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GETRLIMIT(2)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		  GETRLIMIT(2)

       getrlimit, setrlimit, prlimit - get/set resource	limits

       #include	<sys/time.h>
       #include	<sys/resource.h>

       int getrlimit(int resource, struct rlimit *rlim);
       int setrlimit(int resource, const struct	rlimit *rlim);

       int prlimit(pid_t pid, int resource, const struct rlimit	*new_limit,
		   struct rlimit *old_limit);

   Feature Test	Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       prlimit(): _GNU_SOURCE && _FILE_OFFSET_BITS == 64

       The  getrlimit()	and setrlimit()	system calls get and set resource lim-
       its respectively.  Each resource	has an associated soft and hard	limit,
       as defined by the rlimit	structure:

	   struct rlimit {
	       rlim_t rlim_cur;	 /* Soft limit */
	       rlim_t rlim_max;	 /* Hard limit (ceiling	for rlim_cur) */

       The  soft  limit	 is  the value that the	kernel enforces	for the	corre-
       sponding	resource.  The hard limit acts	as  a  ceiling	for  the  soft
       limit:  an  unprivileged	process	may set	only its soft limit to a value
       in the range from 0 up to the hard limit, and (irreversibly) lower  its
       hard   limit.	A  privileged  process	(under	Linux:	one  with  the
       CAP_SYS_RESOURCE	capability) may	make arbitrary changes to either limit

       The  value  RLIM_INFINITY  denotes  no limit on a resource (both	in the
       structure returned by getrlimit() and in	the structure passed to	 setr-

       The resource argument must be one of:

	      The maximum size of the process's	virtual	memory (address	space)
	      in bytes.	 This limit affects  calls  to	brk(2),	 mmap(2),  and
	      mremap(2),  which	fail with the error ENOMEM upon	exceeding this
	      limit.  Also automatic stack expansion will fail (and generate a
	      SIGSEGV  that  kills  the	process	if no alternate	stack has been
	      made available via sigaltstack(2)).  Since the value is a	 long,
	      on  machines  with  a 32-bit long	either this limit is at	most 2
	      GiB, or this resource is unlimited.

	      Maximum size of a	core file (see core(5)).  When 0 no core  dump
	      files  are created.  When	nonzero, larger	dumps are truncated to
	      this size.

	      CPU time limit in	seconds.  When the process  reaches  the  soft
	      limit, it	is sent	a SIGXCPU signal.  The default action for this
	      signal is	to terminate the process.  However, the	signal can  be
	      caught,  and the handler can return control to the main program.
	      If the process continues to consume CPU time, it	will  be  sent
	      SIGXCPU  once  per  second  until	 the hard limit	is reached, at
	      which time it is sent SIGKILL.   (This  latter  point  describes
	      Linux  behavior.	 Implementations  vary	in how they treat pro-
	      cesses which continue to consume CPU  time  after	 reaching  the
	      soft  limit.  Portable applications that need to catch this sig-
	      nal should perform an orderly termination	upon first receipt  of

	      The  maximum  size  of  the  process's data segment (initialized
	      data, uninitialized data,	and heap).  This limit	affects	 calls
	      to brk(2)	and sbrk(2), which fail	with the error ENOMEM upon en-
	      countering the soft limit	of this	resource.

	      The maximum size of files	that the process may create.  Attempts
	      to  extend  a  file  beyond  this	 limit result in delivery of a
	      SIGXFSZ signal.  By default, this	signal terminates  a  process,
	      but  a  process can catch	this signal instead, in	which case the
	      relevant system call (e.g., write(2),  truncate(2))  fails  with
	      the error	EFBIG.

       RLIMIT_LOCKS (Early Linux 2.4 only)
	      A	 limit	on  the	combined number	of flock(2) locks and fcntl(2)
	      leases that this process may establish.

	      The maximum number of bytes of memory that may  be  locked  into
	      RAM.  In effect this limit is rounded down to the	nearest	multi-
	      ple of the system	page size.  This limit	affects	 mlock(2)  and
	      mlockall(2)  and	the mmap(2) MAP_LOCKED operation.  Since Linux
	      2.6.9 it also affects the	shmctl(2) SHM_LOCK operation, where it
	      sets a maximum on	the total bytes	in shared memory segments (see
	      shmget(2)) that may be locked by the real	user ID	of the calling
	      process.	 The  shmctl(2)	SHM_LOCK locks are accounted for sepa-
	      rately  from  the	 per-process  memory  locks   established   by
	      mlock(2),	 mlockall(2),  and  mmap(2)  MAP_LOCKED; a process can
	      lock bytes up to this limit in each of these two categories.  In
	      Linux  kernels before 2.6.9, this	limit controlled the amount of
	      memory that could	be locked  by  a  privileged  process.	 Since
	      Linux 2.6.9, no limits are placed	on the amount of memory	that a
	      privileged process may lock, and this limit instead governs  the
	      amount of	memory that an unprivileged process may	lock.

       RLIMIT_MSGQUEUE (since Linux 2.6.8)
	      Specifies	the limit on the number	of bytes that can be allocated
	      for POSIX	message	queues for the real user  ID  of  the  calling
	      process.	 This  limit is	enforced for mq_open(3).  Each message
	      queue that the user creates counts (until	it is removed) against
	      this limit according to the formula:

		  Since	Linux 3.5:
		      bytes = attr.mq_maxmsg * sizeof(struct msg_msg) +
			      min(attr.mq_maxmsg, MQ_PRIO_MAX) *
				    sizeof(struct posix_msg_tree_node)+
					      /* For overhead */
			      attr.mq_maxmsg * attr.mq_msgsize;
					      /* For message data */

		  Linux	3.4 and	earlier:
		      bytes = attr.mq_maxmsg * sizeof(struct msg_msg *)	+
					      /* For overhead */
			      attr.mq_maxmsg * attr.mq_msgsize;
					      /* For message data */

	      where  attr is the mq_attr structure specified as	the fourth ar-
	      gument to	mq_open(3), and	the  msg_msg  and  posix_msg_tree_node
	      structures are kernel-internal structures.

	      The "overhead" addend in the formula accounts for	overhead bytes
	      required by the implementation and ensures that the user	cannot
	      create  an  unlimited  number of zero-length messages (such mes-
	      sages nevertheless each consume some system memory for bookkeep-
	      ing overhead).

       RLIMIT_NICE (since Linux	2.6.12,	but see	BUGS below)
	      Specifies	 a  ceiling  to	 which the process's nice value	can be
	      raised using setpriority(2) or nice(2).  The actual ceiling  for
	      the  nice	 value is calculated as	20 - rlim_cur.	(This strange-
	      ness occurs because negative numbers cannot be specified as  re-
	      source limit values, since they typically	have special meanings.
	      For example, RLIM_INFINITY typically is the same as -1.)

	      Specifies	a value	one greater than the maximum  file  descriptor
	      number  that  can	be opened by this process.  Attempts (open(2),
	      pipe(2), dup(2), etc.)  to exceed	this limit yield the error EM-
	      FILE.  (Historically, this limit was named RLIMIT_OFILE on BSD.)

	      The  maximum  number  of processes (or, more precisely on	Linux,
	      threads) that can	be created for the real	user ID	of the calling
	      process.	 Upon  encountering this limit,	fork(2)	fails with the
	      error EAGAIN.  This limit	is not	enforced  for  processes  that
	      have  either  the	CAP_SYS_ADMIN or the CAP_SYS_RESOURCE capabil-

	      Specifies	the limit (in pages) of	 the  process's	 resident  set
	      (the  number  of virtual pages resident in RAM).	This limit has
	      effect only in Linux 2.4.x, x < 30, and there affects only calls
	      to madvise(2) specifying MADV_WILLNEED.

       RLIMIT_RTPRIO (since Linux 2.6.12, but see BUGS)
	      Specifies	 a  ceiling  on	the real-time priority that may	be set
	      for this	process	 using	sched_setscheduler(2)  and  sched_set-

       RLIMIT_RTTIME (since Linux 2.6.25)
	      Specifies	 a  limit  (in microseconds) on	the amount of CPU time
	      that a process scheduled under a real-time scheduling policy may
	      consume  without making a	blocking system	call.  For the purpose
	      of this limit, each time a process makes a blocking system call,
	      the  count  of  its consumed CPU time is reset to	zero.  The CPU
	      time count is not	reset if the process continues trying  to  use
	      the  CPU	but  is	preempted, its time slice expires, or it calls

	      Upon reaching the	soft limit, the	process	is sent	a SIGXCPU sig-
	      nal.   If	the process catches or ignores this signal and contin-
	      ues consuming CPU	time, then SIGXCPU will	be generated once each
	      second  until  the  hard	limit  is  reached, at which point the
	      process is sent a	SIGKILL	signal.

	      The intended use of this limit is	to stop	 a  runaway  real-time
	      process from locking up the system.

       RLIMIT_SIGPENDING (since	Linux 2.6.8)
	      Specifies	 the limit on the number of signals that may be	queued
	      for the real user	ID of the calling process.  Both standard  and
	      real-time	 signals  are counted for the purpose of checking this
	      limit.  However, the limit is enforced only for sigqueue(3);  it
	      is  always  possible to use kill(2) to queue one instance	of any
	      of the signals that are not already queued to the	process.

	      The maximum size of the process stack, in	bytes.	Upon  reaching
	      this  limit, a SIGSEGV signal is generated.  To handle this sig-
	      nal, a process must employ an alternate  signal  stack  (sigalt-

	      Since  Linux  2.6.23,  this  limit also determines the amount of
	      space used for the process's command-line	arguments and environ-
	      ment variables; for details, see execve(2).

       The Linux-specific prlimit() system call	combines and extends the func-
       tionality of setrlimit()	and getrlimit().  It can be used to  both  set
       and get the resource limits of an arbitrary process.

       The resource argument has the same meaning as for setrlimit() and getr-

       If the new_limit	argument is a not NULL,	then the rlimit	 structure  to
       which  it points	is used	to set new values for the soft and hard	limits
       for resource.  If the old_limit argument	is a not NULL, then a success-
       ful  call to prlimit() places the previous soft and hard	limits for re-
       source in the rlimit structure pointed to by old_limit.

       The pid argument	specifies the ID of the	process	on which the  call  is
       to operate.  If pid is 0, then the call applies to the calling process.
       To set or get the resources of a	process	other than itself, the	caller
       must  have the CAP_SYS_RESOURCE capability, or the real,	effective, and
       saved set user IDs of the target	process	must match the real user ID of
       the caller and the real,	effective, and saved set group IDs of the tar-
       get process must	match the real group ID	of the caller.

       On success, these system	calls return 0.	 On error, -1 is returned, and
       errno is	set appropriately.

       EFAULT A	 pointer  argument points to a location	outside	the accessible
	      address space.

       EINVAL The value	specified in resource is  not  valid;  or,  for	 setr-
	      limit()	or   prlimit():	  rlim-_rlim_cur   was	 greater  than

       EPERM  An unprivileged process tried  to	 raise	the  hard  limit;  the
	      CAP_SYS_RESOURCE	capability  is	required  to do	this.  Or, the
	      caller tried to increase the hard	RLIMIT_NOFILE limit above  the
	      current  kernel  maximum (NR_OPEN).  Or, the calling process did
	      not have permission to set limits	for the	process	 specified  by

       ESRCH  Could not	find a process with the	ID specified in	pid.

       The  prlimit()  system  call  is	available since	Linux 2.6.36.  Library
       support is available since glibc	2.13.

       getrlimit(), setrlimit(): SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001.
       prlimit(): Linux-specific.

       RLIMIT_MEMLOCK and RLIMIT_NPROC derive from BSD and are	not  specified
       in  POSIX.1-2001;  they	are  present on	the BSDs and Linux, but	on few
       other implementations.  RLIMIT_RSS derives from BSD and is  not	speci-
       fied  in	 POSIX.1-2001;	it is nevertheless present on most implementa-
       RLIMIT_SIGPENDING are Linux-specific.

       A child process created via fork(2) inherits its	parent's resource lim-
       its.  Resource limits are preserved across execve(2).

       Lowering	the soft limit for a resource below the	process's current con-
       sumption	 of  that  resource will succeed (but will prevent the process
       from further increasing its consumption of the resource).

       One can set the resource	limits of the shell using the built-in	ulimit
       command	(limit	in csh(1)).  The shell's resource limits are inherited
       by the processes	that it	creates	to execute commands.

       Since Linux 2.6.24, the resource	limits of any process can be inspected
       via /proc/[pid]/limits; see proc(5).

       Ancient	systems	provided a vlimit() function with a similar purpose to
       setrlimit().  For backward compatibility, glibc also provides vlimit().
       All new applications should be written using setrlimit().

   C library/ kernel ABI differences
       Since version 2.13, the glibc getrlimit() and setrlimit() wrapper func-
       tions no	longer invoke the corresponding	system calls, but instead  em-
       ploy prlimit(), for the reasons described in BUGS.

       In  older Linux kernels,	the SIGXCPU and	SIGKILL	signals	delivered when
       a process encountered the soft and hard RLIMIT_CPU limits  were	deliv-
       ered one	(CPU) second later than	they should have been.	This was fixed
       in kernel 2.6.8.

       In 2.6.x	kernels	before 2.6.17, a RLIMIT_CPU  limit  of	0  is  wrongly
       treated	as  "no	limit" (like RLIM_INFINITY).  Since Linux 2.6.17, set-
       ting a limit of 0 does have an effect, but is  actually	treated	 as  a
       limit of	1 second.

       A  kernel  bug means that RLIMIT_RTPRIO does not	work in	kernel 2.6.12;
       the problem is fixed in kernel 2.6.13.

       In kernel 2.6.12, there was an off-by-one mismatch between the priority
       ranges returned by getpriority(2) and RLIMIT_NICE.  This	had the	effect
       that  the  actual  ceiling  for	the  nice  value  was  calculated   as
       19 - rlim_cur.  This was	fixed in kernel	2.6.13.

       Since  Linux 2.6.12, if a process reaches its soft RLIMIT_CPU limit and
       has a handler installed for SIGXCPU, then, in addition to invoking  the
       signal  handler,	 the  kernel  increases	 the soft limit	by one second.
       This behavior repeats if	the process continues to consume CPU time, un-
       til  the	 hard  limit is	reached, at which point	the process is killed.
       Other implementations do	not change the RLIMIT_CPU soft limit  in  this
       manner,	and  the  Linux	behavior is probably not standards conformant;
       portable	applications should avoid relying on this  Linux-specific  be-
       havior.	 The  Linux-specific RLIMIT_RTTIME limit exhibits the same be-
       havior when the soft limit is encountered.

       Kernels before 2.4.22 did not diagnose the error	EINVAL for setrlimit()
       when rlim-_rlim_cur was greater than rlim-_rlim_max.

   Representation of "large" resource limit values on 32-bit platforms
       The  glibc  getrlimit()	and setrlimit()	wrapper	functions use a	64-bit
       rlim_t data type, even on 32-bit	platforms.  However, the  rlim_t  data
       type used in the	getrlimit() and	setrlimit() system calls is a (32-bit)
       unsigned	long.  Furthermore, in Linux versions before 2.6.36, the  ker-
       nel  represents	resource  limits on 32-bit platforms as	unsigned long.
       However,	a 32-bit data type is not wide	enough.	  The  most  pertinent
       limit here is RLIMIT_FSIZE, which specifies the maximum size to which a
       file can	grow: to be useful, this limit must  be	 represented  using  a
       type  that  is as wide as the type used to represent file offsets--that
       is, as wide as  a  64-bit  off_t	 (assuming  a  program	compiled  with

       To  work	around this kernel limitation, if a program tried to set a re-
       source limit to a value larger than can be represented in a 32-bit  un-
       signed  long, then the glibc setrlimit()	wrapper	function silently con-
       verted the limit	value to RLIM_INFINITY.	 In other words, the requested
       resource	limit setting was silently ignored.

       This problem was	addressed in Linux 2.6.36 with two principal changes:

       *  the  addition	of a new kernel	representation of resource limits that
	  uses 64 bits,	even on	32-bit platforms;

       *  the addition of the prlimit()	system call, which employs 64-bit val-
	  ues for its resource limit arguments.

       Since  version  2.13,  glibc  works around the limitations of the getr-
       limit() and setrlimit() system calls by	implementing  setrlimit()  and
       getrlimit() as wrapper functions	that call prlimit().

       The program below demonstrates the use of prlimit().

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
       #include	<stdio.h>
       #include	<time.h>
       #include	<stdlib.h>
       #include	<unistd.h>
       #include	<sys/resource.h>

       #define errExit(msg)	do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); \
			       } while (0)

       main(int	argc, char *argv[])
	   struct rlimit old, new;
	   struct rlimit *newp;
	   pid_t pid;

	   if (!(argc == 2 || argc == 4)) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <pid>	[<new-soft-limit> "
		       "<new-hard-limit>]\n", argv[0]);

	   pid = atoi(argv[1]);	       /* PID of target	process	*/

	   newp	= NULL;
	   if (argc == 4) {
	       new.rlim_cur = atoi(argv[2]);
	       new.rlim_max = atoi(argv[3]);
	       newp = &new;

	   /* Set CPU time limit of target process; retrieve and display
	      previous limit */

	   if (prlimit(pid, RLIMIT_CPU,	newp, &old) == -1)
	   printf("Previous limits: soft=%lld; hard=%lld\n",
		   (long long) old.rlim_cur, (long long) old.rlim_max);

	   /* Retrieve and display new CPU time	limit */

	   if (prlimit(pid, RLIMIT_CPU,	NULL, &old) == -1)
	   printf("New limits: soft=%lld; hard=%lld\n",
		   (long long) old.rlim_cur, (long long) old.rlim_max);


       prlimit(1), dup(2), fcntl(2), fork(2), getrusage(2), mlock(2), mmap(2),
       open(2),	 quotactl(2),  sbrk(2),	 shmctl(2),  malloc(3),	  sigqueue(3),
       ulimit(3), core(5), capabilities(7), signal(7)

       This  page  is  part of release 3.74 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest	  version     of     this    page,    can    be	   found    at

Linux				  2014-10-02			  GETRLIMIT(2)


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