirely via	command	line parameters, which
       consist of exactly one action and zero or  more	options.  The  action-
       parameter tells dpkg what to do and options control the behavior	of the
       action in some way.

       dpkg can	also be	used as	a front-end to dpkg-deb(1) and	dpkg-query(1).
       The  list  of  supported	 actions  can be found later on	in the ACTIONS
       section.	If any such action is encountered dpkg just runs  dpkg-deb  or
       dpkg-query with the parameters given to it, but no specific options are
       currently passed	to them, to use	any such option	the back-ends need  to
       be called directly.

       dpkg  maintains	some  usable information about available packages. The
       information is divided in three classes:	states,	selection  states  and
       flags. These values are intended	to be changed mainly with dselect.

   Package states
	      The package is not installed on your system.

	      Only the configuration files of the package exist	on the system.

	      The  installation	 of  the  package  has	been  started, but not
	      completed	for some reason.

	      The package is unpacked, but not configured.

	      The package is unpacked and configuration	has been started,  but
	      not yet completed	for some reason.

	      The package awaits trigger processing by another package.

	      The package has been triggered.

	      The package is correctly unpacked	and configured.

   Package selection states
	      The package is selected for installation.

       hold   A	 package  marked  to be	on hold	is not handled by dpkg,	unless
	      forced to	do that	with option --force-hold.

	      The package is selected for  deinstallation  (i.e.  we  want  to
	      remove all files,	except configuration files).

       purge  The  package  is	selected  to be	purged (i.e. we	want to	remove
	      everything from system directories, even configuration files).

	      The package selection is unknown.	 A package that	is also	 in  a
	      not-installed  state,  and  with an ok flag will be forgotten in
	      the next database	store.

   Package flags
       ok     A	package	marked ok is in	a known	state, but might need  further

	      A	   package   marked   reinstreq	  is   broken	and   requires
	      reinstallation. These packages cannot be removed,	unless	forced
	      with option --force-remove-reinstreq.

       -i, --install package-file...
	      Install  the  package. If	--recursive or -R option is specified,
	      package-file must	refer to a directory instead.

	      Installation consists of the following steps:

	      1. Extract the control files of the new package.

	      2. If another version of the same	package	was  installed	before
	      the new installation, execute prerm script of the	old package.

	      3. Run preinst script, if	provided by the	package.

	      4.  Unpack  the  new files, and at the same time back up the old
	      files, so	that if	something goes wrong, they can be restored.

	      5. If another version of the same	package	was  installed	before
	      the  new	installation,  execute	the  postrm  script of the old
	      package. Note that this script is	 executed  after  the  preinst
	      script  of the new package, because new files are	written	at the
	      same time	old files are removed.

	      6.  Configure  the  package.  See	  --configure	for   detailed
	      information about	how this is done.

       --unpack	package-file...
	      Unpack the package, but don't configure it. If --recursive or -R
	      option is	specified, package-file	 must  refer  to  a  directory

       --configure package...|-a|--pending
	      Configure	 a  package  which  has	 been  unpacked	 but  not  yet
	      configured.  If -a or --pending is given instead of package, all
	      unpacked but unconfigured	packages are configured.

	      To  reconfigure a	package	which has already been configured, try
	      the dpkg-reconfigure(8) command instead.

	      Configuring consists of the following steps:

	      1. Unpack	the conffiles, and at the same time back  up  the  old
	      conffiles, so that they can be restored if something goes	wrong.

	      2. Run postinst script, if provided by the package.

       --triggers-only package...|-a|--pending
	      Processes	 only  triggers	 (since	 dpkg  1.14.17).   All pending
	      triggers will be processed.  If package names are	supplied  only
	      those  packages'	triggers  will be processed, exactly once each
	      where necessary. Use of this option may leave  packages  in  the
	      improper	triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can
	      be fixed later by	running: dpkg --configure --pending.

       -r, --remove package...|-a|--pending
	      Remove an	installed package.   This  removes  everything	except
	      conffiles	 and other data	cleaned	up by the postrm script, which
	      may avoid	having to reconfigure the package if it	is reinstalled
	      later  (conffiles	are configuration files	that are listed	in the
	      DEBIAN/conffiles control file).  If there	is no DEBIAN/conffiles
	      control	file   nor   DEBIAN/postrm  script,  this  command  is
	      equivalent to calling --purge.  If  -a  or  --pending  is	 given
	      instead  of  a  package  name,  then  all	packages unpacked, but
	      marked to	be removed in file /var/db/dpkg/status,	are removed.

	      Removing of a package consists of	the following steps:

	      1. Run prerm script

	      2. Remove	the installed files

	      3. Run postrm script

       -P, --purge package...|-a|--pending
	      Purge an installed or  already  removed  package.	 This  removes
	      everything,  including  conffiles,  and anything else cleaned up
	      from postrm.  If -a or --pending is given	instead	of  a  package
	      name,  then  all	packages unpacked or removed, but marked to be
	      purged in	file /var/db/dpkg/status, are purged.

	      Note: some configuration files might be unknown to dpkg  because
	      they   are   created   and   handled   separately	  through  the
	      configuration scripts. In	that case, dpkg	won't remove  them  by
	      itself,  but  the	 package's  postrm  script (which is called by
	      dpkg), has to take  care	of  their  removal  during  purge.  Of
	      course,  this  only  applies to files in system directories, not
	      configuration  files   written   to   individual	 users'	  home

	      Purging of a package consists of the following steps:

	      1.  Remove the package, if not already removed. See --remove for
	      detailed information about how this is done.

	      2. Run postrm script.

       -V, --verify [package-name...]
	      Verifies the  integrity  of  package-name	 or  all  packages  if
	      omitted,	by comparing information from the files	installed by a
	      package with the files metadata information stored in  the  dpkg
	      database	(since dpkg 1.17.2).  The origin of the	files metadata
	      information in the database is the binary	 packages  themselves.
	      That  metadata  gets collected at	package	unpack time during the
	      installation process.

	      Currently	the only  functional  check  performed	is  an	md5sum
	      verification  of	the  file contents against the stored value in
	      the files	database.  It will only	get checked  if	 the  database
	      contains	the  file md5sum. To check for any missing metadata in
	      the database, the	--audit	command	can be used.

	      The output format	is selectable with the --verify-format option,
	      which  by	 default uses the rpm format, but that might change in
	      the future, and as such, programs	parsing	 this  command	output
	      should be	explicit about the format they expect.

       -C, --audit [package-name...]
	      Performs database	sanity and consistency checks for package-name
	      or all packages  if  omitted  (per  package  checks  since  dpkg
	      1.17.10).	  For  example,	 searches  for packages	that have been
	      installed	only partially on your system or  that	have  missing,
	      wrong  or	obsolete control data or files.	dpkg will suggest what
	      to do with them to get them fixed.

       --update-avail [Packages-file]
       --merge-avail [Packages-file]
	      Update  dpkg's  and  dselect's  idea  of	which	packages   are
	      available.   With	  action  --merge-avail,  old  information  is
	      combined	with  information  from	 Packages-file.	 With	action
	      --update-avail, old information is replaced with the information
	      in the Packages-file. The	Packages-file distributed with	Debian
	      is  simply  named	<<Packages>>. If the Packages-file argument is
	      missing or named <<->> then it will be read from standard	 input
	      (since dpkg 1.17.7). dpkg	keeps its record of available packages
	      in /var/db/dpkg/available.

	      A	simpler	one-shot command to retrieve and update	the  available
	      file is dselect update. Note that	this file is mostly useless if
	      you don't	use dselect but	an APT-based frontend: APT has its own
	      system to	keep track of available	packages.

       -A, --record-avail package-file...
	      Update  dpkg  and	dselect's idea of which	packages are available
	      with information from the	package	package-file.  If  --recursive
	      or  -R  option  is  specified,  package-file  must  refer	 to  a
	      directory	instead.

	      Now obsolete and a  no-op	 as  dpkg  will	 automatically	forget
	      uninstalled  unavailable	packages (since	dpkg 1.15.4), but only
	      those that do not	 contain  user	information  such  as  package

	      Erase   the   existing   information  about  what	 packages  are

       --get-selections	[package-name-pattern...]
	      Get list of package selections, and write	it to stdout.  Without
	      a	 pattern,  non-installed  packages (i.e. those which have been
	      previously purged) will not be shown.

	      Set package selections using file	read  from  stdin.  This  file
	      should  be  in the format	"package state", where state is	one of
	      install, hold, deinstall or purge. Blank lines and comment lines
	      beginning	with `#' are also permitted.

	      The available file needs to be up-to-date	for this command to be
	      useful, otherwise	 unknown  packages  will  be  ignored  with  a
	      warning.	See  the --update-avail	and --merge-avail commands for
	      more information.

	      Set the  requested  state	 of  every  non-essential  package  to
	      deinstall	 (since	 dpkg  1.13.18).   This	is intended to be used
	      immediately before --set-selections, to deinstall	 any  packages
	      not in list given	to --set-selections.

	      Searches	for  packages selected for installation, but which for
	      some reason still	haven't	been installed.

	      Note: This command makes use of both the available file and  the
	      package selections.

	      Print  a	single	package	 which	is  the	 target	of one or more
	      relevant pre-dependencies	and has	 itself	 no  unsatisfied  pre-

	      If  such	a  package  is	present,  output it as a Packages file
	      entry, which can be massaged as appropriate.

	      Note: This command makes use of both the available file and  the
	      package selections.

	      Returns  0 when a	package	is printed, 1 when no suitable package
	      is available and 2 on error.

       --add-architecture architecture
	      Add architecture to the list of architectures for	which packages
	      can  be installed	without	using --force-architecture (since dpkg
	      1.16.2).	The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of
	      --print-architecture) is always part of that list.

       --remove-architecture architecture
	      Remove  architecture  from  the  list of architectures for which
	      packages can be  installed  without  using  --force-architecture
	      (since  dpkg 1.16.2). If the architecture	is currently in	use in
	      the database then	the  operation	will  be  refused,  except  if
	      --force-architecture  is	specified.  The	 architecture  dpkg is
	      built for	(i.e. the output of --print-architecture) can never be
	      removed from that	list.

	      Print  architecture  of  packages	 dpkg  installs	 (for example,

	      Print a newline-separated	list of	the extra  architectures  dpkg
	      is  configured to	allow packages to be installed for (since dpkg

	      Asserts that dpkg	supports the requested feature.	 Returns 0  if
	      the  feature  is	fully supported, 1 if the feature is known but
	      dpkg cannot provide support for it yet, and 2 if the feature  is
	      unknown.	The current list of assertable features	is:

		     Supports the Pre-Depends field (since dpkg	1.1.0).

		     Supports epochs in	version	strings	(since dpkg

		     Supports  long  filenames	in deb(5) archives (since dpkg

		     Supports multiple	Conflicts  and	Replaces  (since  dpkg

		     Supports  multi-arch  fields  and	semantics  (since dpkg

		     Supports versioned	Provides (since	dpkg 1.17.11).

       --validate-thing	string
	      Validate that the	thing string has a correct syntax (since  dpkg
	      1.18.16).	  Returns 0 if the string is valid, 1 if the string is
	      invalid but might	be accepted in lax  contexts,  and  2  if  the
	      string is	invalid.  The current list of validatable things is:

		     Validates the given package name (since dpkg 1.18.16).

		     Validates the given trigger name (since dpkg 1.18.16).

		     Validates	 the   given  architecture  name  (since  dpkg

		     Validates the given version (since	dpkg 1.18.16).

       --compare-versions ver1 op ver2
	      Compare version numbers, where op	is  a  binary  operator.  dpkg
	      returns  true  (0)  if the specified condition is	satisfied, and
	      false (1)	otherwise. There are two groups	 of  operators,	 which
	      differ  in  how they treat an empty ver1 or ver2.	These treat an
	      empty version as earlier than any	version: lt le eq  ne  ge  gt.
	      These  treat  an	empty version as later than any	version: lt-nl
	      le-nl ge-nl gt-nl. These are  provided  only  for	 compatibility
	      with  control  file  syntax:  <  <<  <=  =  >= >>	>. The < and >
	      operators	are obsolete and should	not be used, due to  confusing
	      semantics. To illustrate:	0.1 < 0.1 evaluates to true.

       -?, --help
	      Display a	brief help message.

	      Give help	about the --force-thing	options.

       -Dh, --debug=help
	      Give help	about debugging	options.

	      Display dpkg version information.

       dpkg-deb	actions
	      See   dpkg-deb(1)	 for  more  information	 about	the  following

	      -b, --build directory [archive|directory]
		  Build	a deb package.
	      -c, --contents archive
		  List contents	of a deb package.
	      -e, --control archive [directory]
		  Extract control-information from a package.
	      -x, --extract archive directory
		  Extract the files contained by package.
	      -X, --vextract archive directory
		  Extract and display the filenames contained by a
	      -f, --field  archive [control-field...]
		  Display control field(s) of a	package.
	      --ctrl-tarfile archive
		  Output the control tar-file contained	in a Debian package.
	      --fsys-tarfile archive
		  Output the filesystem	tar-file contained by a	Debian package.
	      -I, --info archive [control-file...]
		  Show information about a package.

       dpkg-query actions
	      See dpkg-query(1)	 for  more  information	 about	the  following

	      -l, --list package-name-pattern...
		  List packages	matching given pattern.
	      -s, --status package-name...
		  Report status	of specified package.
	      -L, --listfiles package-name...
		  List files installed to your system from package-name.
	      -S, --search filename-search-pattern...
		  Search for a filename	from installed packages.
	      -p, --print-avail	package-name...
		  Display details about	package-name, as found in
		  /var/db/dpkg/available. Users	of APT-based frontends
		  should use apt-cache show package-name instead.

       All  options  can be specified both on the command line and in the dpkg
       configuration file /usr/local/etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg or fragment files (with
       names   matching	  this	 shell	 pattern   '[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*')   on  the
       configuration directory /usr/local/etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/.	Each  line  in
       the  configuration  file	 is  either an option (exactly the same	as the
       command line option but without leading hyphens)	or a  comment  (if  it
       starts with a `#').

	      Change after how many errors dpkg	will abort. The	default	is 50.

       -B, --auto-deconfigure
	      When  a  package is removed, there is a possibility that another
	      installed	package	depended on the	 removed  package.  Specifying
	      this  option will	cause automatic	deconfiguration	of the package
	      which depended on	the removed package.

       -Doctal,	--debug=octal
	      Switch debugging on. octal is formed  by	bitwise-oring  desired
	      values  together from the	list below (note that these values may
	      change in	future releases). -Dh or  --debug=help	display	 these
	      debugging	values.

		  Number   Description
		       1   Generally helpful progress information
		       2   Invocation and status of maintainer scripts
		      10   Output for each file	processed
		     100   Lots	of output for each file	processed
		      20   Output for each configuration file
		     200   Lots	of output for each configuration file
		      40   Dependencies	and conflicts
		     400   Lots	of dependencies/conflicts output
		   10000   Trigger activation and processing
		   20000   Lots	of output regarding triggers
		   40000   Silly amounts of output regarding triggers
		    1000   Lots	of drivel about	e.g. the dpkg/info dir
		    2000   Insane amounts of drivel

       --no-force-things, --refuse-things
	      Force  or	refuse (no-force and refuse mean the same thing) to do
	      some  things.  things  is	 a  comma  separated  list  of	things
	      specified	 below.	 --force-help  displays	 a  message describing
	      them.  Things marked with	(*) are	forced by default.

	      Warning: These options are mostly	intended to be used by experts
	      only.  Using  them without fully understanding their effects may
	      break your whole system.

	      all: Turns on (or	off) all force options.

	      downgrade(*): Install a package, even if newer version of	it  is
	      already installed.

	      Warning:	At present dpkg	does not do any	dependency checking on
	      downgrades and therefore will not	 warn  you  if	the  downgrade
	      breaks  the  dependency  of  some	 other	package. This can have
	      serious side effects, downgrading	 essential  system  components
	      can even make your whole system unusable.	Use with care.

	      configure-any:  Configure	 also  any  unpacked  but unconfigured
	      packages on which	the current package depends.

	      hold: Process packages even when marked "hold".

	      remove-reinstreq:	Remove a package,  even	 if  it's  broken  and
	      marked  to  require reinstallation. This may, for	example, cause
	      parts of the package to remain on	the system, which will then be
	      forgotten	by dpkg.

	      remove-essential:	 Remove,  even	if  the	 package is considered
	      essential. Essential packages contain  mostly  very  basic  Unix
	      commands.	 Removing  them	 might	cause the whole	system to stop
	      working, so use with caution.

	      depends: Turn  all  dependency  problems	into  warnings.	  This
	      affects the Pre-Depends and Depends fields.

	      depends-version:	 Don't	 care  about  versions	when  checking
	      dependencies.  This affects the Pre-Depends and Depends fields.

	      breaks: Install, even if this would break	another	package	(since
	      dpkg 1.14.6).  This affects the Breaks field.

	      conflicts:  Install,  even if it conflicts with another package.
	      This is dangerous, for it	will usually cause overwriting of some
	      files.  This affects the Conflicts field.

	      confmiss:	Always install the missing conffile without prompting.
	      This is dangerous,  since	 it  means  not	 preserving  a	change
	      (removing) made to the file.

	      confnew:	If a conffile has been modified	and the	version	in the
	      package did change,  always  install  the	 new  version  without
	      prompting,  unless  the  --force-confdef	is  also specified, in
	      which case the default action is preferred.

	      confold: If a conffile has been modified and the version in  the
	      package	did  change,  always  keep  the	 old  version  without
	      prompting, unless	the  --force-confdef  is  also	specified,  in
	      which case the default action is preferred.

	      confdef:	If a conffile has been modified	and the	version	in the
	      package did change, always choose	 the  default  action  without
	      prompting. If there is no	default	action it will stop to ask the
	      user unless --force-confnew  or  --force-confold	is  also  been
	      given,  in  which	 case  it  will	 use  that to decide the final

	      confask: If a conffile has been modified always offer to replace
	      it  with	the version in the package, even if the	version	in the
	      package  did  not	 change	 (since	 dpkg  1.15.8).	  If  any   of
	      --force-confnew,	--force-confold,  or  --force-confdef  is also
	      given, it	will be	used to	decide the final action.

	      overwrite: Overwrite one package's file with another's file.

	      overwrite-dir: Overwrite one package's directory with  another's

	      overwrite-diverted: Overwrite a diverted file with an undiverted

	      statoverride-add:	 Overwrite  an	existing  stat	override  when
	      adding it	(since dpkg 1.19.5).

	      statoverride-remove:   Ignore   a	 missing  stat	override  when
	      removing it (since dpkg 1.19.5).

	      security-mac(*): Use platform-specific Mandatory Access Controls
	      (MAC)  based  security when installing files into	the filesystem
	      (since dpkg 1.19.5).  On Linux systems the  implementation  uses

	      unsafe-io:  Do  not  perform  safe I/O operations	when unpacking
	      (since dpkg  Currently	this  implies  not  performing
	      file  system  syncs before file renames, which is	known to cause
	      substantial  performance	degradation  on	 some  file   systems,
	      unfortunately  the  ones	that require the safe I/O on the first
	      place due	to  their  unreliable  behaviour  causing  zero-length
	      files on abrupt system crashes.

	      Note:  For  ext4,	 the main offender, consider using instead the
	      mount option nodelalloc, which will  fix	both  the  performance
	      degradation and the data safety issues, the latter by making the
	      file system not  produce	zero-length  files  on	abrupt	system
	      crashes with any software	not doing syncs	before atomic renames.

	      Warning: Using this option might improve performance at the cost
	      of losing	data, use with care.

	      script-chrootless: Run maintainer	scripts	 without  chroot(2)ing
	      into  instdir  even if the package does not support this mode of
	      operation	(since dpkg 1.18.5).

	      Warning: This can	destroy	your host  system,  use	 with  extreme

	      architecture:   Process	even   packages	  with	 wrong	or  no

	      bad-version: Process even	packages with  wrong  versions	(since
	      dpkg 1.16.1).

	      bad-path:	 PATH  is  missing important programs, so problems are

	      not-root:	Try to (de)install things even when not	root.

	      bad-verify: Install a package  even  if  it  fails  authenticity

	      Ignore  dependency-checking  for	specified  packages (actually,
	      checking is performed, but only  warnings	 about	conflicts  are
	      given, nothing else).  This affects the Pre-Depends, Depends and
	      Breaks fields.

       --no-act, --dry-run, --simulate
	      Do everything which is supposed to be done, but don't write  any
	      changes.	This  is  used	to  see	 what  would  happen  with the
	      specified	action,	without	actually modifying anything.

	      Be sure to give --no-act before  the  action-parameter,  or  you
	      might  end  up  with undesirable results.	(e.g. dpkg --purge foo
	      --no-act will first purge	package	foo  and  then	try  to	 purge
	      package  --no-act,  even	though	you  probably  expected	 it to
	      actually do nothing)

       -R, --recursive
	      Recursively handle all  regular  files  matching	pattern	 *.deb
	      found  at	 specified  directories	and all	of its subdirectories.
	      This  can	 be  used  with	 -i,  -A,  --install,	--unpack   and
	      --record-avail actions.

       -G     Don't  install  a	package	if a newer version of the same package
	      is already installed. This is an alias of	--refuse-downgrade.

	      Set the administrative directory to directory.   This  directory
	      contains	many  files  that  give	 information  about  status of
	      installed	  or   uninstalled   packages,	 etc.	 Defaults   to

	      Set  the	installation  directory, which refers to the directory
	      where  packages  are  to	be  installed.	instdir	 is  also  the
	      directory	  passed   to	chroot(2)   before  running  package's
	      installation scripts, which means	that the scripts  see  instdir
	      as a root	directory.  Defaults to	<</>>.

	      Set the root directory to	directory, which sets the installation
	      directory	 to  <<dir>>  and  the	administrative	directory   to

       -O, --selected-only
	      Only  process  the  packages that	are selected for installation.
	      The actual marking is done with dselect  or  by  dpkg,  when  it
	      handles  packages.  For  example,	 when a	package	is removed, it
	      will be marked selected for deinstallation.

       -E, --skip-same-version
	      Don't install the	package	if the same version of the package  is
	      already installed.

	      Set an invoke hook command to be run via "sh -c" before or after
	      the dpkg run for the unpack, configure, install,	triggers-only,
	      remove,  purge,  add-architecture	 and  remove-architecture dpkg
	      actions	 (since	   dpkg	   1.15.4;    add-architecture	   and
	      remove-architecture actions since	dpkg 1.17.19). This option can
	      be specified multiple times. The order the options are specified
	      is  preserved, with the ones from	the configuration files	taking
	      precedence.  The environment variable  DPKG_HOOK_ACTION  is  set
	      for the hooks to the current dpkg	action.	Note: front-ends might
	      call dpkg	several	times per  invocation,	which  might  run  the
	      hooks more times than expected.

	      Set  glob-pattern	 as  a path filter, either by excluding	or re-
	      including	 previously  excluded  paths  matching	the  specified
	      patterns during install (since dpkg 1.15.8).

	      Warning:	take into account that depending on the	excluded paths
	      you might	completely break your system, use with caution.

	      The glob patterns	use the	same wildcards used in the shell, were
	      `*'  matches  any	 sequence  of  characters, including the empty
	      string and also  `/'.   For  example,  <</usr/*/READ*>>  matches
	      <</usr/share/doc/package/README>>.   As  usual,  `?' matches any
	      single character (again,	including  `/').   And	`['  starts  a
	      character	 class,	which can contain a list of characters,	ranges
	      and complementations. See	glob(7)	for detailed information about
	      globbing.	Note: the current implementation might re-include more
	      directories and symlinks than needed, to be on the safe side and
	      avoid possible unpack failures; future work might	fix this.

	      This  can	 be  used  to  remove all paths	except some particular
	      ones; a typical case is:


	      to remove	all documentation files	except the copyright files.

	      These  two  options  can	be  specified  multiple	  times,   and
	      interleaved  with	 each  other.  Both are	processed in the given
	      order, with the last rule	that matches a file  name  making  the

	      The  filters are applied when unpacking the binary packages, and
	      as such only have	knowledge of  the  type	 of  object  currently
	      being  filtered (e.g. a normal file or a directory) and have not
	      visibility of  what  objects  will  come	next.	Because	 these
	      filters  have  side  effects  (in	 contrast to find(1) filters),
	      excluding	an exact pathname  that	 happens  to  be  a  directory
	      object like /usr/share/doc will not have the desired result, and
	      only  that  pathname  will   be	excluded   (which   could   be
	      automatically  reincluded	 if  the  code	sees  the  need).  Any
	      subsequent files contained within	that directory	will  fail  to

	      Hint: make sure the globs	are not	expanded by your shell.

       --verify-format format-name
	      Sets  the	 output	 format	 for  the --verify command (since dpkg

	      The  only	 currently  supported  output  format  is  rpm,	 which
	      consists	of  a  line for	every path that	failed any check.  The
	      lines start with 9 characters  to	 report	 each  specific	 check
	      result,  a  `?'  implies	the  check  could not be done (lack of
	      support, file permissions, etc), `.' implies the	check  passed,
	      and  an  alphanumeric character implies a	specific check failed;
	      the md5sum verification failure (the file	contents have changed)
	      is  denoted  with	 a  `5'	 on  the third character.  The line is
	      followed by a space and an attribute  character  (currently  `c'
	      for conffiles), another space and	the pathname.

       --status-fd n
	      Send machine-readable package status and progress	information to
	      file descriptor n. This option can be specified multiple	times.
	      The  information is generally one	record per line, in one	of the
	      following	forms:

	      status: package: status
		     Package status changed; status is as in the status	file.

	      status: package :	error :	extended-error-message
		     An	error occurred.	Any  possible  newlines	 in  extended-
		     error-message will	be converted to	spaces before output.

	      status:	file   :   conffile-prompt   :	'real-old'  'real-new'
	      useredited distedited
		     User is being asked a conffile question.

	      processing: stage: package
		     Sent just before a	processing stage starts. stage is  one
		     of	  upgrade,   install  (both  sent  before  unpacking),
		     configure,	trigproc, disappear, remove, purge.

	      Send machine-readable package status and progress	information to
	      the shell	command's standard input, to be	run via	"sh -c"	(since
	      dpkg 1.16.0).  This option can be	specified multiple times.  The
	      output format used is the	same as	in --status-fd.

	      Log  status  change  updates and actions to filename, instead of
	      the default /var/log/dpkg.log. If	this option is given  multiple
	      times, the last filename is used.	Log messages are of the	form:

	      YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS startup type command
		     For  each	dpkg invocation	where type is archives (with a
		     command of	unpack or install) or packages (with a command
		     of	configure, triggers-only, remove or purge).

	      YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS status state pkg installed-version
		     For status	change updates.

	      YYYY-MM-DD  HH:MM:SS  action  pkg	 installed-version  available-
		     For actions where action  is  one	of  install,  upgrade,
		     configure,	trigproc, disappear, remove or purge.

	      YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS conffile filename decision
		     For  conffile changes where decision is either install or

	      Disables the use of any pager when  showing  information	(since
	      dpkg 1.19.2).

	      Do not try to verify package signatures.

	      Do  not  run  any	triggers in this run (since dpkg 1.14.17), but
	      activations will still be	recorded.  If  used  with  --configure
	      package  or  --triggers-only  package  then  the	named  package
	      postinst will still be run  even	if  only  a  triggers  run  is
	      needed.  Use  of	this option may	leave packages in the improper
	      triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This can be	 fixed
	      later by running:	dpkg --configure --pending.

	      Cancels a	previous --no-triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17).

       0      The  requested action was	successfully performed.	 Or a check or
	      assertion	command	returned true.

       1      A	check or assertion command returned false.

       2      Fatal or unrecoverable error due to invalid command-line	usage,
	      or  interactions	with  the  system,  such  as  accesses	to the
	      database,	memory allocations, etc.

   External environment
       PATH   This variable is expected	to be defined in the  environment  and
	      point to the system paths	where several required programs	are to
	      be found.	If it's	not set	or the programs	are  not  found,  dpkg
	      will abort.

       HOME   If set, dpkg will	use it as the directory	from which to read the
	      user specific configuration file.

       TMPDIR If set, dpkg will	use it as the directory	 in  which  to	create
	      temporary	files and directories.

       SHELL  The  program  dpkg  will execute when starting a new interactive
	      shell, or	when spawning a	command	via a shell.

	      The program dpkg will execute when running a pager, for  example
	      when  displaying the conffile differences.  If SHELL is not set,
	      <<sh>> will be used instead.  The	DPKG_PAGER overrides the PAGER
	      environment variable (since dpkg 1.19.2).

	      Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).	The currently accepted
	      values are: auto (default), always and never.

	      Sets the force flags (since dpkg 1.19.5).	 When this variable is
	      present,	no  built-in  force  defaults will be applied.	If the
	      variable is present but empty, all force flags will be disabled.

	      Set by a package manager frontend	to notify dpkg that it	should
	      not acquire the frontend lock (since dpkg	1.19.1).

   Internal environment
       LESS   Defined  by dpkg to "-FRSXMQ", if	not already set, when spawning
	      a	pager (since dpkg 1.19.2).  To change  the  default  behavior,
	      this  variable  can  be  preset to some other value including an
	      empty string, or the PAGER or DPKG_PAGER variables can be	set to
	      disable	 specific    options	with   <<-+>>,	 for   example
	      DPKG_PAGER="less -+F".

	      Defined by dpkg on the maintainer	script environment to indicate
	      which  installation to act on (since dpkg	1.18.5).  The value is
	      intended to be prepended to any path maintainer scripts  operate
	      on.   During  normal  operation,	this  variable is empty.  When
	      installing packages into	a  different  instdir,	dpkg  normally
	      invokes  maintainer  scripts  using  chroot(2)  and  leaves this
	      variable empty, but if  --force-script-chrootless	 is  specified
	      then the chroot(2) call is skipped and instdir is	non-empty.

	      Defined by dpkg on the maintainer	script environment to indicate
	      the dpkg administrative directory	to use	(since	dpkg  1.16.0).
	      This variable is always set to the current --admindir value.

	      Defined  by  dpkg	 on  the  subprocesses	environment to all the
	      currently	enabled	force option names separated by	commas	(since
	      dpkg 1.19.5).

	      Defined  by  dpkg	on the shell spawned on	the conffile prompt to
	      examine the situation (since dpkg	1.15.6).  Current valid	value:

	      Defined  by  dpkg	on the shell spawned on	the conffile prompt to
	      examine the situation (since dpkg	1.15.6).  Contains the path to
	      the old conffile.

	      Defined  by  dpkg	on the shell spawned on	the conffile prompt to
	      examine the situation (since dpkg	1.15.6).  Contains the path to
	      the new conffile.

	      Defined  by  dpkg	 on  the  shell	 spawned when executing	a hook
	      action (since dpkg 1.15.4).  Contains the	current	dpkg action.

	      Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
	      version  of  the	currently  running  dpkg  instance (since dpkg

	      Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
	      (non-arch-qualified)  package  name  being  handled  (since dpkg

	      Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
	      package  reference  count,  i.e. the number of package instances
	      with a state greater than	not-installed (since dpkg 1.17.2).

	      Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
	      architecture the package got built for (since dpkg 1.15.4).

	      Defined by dpkg on the maintainer	script environment to the name
	      of the script running, one of preinst, postinst, prerm or	postrm
	      (since dpkg 1.15.7).

	      Defined  by dpkg on the maintainer script	environment to a value
	      (`0' or `1') noting whether debugging has	been  requested	 (with
	      the  --debug  option)  for  the  maintainer  scripts (since dpkg

	      Configuration fragment files (since dpkg 1.15.4).

	      Configuration file with default options.

	      Default log file (see  /usr/local/etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg  and	option

       The  other  files  listed  below	 are in	their default directories, see
       option --admindir to see	how to change locations	of these files.

	      List of available	packages.

	      Statuses of available packages. This file	 contains  information
	      about  whether  a	package	is marked for removing or not, whether
	      it is installed or  not,	etc.  See  section  INFORMATION	 ABOUT
	      PACKAGES for more	info.

	      The  status  file	 is backed up daily in /var/backups. It	can be
	      useful if	it's lost or corrupted due to filesystems troubles.

       The format and contents of a binary package are described in deb(5).

       --no-act	usually	gives less information than might be helpful.

       To list installed packages related  to  the  editor  vi(1)  (note  that
       dpkg-query does not load	the available file anymore by default, and the
       dpkg-query --load-avail option should be	used instead for that):
	    dpkg -l '*vi*'

       To see the entries in /var/db/dpkg/available of two packages:
	    dpkg --print-avail elvis vim | less

       To search the listing of	packages yourself:
	    less /var/db/dpkg/available

       To remove an installed elvis package:
	    dpkg -r elvis

       To install a package, you first need to find it in an archive or	CDROM.
       The available file shows	that the vim package is	in section editors:
	    cd /media/cdrom/pool/main/v/vim
	    dpkg -i vim_4.5-3.deb

       To make a local copy of the package selection states:
	    dpkg --get-selections >myselections

       You  might  transfer  this  file	 to another computer, and after	having
       updated the available file there	with your package manager frontend  of
       choice  (see for	more details),
       for example:
	    apt-cache dumpavail	| dpkg --merge-avail
       or with dpkg 1.17.6 and earlier:
	    apt-cache dumpavail	>"$avail"
	    dpkg --merge-avail "$avail"
	    rm "$avail"
       you can install it with:
	    dpkg --clear-selections
	    dpkg --set-selections <myselections

       Note that this will not actually	install	or remove anything,  but  just
       set  the	 selection state on the	requested packages. You	will need some
       other application  to  actually	download  and  install	the  requested
       packages. For example, run apt-get dselect-upgrade.

       Ordinarily,  you	 will  find that dselect(1) provides a more convenient
       way to modify the package selection states.

       Additional functionality	 can  be  gained  by  installing  any  of  the
       following packages: apt,	aptitude and debsums.

       aptitude(1), apt(1), dselect(1),	dpkg-deb(1), dpkg-query(1), deb(5),
       deb-control(5), dpkg.cfg(5), and	dpkg-reconfigure(8).

       See /usr/local/share/doc/dpkg/THANKS for	the list of people who have
       contributed to dpkg.

1.19.7				  2019-06-03			       dpkg(1)


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