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GIT(1)				  Git Manual				GIT(1)

       git - the stupid	content	tracker

       git [--version] [--help]	[-C <path>] [-c	<name>=<value>]
	   [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path]	[--man-path] [--info-path]
	   [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects]	[--bare]
	   [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
	   <command> [<args>]

       Git is a	fast, scalable,	distributed revision control system with an
       unusually rich command set that provides	both high-level	operations and
       full access to internals.

       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a	useful
       minimum set of commands.	The Git	User's Manual[1] has a more in-depth

       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back	to this	page
       to learn	what commands Git offers. You can learn	more about individual
       Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you
       an overview of the command-line command syntax.

       A formatted and hyperlinked copy	of the latest Git documentation	can be
       viewed at or

	   Prints the Git suite	version	that the git program came from.

	   Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
	   If the option --all or -a is	given then all available commands are
	   printed. If a Git command is	named this option will bring up	the
	   manual page for that	command.

	   Other options are available to control how the manual page is
	   displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git	--help
	   ...	is converted internally	into git help ....

       -C <path>
	   Run as if git was started in	_path_ instead of the current working
	   directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent
	   non-absolute	-C <path> is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
	   <path>. If _path_ is	present	but empty, e.g.	 -C "",	then the
	   current working directory is	left unchanged.

	   This	option affects options that expect path	name like --git-dir
	   and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the	path names
	   would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
	   option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:

	       git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
	       git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status

       -c <name>=<value>
	   Pass	a configuration	parameter to the command. The value given will
	   override values from	configuration files. The <name>	is expected in
	   the same format as listed by	git config (subkeys separated by

	   Note	that omitting the = in git -c ...  is allowed and sets to the boolean true value (just like	[foo]bar would in a
	   config file). Including the equals but with an empty	value (like
	   git -c ...)	sets to	the empty string which git
	   config --type=bool will convert to false.

	   Path	to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
	   also	be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
	   variable. If	no path	is given, git will print the current setting
	   and then exit.

	   Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
	   documentation is installed and exit.

	   Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for	this version
	   of Git and exit.

	   Print the path where	the Info files documenting this	version	of Git
	   are installed and exit.

       -p, --paginate
	   Pipe	all output into	less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is
	   a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options
	   (see	the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).

       -P, --no-pager
	   Do not pipe Git output into a pager.

	   Set the path	to the repository (".git" directory). This can also be
	   controlled by setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be
	   an absolute path or relative	path to	current	working	directory.

	   Specifying the location of the ".git" directory using this option
	   (or GIT_DIR environment variable) turns off the repository
	   discovery that tries	to find	a directory with ".git"	subdirectory
	   (which is how the repository	and the	top-level of the working tree
	   are discovered), and	tells Git that you are at the top level	of the
	   working tree. If you	are not	at the top-level directory of the
	   working tree, you should tell Git where the top-level of the
	   working tree	is, with the --work-tree=<path>	option (or
	   GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable)

	   If you just want to run git as if it	was started in <path> then use
	   git -C <path>.

	   Set the path	to the working tree. It	can be an absolute path	or a
	   path	relative to the	current	working	directory. This	can also be
	   controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable	and
	   the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
	   config(1) for a more	detailed discussion).

	   Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more	details.
	   Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.

	   Currently for internal use only. Set	a prefix which gives a path
	   from	above a	repository down	to its root. One use is	to give
	   submodules context about the	superproject that invoked it.

	   Treat the repository	as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
	   is not set, it is set to the	current	working	directory.

	   Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
	   replace(1) for more information.

	   Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing,	no pathspec magic).
	   This	is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
	   variable to 1.

	   Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent	to setting the
	   GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling globbing on
	   individual pathspecs	can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"

	   Add "literal" magic to all pathspec.	This is	equivalent to setting
	   the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment	variable to 1. Enabling
	   globbing on individual pathspecs can	be done	using pathspec magic

	   Add "icase" magic to	all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
	   the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable	to 1.

	   Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
	   equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS	to 0.

	   List	commands by group. This	is an internal/experimental option and
	   may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
	   builtins, parseopt (builtin commands	that use parse-options), main
	   (all	commands in libexec directory),	others (all other commands in
	   $PATH that have git-	prefix), list-<category> (see categories in
	   command-list.txt), nohelpers	(exclude helper	commands), alias and
	   config (retrieve command list from config variable

       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and	low level
       ("plumbing") commands.

       We separate the porcelain commands into the main	commands and some
       ancillary user utilities.

   Main	porcelain commands
	   Add file contents to	the index.

	   Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.

	   Create an archive of	files from a named tree.

	   Use binary search to	find the commit	that introduced	a bug.

	   List, create, or delete branches.

	   Move	objects	and refs by archive.

	   Switch branches or restore working tree files.

	   Apply the changes introduced	by some	existing commits.

	   Graphical alternative to git-commit.

	   Remove untracked files from the working tree.

	   Clone a repository into a new directory.

	   Record changes to the repository.

	   Give	an object a human readable name	based on an available ref.

	   Show	changes	between	commits, commit	and working tree, etc.

	   Download objects and	refs from another repository.

	   Prepare patches for e-mail submission.

	   Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.

	   Print lines matching	a pattern.

	   A portable graphical	interface to Git.

	   Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.

	   Show	commit logs.

	   Join	two or more development	histories together.

	   Move	or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.

	   Add or inspect object notes.

	   Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.

	   Update remote refs along with associated objects.

	   Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions	of a branch).

	   Reapply commits on top of another base tip.

	   Reset current HEAD to the specified state.

	   Restore working tree	files.

	   Revert some existing	commits.

	   Remove files	from the working tree and from the index.

	   Summarize git log output.

	   Show	various	types of objects.

	   Initialize and modify the sparse-checkout.

	   Stash the changes in	a dirty	working	directory away.

	   Show	the working tree status.

	   Initialize, update or inspect submodules.

	   Switch branches.

	   Create, list, delete	or verify a tag	object signed with GPG.

	   Manage multiple working trees.

	   The Git repository browser.

   Ancillary Commands

	   Get and set repository or global options.

	   Git data exporter.

	   Backend for fast Git	data importers.

	   Rewrite branches.

	   Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge	conflicts.

	   Pack	heads and tags for efficient repository	access.

	   Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

	   Manage reflog information.

	   Manage set of tracked repositories.

	   Pack	unpacked objects in a repository.

	   Create, list, delete	refs to	replace	objects.


	   Annotate file lines with commit information.

	   Show	what revision and author last modified each line of a file.

	   Collect information for user	to file	a bug report.

	   Count unpacked number of objects and	their disk consumption.

	   Show	changes	using common diff tools.

	   Verifies the	connectivity and validity of the objects in the

	   Display help	information about Git.

	   Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

	   Show	three-way merge	without	touching index.

	   Reuse recorded resolution of	conflicted merges.

	   Show	branches and their commits.

	   Check the GPG signature of commits.

	   Check the GPG signature of tags.

	   Show	logs with difference each commit introduces.

	   Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).

   Interacting with Others
       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with	other people
       via patch over e-mail.

	   Import a GNU	Arch repository	into Git.

	   Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.

	   Salvage your	data out of another SCM	people love to hate.

	   A CVS server	emulator for Git.

	   Send	a collection of	patches	from stdin to an IMAP folder.

	   Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.

	   Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.

	   Generates a summary of pending changes.

	   Send	a collection of	patches	as emails.

	   Bidirectional operation between a Subversion	repository and Git.

   Reset, restore and revert
       There are three commands	with similar names: git	reset, git restore and
       git revert.

       o   git-revert(1) is about making a new commit that reverts the changes
	   made	by other commits.

       o   git-restore(1) is about restoring files in the working tree from
	   either the index or another commit. This command does not update
	   your	branch.	The command can	also be	used to	restore	files in the
	   index from another commit.

       o   git-reset(1)	is about updating your branch, moving the tip in order
	   to add or remove commits from the branch. This operation changes
	   the commit history.

	   git reset can also be used to restore the index, overlapping	with
	   git restore.

       Although	Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
       are sufficient to support development of	alternative porcelains.
       Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-
       index(1)	and git-read-tree(1).

       The interface (input, output, set of options and	the semantics) to
       these low-level commands	are meant to be	a lot more stable than
       Porcelain level commands, because these commands	are primarily for
       scripted	use. The interface to Porcelain	commands on the	other hand are
       subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.

       The following description divides the low-level commands	into commands
       that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
       commands	that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that	move
       objects and references between repositories.

   Manipulation	commands
	   Apply a patch to files and/or to the	index.

	   Copy	files from the index to	the working tree.

	   Write and verify Git	commit-graph files.

	   Create a new	commit object.

	   Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from	a file.

	   Build pack index file for an	existing packed	archive.

	   Run a three-way file	merge.

	   Run a merge for files needing merging.

	   Creates a tag object.

	   Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.

	   Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.

	   Create a packed archive of objects.

	   Remove extra	objects	that are already in pack files.

	   Reads tree information into the index.

	   Read, modify	and delete symbolic refs.

	   Unpack objects from a packed	archive.

	   Register file contents in the working tree to the index.

	   Update the object name stored in a ref safely.

	   Create a tree object	from the current index.

   Interrogation commands
	   Provide content or type and size information	for repository

	   Find	commits	yet to be applied to upstream.

	   Compares files in the working tree and the index.

	   Compare a tree to the working tree or index.

	   Compares the	content	and mode of blobs found	via two	tree objects.

	   Output information on each ref.

	   Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.

	   Show	information about files	in the index and the working tree.

	   List	references in a	remote repository.

	   List	the contents of	a tree object.

	   Find	as good	common ancestors as possible for a merge.

	   Find	symbolic names for given revs.

	   Find	redundant pack files.

	   Lists commit	objects	in reverse chronological order.

	   Pick	out and	massage	parameters.

	   Show	packed archive index.

	   List	references in a	local repository.

	   Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.

	   Show	a Git logical variable.

	   Validate packed Git archive files.

       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
       working tree.

   Syncing repositories
	   A really simple server for Git repositories.

	   Receive missing objects from	another	repository.

	   Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.

	   Push	objects	over Git protocol to another repository.

	   Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

       The following are helper	commands used by the above; end	users
       typically do not	use them directly.

	   Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.

	   Push	objects	over HTTP/DAV to another repository.

	   Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.

	   Receive what	is pushed into the repository.

	   Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.

	   Send	archive	back to	git-archive.

	   Send	objects	packed back to git-fetch-pack.

   Internal helper commands
       These are internal helper commands used by other	commands; end users
       typically do not	use them directly.

	   Display gitattributes information.

	   Debug gitignore / exclude files.

	   Show	canonical names	and email addresses of contacts.

	   Ensures that	a reference name is well formed.

	   Display data	in columns.

	   Retrieve and	store user credentials.

	   Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.

	   Helper to store credentials on disk.

	   Produce a merge commit message.

	   Add or parse	structured information in commit messages.

	   Extracts patch and authorship from a	single e-mail message.

	   Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.

	   The standard	helper program to use with git-merge-index.

	   Compute unique ID for a patch.

	   Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.

	   Common Git shell script setup code.

	   Remove unnecessary whitespace.

       Git uses	a simple text format to	store customizations that are per
       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like

	   # A '#' or ';' character indicates a	comment.

	   ; core variables
		   ; Don't trust file modes
		   filemode = false

	   ; user identity
		   name	= "Junio C Hamano"
		   email = ""

       Various commands	read from the configuration file and adjust their
       operation accordingly. See git-config(1)	for a list and more details
       about the configuration mechanism.

	   Indicates the object	name for any type of object.

	   Indicates a blob object name.

	   Indicates a tree object name.

	   Indicates a commit object name.

	   Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name.	A command that takes a
	   <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants	to operate on a	<tree> object
	   but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that
	   point at a <tree>.

	   Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
	   <commit-ish>	argument ultimately wants to operate on	a <commit>
	   object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a

	   Indicates that an object type is required. Currently	one of:	blob,
	   tree, commit, or tag.

	   Indicates a filename	- almost always	relative to the	root of	the
	   tree	structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.

       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
       symbolic	notation:

	   indicates the head of the current branch.

	   a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).

	   a valid head	name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).

       For a more complete list	of ways	to spell object	names, see "SPECIFYING
       REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.

       Read githooks(5)	for more details about each hook.

       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage	additional information in the

       Please see gitglossary(7).

       Various Git commands use	the following environment variables:

   The Git Repository
       These environment variables apply to all	core Git commands. Nb: it is
       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by	SCMS sitting above Git
       so take care if using a foreign front-end.

	   This	environment allows the specification of	an alternate index
	   file. If not	specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.

	   This	environment variable allows the	specification of an index
	   version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index	files.
	   By default index file version 2 or 3	is used. See git-update-
	   index(1) for	more information.

	   If the object storage directory is specified	via this environment
	   variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
	   otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

	   Due to the immutable	nature of Git objects, old objects can be
	   archived into shared, read-only directories.	This variable
	   specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated)	list of	Git
	   object directories which can	be used	to search for Git objects. New
	   objects will	not be written to these	directories.

	   Entries that	begin with " (double-quote) will be interpreted	as
	   C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing double-quotes
	   and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
	   "path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path has two paths:
	   path-with-"-and-:-in-it and vanilla-path.

	   If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies	a path
	   to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
	   The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.

	   Set the path	to the root of the working tree. This can also be
	   controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
	   core.worktree configuration variable.

	   Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
	   --namespace command-line option also	sets this value.

	   This	should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
	   is a	list of	directories that Git should not	chdir up into while
	   looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
	   slow-loading	network	directories). It will not exclude the current
	   working directory or	a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in	the
	   environment.	Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
	   resolve any symlink that might be present in	order to compare them
	   with	the current directory. However,	if even	this access is slow,
	   you can add an empty	entry to the list to tell Git that the
	   subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;	e.g.,

	   When	run in a directory that	does not have ".git" repository
	   directory, Git tries	to find	such a directory in the	parent
	   directories to find the top of the working tree, but	by default it
	   does	not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
	   be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem	boundaries.
	   Like	GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit
	   repository directory	set via	GIT_DIR	or on the command line.

	   If this variable is set to a	path, non-worktree files that are
	   normally in $GIT_DIR	will be	taken from this	path instead.
	   Worktree-specific files such	as HEAD	or index are taken from
	   $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
	   details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
	   variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...

	   If this variable is set, the	default	hash algorithm for new
	   repositories	will be	set to this value. This	value is currently
	   ignored when	cloning; the setting of	the remote repository is used
	   instead. The	default	is "sha1".

   Git Commits
	   The human-readable name used	in the author identity when creating
	   commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the and configuration settings.

	   The email address used in the author	identity when creating commit
	   or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the
	   and configuration settings.

	   The date used for the author	identity when creating commit or tag
	   objects, or when writing reflogs. See git-commit(1) for valid

	   The human-readable name used	in the committer identity when
	   creating commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides
	   the and configuration settings.

	   The email address used in the author	identity when creating commit
	   or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the
	   and configuration settings.

	   The date used for the committer identity when creating commit or
	   tag objects,	or when	writing	reflogs. See git-commit(1) for valid

	   The email address used in the author	and committer identities if no
	   other relevant environment variable or configuration	setting	has
	   been	set.

   Git Diffs
	   Only	valid setting is "--unified=??"	or "-u??" to set the number of
	   context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
	   precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value	passed on the
	   Git diff command line.

	   When	the environment	variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
	   named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described
	   above. For a	path that is added, removed, or	modified,
	   GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is	called with 7 parameters:

	       path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode


	   are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of

	   are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

	   are the octal representation	of the file modes.

	   The file parameters can point at the	user's working file (e.g.
	   new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a new
	   file	is added), or a	temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).
	   GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not	worry about unlinking the temporary
	   file	--- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

	   For a path that is unmerged,	GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
	   parameter, <path>.

	   For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment
	   variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and	GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are	set.

	   A 1-based counter incremented by one	for every path.

	   The total number of paths.

	   A number controlling	the amount of output shown by the recursive
	   merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)

	   This	environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is	set to an
	   empty string	or to the value	"cat", Git will	not launch a pager.
	   See also the	core.pager option in git-config(1).

	   A number controlling	how many seconds to delay before showing
	   optional progress indicators. Defaults to 2.

	   This	environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
	   by several Git commands when, on interactive	mode, an editor	is to
	   be launched.	See also git-var(1) and	the core.editor	option in git-

	   If either of	these environment variables is set then	git fetch and
	   git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when they
	   need	to connect to a	remote system. The command-line	parameters
	   passed to the configured command are	determined by the ssh variant.
	   See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.

	   $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and	is interpreted
	   by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
	   $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program
	   (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are

	   Usually it is easier	to configure any desired options through your
	   personal .ssh/config	file. Please consult your ssh documentation
	   for further details.

	   If this environment variable	is set,	it overrides Git's
	   autodetection whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer
	   to OpenSSH, plink or	tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the
	   config setting ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.

	   If this environment variable	is set,	then Git commands which	need
	   to acquire passwords	or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
	   authentication) will	call this program with a suitable prompt as
	   command-line	argument and read the password from its	STDOUT.	See
	   also	the core.askPass option	in git-config(1).

	   If this environment variable	is set to 0, git will not prompt on
	   the terminal	(e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).

	   Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
	   $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
	   along with $HOME and	$XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
	   environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
	   avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
	   with	sufficient permissions to fix it.

	   If this environment variable	is set to "1", then commands such as
	   git blame (in incremental mode), git	rev-list, git log, git
	   check-attr and git check-ignore will	force a	flush of the output
	   stream after	each record have been flushed. If this variable	is set
	   to "0", the output of these commands	will be	done using completely
	   buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set, Git will
	   choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on	whether	stdout
	   appears to be redirected to a file or not.

	   Enables general trace messages, e.g.	alias expansion, built-in
	   command execution and external command execution.

	   If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is	case
	   insensitive), trace messages	will be	printed	to stderr.

	   If the variable is set to an	integer	value greater than 2 and lower
	   than	10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
	   file	descriptor and will try	to write the trace messages into this
	   file	descriptor.

	   Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute	path (starting
	   with	a / character),	Git will interpret this	as a file path and
	   will	try to append the trace	messages to it.

	   Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
	   (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

	   Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension.	See
	   GIT_TRACE for available trace output	options.

	   Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
	   access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack	is recorded.
	   This	may be helpful for troubleshooting some	pack-related
	   performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

	   Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a	given
	   program. This can help with debugging object	negotiation or other
	   protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
	   "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
	   available trace output options.

	   Enables tracing of packfiles	sent or	received by a given program.
	   Unlike other	trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and
	   no quoting of binary	data. You almost certainly want	to direct into
	   a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than
	   displaying it on the	terminal or mixing it with other trace output.

	   Note	that this is currently only implemented	for the	client side of
	   clones and fetches.

	   Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
	   time	of each	Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

	   Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
	   working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See
	   GIT_TRACE for available trace output	options.

	   Enables trace messages that can help	debugging fetching / cloning
	   of shallow repositories. See	GIT_TRACE for available	trace output

	   Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
	   including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
	   This	is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line.
	   See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

	   When	a curl trace is	enabled	(see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not
	   dump	data (that is, only dump info lines and	headers).

	   Enables more	detailed trace messages	from the "trace2" library.
	   Output from GIT_TRACE2 is a simple text-based format	for human

	   If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is	case
	   insensitive), trace messages	will be	printed	to stderr.

	   If the variable is set to an	integer	value greater than 2 and lower
	   than	10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
	   file	descriptor and will try	to write the trace messages into this
	   file	descriptor.

	   Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute	path (starting
	   with	a / character),	Git will interpret this	as a file path and
	   will	try to append the trace	messages to it.	If the path already
	   exists and is a directory, the trace	messages will be written to
	   files (one per process) in that directory, named according to the
	   last	component of the SID and an optional counter (to avoid
	   filename collisions).

	   In addition,	if the variable	is set to
	   af_unix:[<socket_type>:]<absolute-pathname>,	Git will try to	open
	   the path as a Unix Domain Socket. The socket	type can be either
	   stream or dgram.

	   Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
	   (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

	   See Trace2 documentation[2] for full	details.

	   This	setting	writes a JSON-based format that	is suited for machine
	   interpretation. See GIT_TRACE2 for available	trace output options
	   and Trace2 documentation[2] for full	details.

	   In addition to the text-based messages available in GIT_TRACE2,
	   this	setting	writes a column-based format for understanding nesting
	   regions. See	GIT_TRACE2 for available trace output options and
	   Trace2 documentation[2] for full details.

	   By default, when tracing is activated, Git redacts the values of
	   cookies, the	"Authorization:" header, and the
	   "Proxy-Authorization:" header. Set this variable to 0 to prevent
	   this	redaction.

	   Setting this	variable to 1 will cause Git to	treat all pathspecs
	   literally, rather than as glob patterns. For	example, running
	   GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search	for commits
	   that	touch the path *.c, not	any paths that the glob	*.c matches.
	   You might want this if you are feeding literal paths	to Git (e.g.,
	   paths previously given to you by git	ls-tree, --raw diff output,

	   Setting this	variable to 1 will cause Git to	treat all pathspecs as
	   glob	patterns (aka "glob" magic).

	   Setting this	variable to 1 will cause Git to	treat all pathspecs as
	   literal (aka	"literal" magic).

	   Setting this	variable to 1 will cause Git to	treat all pathspecs as

	   When	a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to	keep track of
	   the reason why the ref was updated (which is	typically the name of
	   the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to	the
	   old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
	   set_reflog_action helper function in	git-sh-setup to	set its	name
	   to this variable when it is invoked as the top level	command	by the
	   end user, to	be recorded in the body	of the reflog.

	   If set to 1,	include	broken or badly	named refs when	iterating over
	   lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this does
	   nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect	and abort some
	   operations in the presence of broken	refs. Git sets this variable
	   automatically when performing destructive operations	like git-
	   prune(1). You should	not need to set	it yourself unless you want to
	   be paranoid about making sure an operation has touched every	ref
	   (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).

	   If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
	   protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols
	   has protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
	   configuration). In other words, any protocol	not mentioned will be
	   disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a	blacklist). See	the
	   description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more details.

	   Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which	are
	   configured to the user state. This is useful	to restrict recursive
	   submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or for
	   programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
	   git-config(1) for more details.

	   For internal	use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
	   Contains a colon : separated	list of	keys with optional values
	   key[=value].	Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.

	   If set to 0,	Git will complete any requested	operation without
	   performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a	lock.
	   For example,	this will prevent git status from refreshing the index
	   as a	side effect. This is useful for	processes running in the
	   background which do not want	to cause lock contention with other
	   operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.

	   Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard	input/output/error
	   handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
	   particularly	useful in multi-threaded applications where the
	   canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not
	   an option because it	would require the handles to be	marked
	   inheritable (and consequently every spawned process would inherit
	   them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The	primary
	   intended use	case is	to use named pipes for communication (e.g.

	   Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
	   corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is	2>&1,
	   standard error will be redirected to	the same handle	as standard

       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
	   If set to yes, print	an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
	   value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (git-checkout(1))
	   and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the
	   cases mentioned is no longer	considered adequate and	support	for it
	   is likely to	be removed in the foreseeable future (along with the

       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
       of the user-manual[3] and gitcore-tutorial(7).

       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
       things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
       of the project, an "index" file which links that	history	to the current
       contents	of the working tree, and named pointers	into that history such
       as tags and branch heads.

       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs,	which
       hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
       directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference	a single tree
       and some	number of parent commits.

       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
       "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
       represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than	one
       parent represent	merges of independent lines of development.

       All objects are named by	the SHA-1 hash of their	contents, normally
       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names	are globally unique.
       The entire history leading up to	a commit can be	vouched	for by signing
       just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag,	is provided for	this

       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
       efficiency may later be compressed together into	"pack files".

       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A	ref
       may contain the SHA-1 name of an	object or the name of another ref.
       Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most
       recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development.	SHA-1 names of
       tags of interest	are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named	HEAD
       contains	the name of the	currently checked-out branch.

       The index file is initialized with a list of all	paths and, for each
       path, a blob object and a set of	attributes. The	blob object represents
       the contents of the file	as of the head of the current branch. The
       attributes (last	modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
       corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
       working tree can	be found by comparing these attributes.	The index may
       be updated with new content, and	new commits may	be created from	the
       content stored in the index.

       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
       for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
       unmerged	version	of a file when a merge is in progress.

       See the references in the "description" section to get started using
       Git. The	following is probably more detail than necessary for a
       first-time user.

       The Git concepts	chapter	of the user-manual[3] and gitcore-tutorial(7)
       both provide introductions to the underlying Git	architecture.

       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.

       See also	the howto[4] documents for some	useful examples.

       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[5].

       Users migrating from CVS	may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).

       Git was started by Linus	Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
       C Hamano. Numerous contributions	have come from the Git mailing list
       <[6]>. gives you a more
       complete	list of	contributors.

       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
       and git-blame(1)	can show you the authors for specific parts of the

       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <[6]> where the
       development and maintenance is primarily	done. You do not have to be
       subscribed to the list to send a	message	there. See the list archive at for previous	bug reports and	other

       Issues which are	security relevant should be disclosed privately	to the
       Git Security mailing list <[7]>.

       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7),
       gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's
       Manual[1], gitworkflows(7)

       Part of the git(1) suite

	1. Git User's Manual

	2. Trace2 documentation

	3. Git concepts	chapter	of the user-manual

	4. howto

	5. Git API documentation



Git 2.28.0			  07/26/2020				GIT(1)


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