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EMACS(1)		    General Commands Manual		      EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]

       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the	author of the original
       (PDP-10)	Emacs, Richard Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU	Emacs is  in  the  GNU	Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can	read on	line using Info, a subsystem of	Emacs.	Please
       look there for complete and up-to-date documentation.  This man page is
       updated	only  when someone volunteers to do so;	the Emacs maintainers'
       priority	goal is	to minimize the	amount of time	this  man  page	 takes
       away from other more useful projects.
       The  user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses	everything other Emacs
       editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands  are
       written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has an extensive interactive help	facility, but the facility as-
       sumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.	 CTRL-
       h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial	(CTRL-h	t) requests an
       interactive tutorial which can  teach  beginners	 the  fundamentals  of
       Emacs  in a few minutes.	 Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find	a com-
       mand given its functionality, Help Character  (CTRL-h  c)  describes  a
       given  character's  effect,  and	 Help  Function	(CTRL-h	f) describes a
       given Lisp function specified by	name.

       Emacs's Undo can	undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
       it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many	special	packages handle	mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),	compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell),	running	a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There is	an extensive reference manual,	but  users  of	other  Emacses
       should  have little trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users	new to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features	fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial	and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go  to  the line	specified by number (do	not insert a space be-
	       tween the "+" sign and the number).  This applies only  to  the
	       next file specified.

	       Go to the specified line	and column

       -q      Do not load an init file.

	       Do not load the site-wide startup file.

	       Enable  Emacs  Lisp  debugger during the	processing of the user
	       init file ~/.emacs.  This is useful for debugging  problems  in
	       the init	file.

       -u user Load user's init	file.

       -t file Use  specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/std-
	       out.  This must be the first argument specified in the  command

	       Display Emacs version information and exit.

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

       -f function
	       Execute the lisp	function function.

       -l file Load the	lisp code in the file file.

       -eval expr
	       Evaluate	the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful	when running Emacs as a	batch editor:

       -batch  Edit in batch mode.  The	editor will send messages  to  stderr.
	       This  option  must be the first in the argument list.  You must
	       use -l and -f options to	specify	files to execute and functions
	       to call.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while	in batch mode.

       -L directory
	       Add  directory  to  the	list of	directories Emacs searches for
	       Lisp files.

       Using Emacs with	X

       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If  you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X	window to dis-
       play in.	 You will probably want	to start the editor  as	 a  background
       process so that you can continue	using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -name name
	       Specifies  the  name  which  should  be assigned	to the initial
	       Emacs window.  This controls looking up X resources as well  as
	       the window title.

       -title name
	       Specifies the title for the initial X window.

       -r      Display the Emacs window	in reverse video.

       -i      Use  the	 "kitchen  sink" bitmap	icon when iconifying the Emacs

       -font font, -fn font
	       Set the Emacs window's font to that  specified  by  font.   You
	       will  find the various X	fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts	direc-
	       tory.  Note that	Emacs will only	accept fixed width fonts.  Un-
	       der  the	 X11  Release 4	font-naming conventions, any font with
	       the value "m" or	"c" in the eleventh field of the font name  is
	       a  fixed	 width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are	of the
	       form widthxheight are generally fixed width,  as	 is  the  font
	       fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more	information.

	       When  you  specify  a  font, be sure to put a space between the
	       switch and the font name.

       -bw pixels
	       Set the Emacs window's border width to  the  number  of	pixels
	       specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side	of the

       -ib pixels
	       Set the window's	internal border	width to the number of	pixels
	       specified  by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each
	       side of the window.

       --geometry geometry
	       Set the Emacs window's width, height, and  position  as	speci-
	       fied.   The geometry specification is in	the standard X format;
	       see X(1)	for more information.  The width and height are	speci-
	       fied  in	 characters;  the  default is 80 by 24.	 See the Emacs
	       manual, section "Options	for Window Size	and Position", for in-
	       formation  on how window	sizes interact with selecting or dese-
	       lecting the tool	bar and	menu bar.

       -fg color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	text.

	       See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a	list  of  valid	 color

       -bg color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	window's background.

       -bd color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	window's border.

       -cr color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	window's text cursor.

       -ms color
	       On color	displays, sets the color of the	window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display	displayname
	       Create  the  Emacs  window on the display specified by display-
	       name.  Must be the first	option specified in the	command	line.

       -nw     Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you  use
	       this  switch  when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, dis-
	       play is done in that window.  This must	be  the	 first	option
	       specified in the	command	line.

       You can set X default values for	your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use	the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following	keywords:

       font (class Font)
	       Sets the	window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
	       If  reverseVideo's  value is set	to on, the window will be dis-
	       played in reverse video.

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
	       If bitmapIcon's value is	set to on,  the	 window	 will  iconify
	       into the	"kitchen sink."

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the	window's border	width in pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the	window's internal border width in pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets	the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
	       For color displays, sets	the window's background	color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       For color displays, sets	the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets	the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
	       For  color  displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cur-

       geometry	(class Geometry)
	       Sets the	geometry of the	Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
	       Sets the	title of the Emacs window.

       iconName	(class Title)
	       Sets the	icon name for the Emacs	window icon.

       If you try to set color values while using a black and  white  display,
       the  window's  characteristics  will default as follows:	the foreground
       color will be set to black, the background color	will be	set to	white,
       the  border  color  will	be set to grey,	and the	text and mouse cursors
       will be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The following lists the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window  un-
       der X11.

       left		   Set point.
       middle		   Paste text.
       right		   Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-middle	   Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-right	   Paste text.
       CTRL-middle	   Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
       CTRL-right	   Select this window, then split it into two windows.
			   Same	as typing CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left	   X buffer menu--hold the buttons and keys down, wait
			   for	menu  to  appear,  select buffer, and release.
			   Move	mouse out of menu and release to cancel.
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle   X help menu--pop up index card menu for Emacs help.
       CTRL-SHIFT-right	   Select window with mouse, and delete	all other win-
			   dows.  Same as typing CTRL-x	1.

       You  can	 order	printed	 copies	 of the	GNU Emacs Manual from the Free
       Software	Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the file	ORDERS
       for ordering information.
       Your  local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As with
       all software and	publications from FSF, everyone	is permitted  to  make
       and  distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The	TeX source to the man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source	distribution.

       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem
       of  Emacs) to refer to.	Currently not much of Unix is documented here,
       but the complete	text of	the Emacs reference manual is  included	 in  a
       convenient tree structured form.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/src - C source files and	object files

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  -	Lisp source files and compiled
       files that define most editing commands.	 Some  are  preloaded;	others
       are autoloaded from this	directory when used.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc  -  various	programs that are used
       with GNU	Emacs, and some	files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* - contains the	 documentation
       strings	for  the  Lisp	primitives and preloaded Lisp functions	of GNU
       Emacs.  They are	stored here to reduce the size of Emacs	proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/OTHER.EMACSES discusses  GNU	 Emacs
       vs. other versions of Emacs.
       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people	offering vari-
       ous services to assist users of GNU Emacs, including  education,	 trou-
       bleshooting, porting and	customization.
       These  files  also  have	 information useful to anyone wishing to write
       programs	in the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has	not  yet  been
       fully documented.

       /usr/local/com/emacs/lock  -  holds  lock  files	 that are made for all
       files being modified in Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification  of
       one file	by two users.

       /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.

       There  is a mailing list, on the internet
       (ucbvax!!bug-gnu-emacs on	UUCPnet), for reporting	 Emacs
       bugs and	fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please	try to
       be sure that it really is a bug,	not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	  We ask you to	read the section ``Reporting Emacs Bugs'' near
       the end of the reference	manual (or Info	system)	for hints on  how  and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are running in every bug	report that you	send in.

       Do not expect a personal	answer to a bug	report.	 The  purpose  of  re-
       porting	bugs is	to get them fixed for everyone in the next release, if
       possible.  For personal assistance,  look  in  the  SERVICE  file  (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  Send
       requests	to be added to mailing lists to	 the  special  list  info-gnu- (or the corresponding UUCP	address).  For
       more information	about Emacs  mailing  lists,  see  the	file  /usr/lo-
       cal/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can
       be isolated, so it is in	your interest to report	them  in  such	a  way
       that they can be	easily reproduced.

       Bugs  that  I know about	are: shell will	not work with programs running
       in Raw mode on some Unix	versions.

       Emacs is	free; anyone may redistribute copies of	Emacs to anyone	 under
       the  terms  stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which
       accompanies each	copy of	Emacs and which	also appears in	the  reference

       Copies  of  Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions
       of Unix systems,	but it is never	included in the	scope of  any  license
       covering	 those	systems.   Such	 inclusion violates the	terms on which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the	primary	purpose	of the General
       Public  License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any	other restric-
       tions to	redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman	encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and	 urges
       that you	contribute your	extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's Not Unix)	will be	a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix.  Ev-
       eryone will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       Joachim Martillo	and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

       Copyright (c) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
	     2006 Free Software	Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to	make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       document	 provided  the copyright notice	and this permission notice are
       preserved on all	copies.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       document	 under	the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
       entire resulting	derived	work is	distributed under the terms of a  per-
       mission notice identical	to this	one.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute translations of this docu-
       ment into another language, under the  above  conditions	 for  modified
       versions,  except that this permission notice may be stated in a	trans-
       lation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

4th Berkeley Distribution      2001 November 23			      EMACS(1)


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