Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
echo(1)				 User Commands			       echo(1)

       echo - echo arguments

       /usr/bin/echo [string...]

       The  echo  utility writes its arguments,	separated by BLANKs and	termi-
       nated by	a NEWLINE, to the standard output. If there are	no  arguments,
       only the	NEWLINE	character will be written.

       echo  is	useful for producing diagnostics in command files, for sending
       known data into a pipe, and for displaying the contents of  environment

       The  C shell, the Korn shell, and the Bourne shell all have echo	built-
       in commands, which, by default, will be invoked if the user calls  echo
       without	a full pathname. See shell_builtins(1).	sh's echo, ksh's echo,
       and /usr/bin/echo understand the	back-slashed escape characters,	except
       that  sh's echo does not	understand \a as the alert character. In addi-
       tion,  ksh's  echo,  does  not  have  an	 -n  option.  sh's   echo  and
       /usr/bin/echo  only have	an -n option if	the SYSV3 environment variable
       is set (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES below). If it is, none	of  the	 back-
       slashed	characters  mentioned  above  are  available.  csh's  echo and
       /usr/ucb/echo, on the other hand, have an -n option, but	do not	under-
       stand the back-slashed escape characters.

       The following operand is	supported:

       string	A  string  to be written to standard output. If	any operand is
		"-n", it will be treated as a string, not an option. The  fol-
		lowing	character  sequences  will be recognized within	any of
		the arguments:

		\a	 Alert character.

		\b	 Backspace.

		\c	 Print line without new-line. All characters following
			 the \c	in the argument	are ignored.

		\f	 Form-feed.

		\n	 New-line.

		\r	 Carriage return.

		\t	 Tab.

		\v	 Vertical tab.

		\\	 Backslash.

		\0n	 Where	n  is  the 8-bit character whose ASCII code is
			 the 1-, 2- or 3-digit octal number representing  that

       Portable	 applications should not use -n	(as the	first argument)	or es-
       cape sequences.

       The printf(1) utility can be used portably to emulate any of the	tradi-
       tional behaviors	of the echo utility as follows:

	 o  The	 Solaris  2.6  operating  environment  or compatible version's
	    /usr/bin/echo is equivalent	to:

	    printf "%b\n" "$*"

	 o  The	/usr/ucb/echo is equivalent to:

	    if [ "X$1" = "X-n" ]



		    printf "%s"	"$*"


		    printf "%s\n" "$*"


       New applications	are encouraged to use printf instead of	echo.

       Example 1: Finding how far below	root your current directory is located

       You can use echo	to determine how many subdirectories  below  the  root
       directory (/) is	your current directory,	as follows:

	 o  Echo your current-working-directory's full pathname.

	 o  Pipe the output through tr to translate the	path's embedded	slash-
	    characters into space-characters.

	 o  Pipe that output through wc	-w for a count of the  names  in  your

	    example% /usr/bin/echo $PWD	| tr '/' ' ' | wc -w

       See tr(1) and wc(1) for their functionality.

       Below are the different flavors for echoing a string without a NEWLINE:

       Example 2: /usr/bin/echo

       example%	/usr/bin/echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

       Example 3: sh/ksh shells

       example$	echo "$USER's current directory	is $PWD\c"

       Example 4: csh shell

       example%	echo -n	"$USER's current directory is $PWD"

       Example 5: /usr/ucb/echo

       example%	/usr/ucb/echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

       See  environ(5) for descriptions	of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of echo: LANG,	LC_ALL,	LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       SYSV3	This  environment  variable  is	 used to provide compatibility
		with  INTERACTIVE  UNIX	 System	 and  SCO  UNIX	  installation
		scripts.  It is	intended for compatibility only	and should not
		be used	in new scripts.

       The following error values are returned:

       0	Successful completion.

       >0	An error occurred.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       |CSI			     |enabled			   |
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |

       echo(1B), printf(1), shell_builtins(1),	tr(1),	wc(1),	ascii(5),  at-
       tributes(5), environ(5),	standards(5)

       When  representing  an  8-bit  character	by using the escape convention
       \0n, the	n must always be preceded by the digit zero (0).

       For example, typing: echo 'WARNING:\07' will print the phrase  WARNING:
       and  sound  the	"bell" on your terminal. The use of single (or double)
       quotes (or two backslashes) is required to protect the  "\"  that  pre-
       cedes the "07".

       Following the \0, up to three digits are	used in	constructing the octal
       output character. If, following the \0n,	you want  to  echo  additional
       digits  that are	not part of the	octal representation, you must use the
       full 3-digit n. For example, if you want	to echo	"ESC 7"	you  must  use
       the  three  digits "033"	rather than just the two digits	"33" after the

	      2	digits	       Incorrect:      echo"0337 | od -xc
			       produces:       df0a		       (hex)
					       337		       (ascii)
	      3	digits	       Correct:	       echo "00337" | od -xc
			       produces:       lb37 0a00	       (hex)
					       033 7		       (ascii)

       For the octal equivalents of each character, see	ascii(5).

SunOS 5.10			  20 Jan 2000			       echo(1)


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help