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EMACS(1)		    General Commands Manual		      EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the	author of the original
       (PDP-10)	Emacs, Richard Stallman.  The user functionality of GNU	 Emacs
       encompasses  everything	other  editors do, and it is easily extensible
       since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       The primary documentation of GNU	Emacs is  in  the  GNU	Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can	read  using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone
       program.	 Please	look there for complete	and up-to-date	documentation.
       This man	page is	updated	only when someone volunteers to	do so.

       Emacs  has an extensive interactive help	facility, but the facility as-
       sumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.	 CTRL-
       h  or  F1 enters	the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) starts an
       interactive tutorial to quickly teach  beginners	 the  fundamentals  of
       Emacs.	Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h	a)  helps you find a command given its
       functionality, Help Key (CTRL-h k) describes a given key	sequence,  and
       Help Function (CTRL-h f)	describes a given Lisp function.

       GNU Emacs's many	special	packages handle	mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),	compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell),	running	a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode),  automated	 psychotherapy	(Doctor),  and
       much more.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

	      file    Edit file.

	      --file file, --find-file file, --visit file
		      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

	      +number Go  to  the  line	 specified  by number (do not insert a
		      space between the	"+" sign and the  number).   This  ap-
		      plies only to the	next file specified.

		      Go to the	specified line and column.

	      -q, --no-init-file
		      Do not load an init file.

		      Do not load the site-wide	startup	file.

		      Do not load a saved desktop.

	      -Q, --quick
		      Similar to "-q --no-site-file --no-splash".  Also, avoid
		      processing X resources.

		      Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

		      Enable Emacs Lisp	debugger during	the processing of  the
		      user  init  file ~/.emacs.  This is useful for debugging
		      problems in the init file.

	      -u user, --user user
		      Load user's init file.

	      -t file, --terminal file
		      Use specified file as  the  terminal  instead  of	 using
		      stdin/stdout.  This must be the first argument specified
		      in the command line.

		      Start Emacs as a daemon, enabling	the Emacs  server  and
		      disconnecting  from  the terminal.  You can then use the
		      emacsclient command to connect to	the server (see	 emac-

		      Display Emacs version information	and exit.

	      --help  Display this help	and exit.

       The following options are Lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

	      -f function, --funcall function
		      Execute the lisp function	function.

	      -l file, --load file
		      Load the lisp code in the	file file.

	      --eval expr, --execute expr
		      Evaluate the Lisp	expression expr.

       The following options are useful	when running Emacs as a	batch editor:

	      --batch Edit in batch mode.  The editor will  send  messages  to
		      stderr.  You must	use -l and -f options to specify files
		      to execute and functions to call.

	      --script file
		      Run file as an Emacs Lisp	script.

	      --insert file
		      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

	      --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch	mode.

	      -L dir, --directory dir
		      Add dir to the list of directories  Emacs	 searches  for
		      Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs  has been tailored	to work	well with the X	window system.	If you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X	window to dis-
       play  in.   You	will probably want to start the	editor as a background
       process so that you can continue	using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

	      --name name
		      Specify the name which should be assigned	to the initial
		      Emacs  window.   This controls looking up	X resources as
		      well as the window title.

	      -T name, --title name
		      Specify the title	for the	initial	X window.

	      -r, -rv, --reverse-video
		      Display the Emacs	window in reverse video.

	      -fn font,	--font font
		      Set the Emacs window's font to that specified  by	 font.
		      You   will   find	  the	various	  X   fonts   in   the
		      /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will only
		      accept fixed width fonts.	 Under the X11 Release 4 font-
		      naming conventions, any font with	the value "m"  or  "c"
		      in  the eleventh field of	the font name is a fixed width
		      font.  Furthermore, fonts	whose name  are	 of  the  form
		      widthxheight  are	 generally fixed width,	as is the font
		      fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

		      When you specify a font, be sure to put a	space  between
		      the switch and the font name.

	      --xrm resources
		      Set additional X resources.

	      --color, --color=mode
		      Override	color  mode  for character terminals; mode de-
		      faults to	`auto',	and can	also be	`never', `auto',  `al-
		      ways', or	a mode name like `ansi8'.

	      -bw pixels, --border-width pixels
		      Set  the	Emacs  window's	 border	width to the number of
		      pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to	one  pixel  on
		      each side	of the window.

	      -ib pixels, --internal-border pixels
		      Set  the window's	internal border	width to the number of
		      pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to	one  pixel  of
		      padding on each side of the window.

	      -g geometry, --geometry geometry
		      Set  the	Emacs  window's	width, height, and position as
		      specified.  The geometry specification is	in  the	 stan-
		      dard X format; see X(7) for more information.  The width
		      and height are specified in characters; the  default  is
		      80  by  24.   See	the Emacs manual, section "Options for
		      Window Size and Position", for information on how	window
		      sizes  interact  with  selecting or deselecting the tool
		      bar and menu bar.

	      -lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels
		      Additional space to put between lines.

	      -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
		      Enable vertical scrollbars.

	      -fh, --fullheight
		      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

	      -fs, --fullscreen
		      Make the first frame fullscreen.

	      -fw, --fullwidth
		      Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

	      -mm, --maximized
		      Maximize the first frame,	like "-fw -fh".

	      -fg color, --foreground-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the text.

		      Use the command M-x list-colors-display for  a  list  of
		      valid color names.

	      -bg color, --background-color color
		      On  color	 displays, set the color of the	window's back-

	      -bd color, --border-color	color
		      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

	      -cr color, --cursor-color	color
		      On color displays, set the color of  the	window's  text

	      -ms color, --mouse-color color
		      On  color	 displays, set the color of the	window's mouse

	      -d displayname, --display	displayname
		      Create the Emacs window on the display specified by dis-
		      playname.	  Must	be  the	 first option specified	in the
		      command line.

	      -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
		      Do not use picture of gnu	for Emacs icon.

		      Start Emacs in iconified state.

	      -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
		      Disable blinking cursor.

	      -nw, --no-window-system
		      Tell Emacs not to	create a graphical frame.  If you  use
		      this switch when invoking	Emacs from an xterm(1) window,
		      display is done in that window.

	      -D, --basic-display
		      This option disables many	display	features; use  it  for
		      debugging	Emacs.

       You can set X default values for	your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use	the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following	keywords:

	      background (class	Background)
		      For color	displays, sets the window's background color.

	      bitmapIcon (class	BitmapIcon)
		      If  bitmapIcon's	value  is  set	to on, the window will
		      iconify into the "kitchen	sink."

	      borderColor (class BorderColor)
		      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's  bor-

	      borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's	border width in	pixels.

	      cursorColor (class Foreground)
		      For  color displays, sets	the color of the window's text

	      cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
		      Specifies	whether	to make	the cursor blink.  The default
		      is on.  Use off or false to turn cursor blinking off.

	      font (class Font)
		      Sets the window's	text font.

	      foreground (class	Foreground)
		      For color	displays, sets the window's text color.

	      fullscreen (class	Fullscreen)
		      The  desired  fullscreen	size.  The value can be	one of
		      fullboth,	fullwidth, or fullheight, which	correspond  to
		      the  command-line	 options  `-fs', `-fw',	and `-fh', re-
		      spectively.  Note	that this applies to the initial frame

	      geometry (class Geometry)
		      Sets  the	 geometry  of  the  Emacs window (as described

	      iconName (class Title)
		      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

	      internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's	internal border	width in pixels.

	      lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
		      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

	      menuBar (class MenuBar)
		      Gives frames menu	bars if	on; don't have	menu  bars  if
		      off.   See  the Emacs manual, sections "Lucid Resources"
		      and "LessTif Resources", for how to control the  appear-
		      ance of the menu bar if you have one.

	      minibuffer (class	Minibuffer)
		      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.  It will
		      use a separate minibuffer	frame instead.

	      paneFont (class Font)
		      Font name	for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit  versions
		      of Emacs.

	      pointerColor (class Foreground)
		      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's mouse

	      privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
		      If on, use a private color map, in the  case  where  the
		      "default visual" of class	PseudoColor and	Emacs is using

	      reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
		      If reverseVideo's	value is set to	on, the	window will be
		      displayed	in reverse video.

	      screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
		      Gamma correction for colors, equivalent to the frame pa-
		      rameter `screen-gamma'.

	      scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
		      The scroll bar width in pixels, equivalent to the	 frame
		      parameter	`scroll-bar-width'.

	      selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
		      Font name	for pop-up menu	items, in non-toolkit versions
		      of Emacs.	 (For toolkit versions,	see the	Emacs  manual,
		      sections "Lucid Resources" and "LessTif Resources".)

	      selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
		      Number of	milliseconds to	wait for a selection reply.  A
		      value of 0 means wait as long as necessary.

	      synchronous (class Synchronous)
		      Run Emacs	in synchronous mode if on.   Synchronous  mode
		      is useful	for debugging X	problems.

	      title (class Title)
		      Sets the title of	the Emacs window.

	      toolBar (class ToolBar)
		      Number of	lines to reserve for the tool bar.

	      useXIM (class UseXIM)
		      Turns off	use of X input methods (XIM) if	false or off.

	      verticalScrollBars (class	ScrollBars)
		      Gives  frames  scroll bars if on;	suppresses scroll bars
		      if off.

	      visualClass (class VisualClass)
		      Specify the "visual" that	X should use.	This  tells  X
		      how  to  handle colors.  The value should	start with one
		      of  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  DirectColor,  StaticColor,
		      GrayScale,  and  StaticGray,  followed  by -depth, where
		      depth is the number of color planes.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU	Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software	 Foundation, which develops GNU	software.  See the file	ORDERS
       for ordering information.
       Your local Emacs	maintainer might also have copies available.  As  with
       all  software  and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make
       and distribute copies of	the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the  man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source	distribution.

       /usr/local/share/info --	files for the Info documentation browser.  The
       complete	text of	the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient
       tree  structured	 form.	Also includes the Emacs	Lisp Reference Manual,
       useful to anyone	wishing	to write programs in the Emacs Lisp  extension

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  --	Lisp source files and compiled
       files that define most editing commands.	 Some  are  preloaded;	others
       are autoloaded from this	directory when used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH	--  various  programs that are
       used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc -- various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* -- contains the documentation
       strings	for  the  Lisp	primitives and preloaded Lisp functions	of GNU
       Emacs.  They are	stored here to reduce the size of Emacs	proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people	offering vari-
       ous  services  to assist	users of GNU Emacs, including education, trou-
       bleshooting, porting and	customization.

       There is	a mailing list,,	 for  reporting	 Emacs
       bugs and	fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please	try to
       be sure that it really is a bug,	not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	  We ask you to	read the section ``Reporting Emacs Bugs'' near
       the end of the reference	manual (or Info	system)	for hints on  how  and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are running in every bug	report that you	send in.  Bugs	tend  actually
       to  be  fixed if	they can be isolated, so it is in your interest	to re-
       port them in such a way that they can be	easily reproduced.

       Do not expect a personal	answer to a bug	report.	 The  purpose  of  re-
       porting	bugs is	to get them fixed for everyone in the next release, if
       possible.  For personal assistance,  look  in  the  SERVICE  file  (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please  do not send anything but	bug reports to this mailing list.  For
       more information	about Emacs  mailing  lists,  see  the	file  /usr/lo-

       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated	in the Emacs General Public License, a copy  of	 which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be	received packaged  with	 distributions
       of  Unix	 systems, but it is never included in the scope	of any license
       covering	those systems.	Such inclusion violates	 the  terms  on	 which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the	primary	purpose	of the General
       Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other  restric-
       tions to	redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard	Stallman encourages you	to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you	contribute your	extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's  Not  Unix)  will	 be a complete replacement for Unix.  Everyone
       will be free to use, copy, study	and change the GNU system.

       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       For detailed credits and	acknowledgements, see the GNU Emacs manual.

       Copyright  (C)  1995,  1999,  2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,
       2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free Software Foundation,	Inc.

       Permission is granted to	make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       document	 provided  the copyright notice	and this permission notice are
       preserved on all	copies.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       document	 under	the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
       entire resulting	derived	work is	distributed under the terms of a  per-
       mission notice identical	to this	one.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute translations of this docu-
       ment into another language, under the  above  conditions	 for  modified
       versions,  except that this permission notice may be stated in a	trans-
       lation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 23.2			 2007 April 13			      EMACS(1)


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