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EE(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			 EE(1)

     ee	-- easy	editor

     ee	[-eih] [+#] [file ...]
     ree [-eih]	[+#] [file ...]

     The ee utility is a simple	screen oriented	text editor.  It is always in
     text insertion mode unless	there is a prompt at the bottom	of the termi-
     nal, or a menu present (in	a box in the middle of the terminal).  The ree
     utility is	the same as ee,	but restricted to editing the named file (no
     file operations, or shell escapes are allowed).

     For ee to work properly, the environment variable TERM must be set	to in-
     dicate the	type of	terminal being used.  For example, for an HP 700/92
     terminal, the TERM	variable should	be set to "70092".  See	your System
     Administrator if you need more information.

     The following options are available:

     -e	     Turn off expansion	of tab character to spaces.

     -i	     Turn off display of information window at top of terminal.

     -h	     Turn off highlighting of borders of windows and menus (improves
	     performance on some terminals).

     +#	     Move the cursor to	line '#' at startup.

   Control keys
     To	do anything other than insert text, the	user must use the control keys
     (the Control key, represented by a	"^", pressed in	conjunction with an
     alphabetic	key, e.g., ^a) and function keys available on the keyboard
     (such as Next Page, Prev Page, arrow keys,	etc.).

     Since not all terminals have function keys, ee has	the basic cursor move-
     ment functions assigned to	control	keys as	well as	more intuitive keys on
     the keyboard when available.  For instance, to move the cursor up,	the
     user can use the up arrow key, or ^u.

     ^a	     Prompt for	the decimal value of a character to insert.

     ^b	     Move to the bottom	of the text.

     ^c	     Get the prompt for	a command.

     ^d	     Move the cursor down.

     ^e	     Prompt for	the string to search for.

     ^f	     Undelete the last deleted character.

     ^g	     Move to the beginning of the line.

     ^h	     Backspace.

     ^i	     Tab.

     ^j	     Insert a newline.

     ^k	     Delete the	character the cursor is	sitting	on.

     ^l	     Move the cursor left.

     ^m	     Insert a newline.

     ^n	     Move to the next page.

     ^o	     Move to the end of	the line.

     ^p	     Move to the previous page.

     ^r	     Move the cursor to	the right.

     ^t	     Move to the top of	the text.

     ^u	     Move the cursor up.

     ^v	     Undelete the last deleted word.

     ^w	     Delete the	word beginning at the cursor position.

     ^x	     Search.

     ^y	     Delete from the cursor position to	the end	of line.

     ^z	     Undelete the last deleted line.

     ^[	(ESC)
	     Pop up menu.

   EMACS keys mode
     Since many	shells provide an Emacs	mode (for cursor movement and other
     editing operations), some bindings	that may be more useful	for people fa-
     miliar with those bindings	have been provided.  These are accessible via
     the settings menu,	or via the initialization file (see below).  The map-
     pings are as follows:

     ^a	     Move to the beginning of the line.

     ^b	     Back 1 character.

     ^c	     Command prompt.

     ^d	     Delete character the cursor is sitting on.

     ^e	     End of line.

     ^f	     Forward 1 character.

     ^g	     Go	back 1 page.

     ^h	     Backspace.

     ^i	     Tab.

     ^j	     Undelete last deleted character.

     ^k	     Delete line.

     ^l	     Undelete last deleted line.

     ^m	     Insert a newline.

     ^n	     Move to the next line.

     ^o	     Prompt for	the decimal value of a character to insert.

     ^p	     Previous line.

     ^r	     Restore last deleted word.

     ^t	     Move to the top of	the text.

     ^u	     Move to the bottom	of the text.

     ^v	     Move to the next page.

     ^w	     Delete the	word beginning at the cursor position.

     ^y	     Prompt for	the string to search for.

     ^z	     Next word.

     ^[	(ESC)
	     Pop up menu.

   Function Keys
     Next Page
	     Move to the next page.

     Prev Page
	     Move to the previous page.

     Delete Char
	     Delete the	character the cursor is	on.

     Delete Line
	     Delete from the cursor to the end of line.

     Insert line
	     Insert a newline at the cursor position.

     Arrow keys
	     Move the cursor in	the direction indicated.

     Some operations require more information than a single keystroke can pro-
     vide.  For	the most basic operations, there is a menu that	can be ob-
     tained by pressing	the ESC	key.  The same operations, and more can	be
     performed by obtaining the	command	prompt (^c) and	typing in one of the
     commands below.

     !cmd    Execute cmd in a shell.

     0-9     Move to the line indicated.

     case    Make searches case	sensitive.

	     Display the ASCII value of	the character at the cursor.

     exit    Save the edited text, and leave the editor.

     expand  Expand tabs to spaces.

     file    Print the name of the file.

     help    Display help screen.

     line    Display the current line number.

     nocase  Make searches insensitive to case (the default).

	     Do	not expand tab to spaces when the TAB key is pressed.

     quit    Leave the editor without saving changes.

     read file
	     Read the named file.

     write file
	     Write the text to the named file.

   Menu	Operations
     Pop-up menus can be obtained by pressing the escape key (or ^[ if no
     escape key	is present).  When in the menu,	the escape key can be used to
     leave the menu without performing any operations.	Use the	up and down
     arrow keys, or ^u for moving up and ^d for	moving down to move to the de-
     sired items in the	menu, then press return	to perform the indicated task.

     To	the left of each menu item is a	letter,	which if the corresponding
     letter is pressed on the keyboard selects that menu entry.

     The main menu in ee is as follows:

     leave editor
	     If	changes	have been made,	the user will get a menu prompting
	     whether or	not the	changes	should be saved.

     help    Display a help screen, with all of	the keyboard operations	and

     file operations
	     Pop up a menu for selecting whether to read a file, write to a
	     file, or save the current contents	of the editor, as well as send
	     the contents of the editor	to a print command (see	the section
	     Initializing ee from a file).

     redraw screen
	     Provide a means to	repaint	the screen if the screen has been cor-

	     Show the current values of	the operating modes, and right margin.
	     By	pressing return	when the cursor	is on a	particular item, the
	     value can be changed.  To leave this menu,	press the escape key.
	     (See Modes	below.)

     search  Pop up a menu in which the	user may choose	to enter a string to
	     search for, or search for a string	already	entered.

	     Pop up a menu that	allows the user	to format the current para-
	     graph, execute a shell command, or	check the spelling of the text
	     in	the editor.

   Paragraph Formatting
     Paragraphs	are defined for	ee by a	block of text bounded by:

     +o	     Begin or end of file.

     +o	     Line with no characters, or only spaces and/or tabs.

     +o	     Line starting with	a period ('.') or right	angle bracket ('>').

     A paragraph may be	formatted two ways: explicitly by choosing the format
     paragraph menu item, or by	setting	ee to automatically format paragraphs.
     The automatic mode	may be set via a menu, or via the initialization file.

     There are three states for	text operation in ee: free-form, margins, and
     automatic formatting.

     "Free-form" is best used for things like programming.  There are no re-
     strictions	on the length of lines,	and no formatting takes	place.

     "Margins" allows the user to type in text without having to worry about
     going beyond the right margin (the	right margin may be set	in the
     settings menu, the	default	is for the margin to be	the right edge of the
     terminal).	 This is the mode that allows the format paragraph menu	item
     to	work.

     "Automatic	formatting" provides word-processor-like behavior.  The	user
     may type in text, while ee	will make sure the entire paragraph fits
     within the	width of the terminal every time the user inserts a space af-
     ter typing	or deleting text.  Margin observation must also	be enabled in
     order for automatic formatting to occur.

     Although ee is a 'modeless' editor	(it is in text insertion mode all the
     time), there are modes in some of the things it does.  These include:

     tab expansion
	     Tabs may be inserted as a single tab character, or	replaced with

     case sensitivity
	     The search	operation can be sensitive to whether characters are
	     upper- or lower-case, or ignore case completely.

     margins observed
	     Lines can either be truncated at the right	margin,	or extend on

     auto paragraph formatting
	     While typing in text, the editor can try to keep it looking rea-
	     sonably well within the width of the screen.

     eightbit characters
	     Toggle whether eight bit characters are displayed as their	value
	     in	angle brackets (e.g. "<220>") or as a character.

     info window
	     A window showing the keyboard operations that can be performed
	     can be displayed or not.

     emacs keys
	     Control keys may be given bindings	similar	to emacs, or not.

     16	bit characters
	     Toggles whether sixteen bit characters are	handled	as one 16-bit
	     quantities	or two 8-bit quantities.  This works primarily with
	     the Chinese Big 5 code set.

     You may set these modes via the initialization file (see below), or with
     a menu (see above).

   Spell Checking
     There are two ways	to have	the spelling in	the text checked from ee.  One
     is	by the traditional spell(1) command, the other is with the optional
     ispell command.

     Using spell, the words that are not recognized will be placed at the top
     of	the file.  For the ispell option, the file is written to disk, then
     ispell run	on the file, and the file read back in once ispell has com-
     pleted making changes to the file.

   Printing the	contents of the	editor
     The user may select a menu	item which prints the contents of the editor.
     The ee utility pipes the text in the editor to the	command	specified by
     the initialization	command	printcommand (see the section Initializing ee
     from a file below).  The default is to send the contents to lp(1).

     Whatever the user assigns to printcommand must take input from standard
     input.  See your system administrator for more details.

   Shell operations
     Shell commands can	be executed from within	ee by selecting	the shell
     command item in the miscellaneous menu, or	by placing an exclamation mark
     ("!") before the command to execute at the	command: prompt.  Addition-
     ally, the user may	direct the contents of the edit	buffer out to a	shell
     operation (via a pipe) by using the left angle bracket (">"), followed by
     a "!" and the shell command to execute.  The output of a shell operation
     can also be directed into the edit	buffer by using	a right	angle bracket
     ("<") before the exclamation mark.	 These can even	be used	together to
     send output to a shell operation and read back the	results	into the edi-
     tor.  So, if the editor contained a list of words to be sorted, they
     could be sorted by	typing the following at	the command prompt:
     This would	send the contents of the editor	to be piped into the sort(1)
     utility and the result would be placed into the edit buffer at the	cur-
     rent cursor location.  The	old information	would have to be deleted by
     the user.

   Initializing	ee from	a file
     Since different users have	different preferences, ee allows some slight
     configurability.  There are three possible	locations for an initializa-
     tion file for ee: the file	/usr/share/misc/, the file in
     the user's	home directory,	or the file in	the current directory
     (if different from	the home directory).  This allows system administra-
     tors to set some preferences for the users	on a system-wide basis (for
     example, the print	command), and the user to customize settings for par-
     ticular directories (like one for correspondence, and a different direc-
     tory for programming).

     The file /usr/share/misc/ is read first, then $HOME/, then, with the	settings specified by the most recent file read	taking

     The following items may be	entered	in the initialization file:

     case    Set searches to be	case sensitive.

     nocase  Set searches to be	insensitive to case (default).

     expand  Cause ee to expand	tabs to	spaces (default).

	     Cause ee to insert	tabs as	a single character.

     info    A small information window	is displayed at	the top	of the termi-
	     nal (default).

     noinfo  Turn off the display of the information window.

	     Cause ee to truncate lines	at the right margin when the cursor
	     passes beyond the right margin as set by the user while text is
	     being inserted (default).

	     Allow lines to extend beyond the right margin.

	     Cause ee to automatically try to format the current paragraph
	     while text	insertion is occurring.

	     Turn off automatic	paragraph formatting (default).

	     Allow the setting of the print command (default: "lp").

	     The user can select a value for the right margin (the first col-
	     umn on the	screen is zero).

	     Turn on highlighting of border of information window and menus

	     Turn off highlighting of border of	information window and menus.

	     Turn on display of	eight bit characters.

	     Turn off display of eight bit characters (they are	displayed as
	     their decimal value inside	angle brackets,	e.g., "<220>").

     16bit   Turns on handling of 16-bit characters.

	     Turns off handling	of 16-bit characters.

     emacs   Turns on emacs key	bindings.

	     Turns off emacs key bindings.

   Save	Editor Configuration
     When using	this entry from	the settings menu, the user may	choose to save
     the current configuration of the editor (see Initializing ee from a file
     above) to a file named in	the current directory or the user's
     home directory.  If a file	named already exists, it will be re-

     ther Hewlett-Packard nor Hugh Mahon shall be liable for errors contained
     herein, nor for incidental	or consequential damages in connection with
     the furnishing, performance or use	of this	material.  Neither Hewlett-
     Packard nor Hugh Mahon assumes any	responsibility for the use or relia-
     bility of this software or	documentation.	This software and documenta-
     tion is totally UNSUPPORTED.  There is no support contract	available.
     Hewlett-Packard has done NO Quality Assurance on ANY of the program or
     documentation.  You may find the quality of the materials inferior	to
     supported materials.

     Always make a copy	of files that cannot be	easily reproduced before edit-
     ing.  Save	files early, and save often.

   International Code Set Support
     The ee utility supports single-byte character code	sets (eight-bit
     clean), or	the Chinese Big-5 code set.  (Other multi-byte code sets may
     function, but the reason Big-5 works is that a two-byte character also
     takes up two columns on the screen.)

     The automatic paragraph formatting	operation may be too slow for slower


     The software ee was developed by Hugh Mahon.

     This software and documentation contains proprietary information which is
     protected by copyright.  All rights are reserved.

     Copyright (c) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1996 Hugh Mahon.

     ispell(1) (ports/textproc/ispell),	lpr(1),	spell(1), termcap(5),
     terminfo(5), environ(7)

BSD				August 30, 1995				   BSD


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