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GIT-CHECKOUT(1)			  Git Manual		       GIT-CHECKOUT(1)

       git-checkout - Switch branches or restore working tree files

       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [<branch>]
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] --detach [<branch>]
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] <commit>
       git checkout [-q] [-f] [-m] [[-b|-B|--orphan] <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
       git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
       git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] --pathspec-from-file=<file>	[--pathspec-file-nul]
       git checkout (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]

       Updates files in	the working tree to match the version in the index or
       the specified tree. If no pathspec was given, git checkout will also
       update HEAD to set the specified	branch as the current branch.

       git checkout [<branch>]
	   To prepare for working on <branch>, switch to it by updating	the
	   index and the files in the working tree, and	by pointing HEAD at
	   the branch. Local modifications to the files	in the working tree
	   are kept, so	that they can be committed to the <branch>.

	   If <branch> is not found but	there does exist a tracking branch in
	   exactly one remote (call it <remote>) with a	matching name and
	   --no-guess is not specified,	treat as equivalent to

	       $ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>

	   You could omit <branch>, in which case the command degenerates to
	   "check out the current branch", which is a glorified	no-op with
	   rather expensive side-effects to show only the tracking
	   information,	if exists, for the current branch.

       git checkout -b|-B <new_branch> [<start point>]
	   Specifying -b causes	a new branch to	be created as if git-branch(1)
	   were	called and then	checked	out. In	this case you can use the
	   --track or --no-track options, which	will be	passed to git branch.
	   As a	convenience, --track without -b	implies	branch creation; see
	   the description of --track below.

	   If -B is given, <new_branch>	is created if it doesn't exist;
	   otherwise, it is reset. This	is the transactional equivalent	of

	       $ git branch -f <branch>	[<start	point>]
	       $ git checkout <branch>

	   that	is to say, the branch is not reset/created unless "git
	   checkout" is	successful.

       git checkout --detach [<branch>], git checkout [--detach] <commit>
	   Prepare to work on top of <commit>, by detaching HEAD at it (see
	   "DETACHED HEAD" section), and updating the index and	the files in
	   the working tree. Local modifications to the	files in the working
	   tree	are kept, so that the resulting	working	tree will be the state
	   recorded in the commit plus the local modifications.

	   When	the <commit> argument is a branch name,	the --detach option
	   can be used to detach HEAD at the tip of the	branch (git checkout
	   <branch> would check	out that branch	without	detaching HEAD).

	   Omitting <branch> detaches HEAD at the tip of the current branch.

       git checkout [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>]
       [--] <pathspec>..., git checkout
       [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>]
       --pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]
	   Overwrite the contents of the files that match the pathspec.	When
	   the <tree-ish> (most	often a	commit)	is not given, overwrite
	   working tree	with the contents in the index.	When the <tree-ish> is
	   given, overwrite both the index and the working tree	with the
	   contents at the <tree-ish>.

	   The index may contain unmerged entries because of a previous	failed
	   merge. By default, if you try to check out such an entry from the
	   index, the checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked
	   out.	Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from
	   a specific side of the merge	can be checked out of the index	by
	   using --ours	or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree
	   file	can be discarded to re-create the original conflicted merge

       git checkout (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
	   This	is similar to the previous mode, but lets you use the
	   interactive interface to show the "diff" output and choose which
	   hunks to use	in the result. See below for the description of
	   --patch option.

       -q, --quiet
	   Quiet, suppress feedback messages.

       --progress, --no-progress
	   Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
	   when	it is attached to a terminal, unless --quiet is	specified.
	   This	flag enables progress reporting	even if	not attached to	a
	   terminal, regardless	of --quiet.

       -f, --force
	   When	switching branches, proceed even if the	index or the working
	   tree	differs	from HEAD. This	is used	to throw away local changes.

	   When	checking out paths from	the index, do not fail upon unmerged
	   entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.

       --ours, --theirs
	   When	checking out paths from	the index, check out stage #2 (ours)
	   or #3 (theirs) for unmerged paths.

	   Note	that during git	rebase and git pull --rebase, ours and theirs
	   may appear swapped; --ours gives the	version	from the branch	the
	   changes are rebased onto, while --theirs gives the version from the
	   branch that holds your work that is being rebased.

	   This	is because rebase is used in a workflow	that treats the
	   history at the remote as the	shared canonical one, and treats the
	   work	done on	the branch you are rebasing as the third-party work to
	   be integrated, and you are temporarily assuming the role of the
	   keeper of the canonical history during the rebase. As the keeper of
	   the canonical history, you need to view the history from the	remote
	   as ours (i.e. "our shared canonical history"), while	what you did
	   on your side	branch as theirs (i.e. "one contributor's work on top
	   of it").

       -b <new_branch>
	   Create a new	branch named <new_branch> and start it at
	   <start_point>; see git-branch(1) for	details.

       -B <new_branch>
	   Creates the branch <new_branch> and start it	at <start_point>; if
	   it already exists, then reset it to <start_point>. This is
	   equivalent to running "git branch" with "-f"; see git-branch(1) for

       -t, --track
	   When	creating a new branch, set up "upstream" configuration.	See
	   "--track" in	git-branch(1) for details.

	   If no -b option is given, the name of the new branch	will be
	   derived from	the remote-tracking branch, by looking at the local
	   part	of the refspec configured for the corresponding	remote,	and
	   then	stripping the initial part up to the "*". This would tell us
	   to use hack as the local branch when	branching off of origin/hack
	   (or remotes/origin/hack, or even refs/remotes/origin/hack). If the
	   given name has no slash, or the above guessing results in an	empty
	   name, the guessing is aborted. You can explicitly give a name with
	   -b in such a	case.

	   Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even	if the
	   branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable	is true.

       --guess,	--no-guess
	   If <branch> is not found but	there does exist a tracking branch in
	   exactly one remote (call it <remote>) with a	matching name, treat
	   as equivalent to

	       $ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>

	   If the branch exists	in multiple remotes and	one of them is named
	   by the checkout.defaultRemote configuration variable, we'll use
	   that	one for	the purposes of	disambiguation,	even if	the <branch>
	   isn't unique	across all remotes. Set	it to e.g.
	   checkout.defaultRemote=origin to always checkout remote branches
	   from	there if <branch> is ambiguous but exists on the origin
	   remote. See also checkout.defaultRemote in git-config(1).

	   Use --no-guess to disable this.

	   Create the new branch's reflog; see git-branch(1) for details.

	   Rather than checking	out a branch to	work on	it, check out a	commit
	   for inspection and discardable experiments. This is the default
	   behavior of git checkout <commit> when <commit> is not a branch
	   name. See the "DETACHED HEAD" section below for details.

       --orphan	<new_branch>
	   Create a new	orphan branch, named <new_branch>, started from
	   <start_point> and switch to it. The first commit made on this new
	   branch will have no parents and it will be the root of a new
	   history totally disconnected	from all the other branches and

	   The index and the working tree are adjusted as if you had
	   previously run git checkout <start_point>. This allows you to start
	   a new history that records a	set of paths similar to	<start_point>
	   by easily running git commit	-a to make the root commit.

	   This	can be useful when you want to publish the tree	from a commit
	   without exposing its	full history. You might	want to	do this	to
	   publish an open source branch of a project whose current tree is
	   "clean", but	whose full history contains proprietary	or otherwise
	   encumbered bits of code.

	   If you want to start	a disconnected history that records a set of
	   paths that is totally different from	the one	of <start_point>, then
	   you should clear the	index and the working tree right after
	   creating the	orphan branch by running git rm	-rf .  from the	top
	   level of the	working	tree. Afterwards you will be ready to prepare
	   your	new files, repopulating	the working tree, by copying them from
	   elsewhere, extracting a tarball, etc.

	   In sparse checkout mode, git	checkout -- <paths> would update only
	   entries matched by <paths> and sparse patterns in
	   $GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout. This option ignores the sparse
	   patterns and	adds back any files in <paths>.

       -m, --merge
	   When	switching branches, if you have	local modifications to one or
	   more	files that are different between the current branch and	the
	   branch to which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
	   branches in order to	preserve your modifications in context.
	   However, with this option, a	three-way merge	between	the current
	   branch, your	working	tree contents, and the new branch is done, and
	   you will be on the new branch.

	   When	a merge	conflict happens, the index entries for	conflicting
	   paths are left unmerged, and	you need to resolve the	conflicts and
	   mark	the resolved paths with	git add	(or git	rm if the merge	should
	   result in deletion of the path).

	   When	checking out paths from	the index, this	option lets you
	   recreate the	conflicted merge in the	specified paths.

	   When	switching branches with	--merge, staged	changes	may be lost.

	   The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
	   conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the merge.conflictStyle
	   configuration variable. Possible values are "merge" (default) and
	   "diff3" (in addition	to what	is shown by "merge" style, shows the
	   original contents).

       -p, --patch
	   Interactively select	hunks in the difference	between	the <tree-ish>
	   (or the index, if unspecified) and the working tree.	The chosen
	   hunks are then applied in reverse to	the working tree (and if a
	   <tree-ish> was specified, the index).

	   This	means that you can use git checkout -p to selectively discard
	   edits from your current working tree. See the "Interactive Mode"
	   section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate the --patch mode.

	   Note	that this option uses the no overlay mode by default (see also
	   --overlay), and currently doesn't support overlay mode.

	   git checkout	refuses	when the wanted	ref is already checked out by
	   another worktree. This option makes it check	the ref	out anyway. In
	   other words,	the ref	can be held by more than one worktree.

       --overwrite-ignore, --no-overwrite-ignore
	   Silently overwrite ignored files when switching branches. This is
	   the default behavior. Use --no-overwrite-ignore to abort the
	   operation when the new branch contains ignored files.

       --recurse-submodules, --no-recurse-submodules
	   Using --recurse-submodules will update the content of all active
	   submodules according	to the commit recorded in the superproject. If
	   local modifications in a submodule would be overwritten the
	   checkout will fail unless -f	is used. If nothing (or
	   --no-recurse-submodules) is used, submodules	working	trees will not
	   be updated. Just like git-submodule(1), this	will detach HEAD of
	   the submodule.

       --overlay, --no-overlay
	   In the default overlay mode,	git checkout never removes files from
	   the index or	the working tree. When specifying --no-overlay,	files
	   that	appear in the index and	working	tree, but not in <tree-ish>
	   are removed,	to make	them match <tree-ish> exactly.

	   Pathspec is passed in <file>	instead	of commandline args. If	<file>
	   is exactly -	then standard input is used. Pathspec elements are
	   separated by	LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be quoted as
	   explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see	git-
	   config(1)). See also	--pathspec-file-nul and	global

	   Only	meaningful with	--pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements	are
	   separated with NUL character	and all	other characters are taken
	   literally (including	newlines and quotes).

	   Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch	(i.e., a name that,
	   when	prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that
	   branch is checked out. Otherwise, if	it refers to a valid commit,
	   your	HEAD becomes "detached"	and you	are no longer on any branch
	   (see	below for details).

	   You can use the @{-N} syntax	to refer to the	N-th last
	   branch/commit checked out using "git	checkout" operation. You may
	   also	specify	- which	is synonymous to @{-1}.

	   As a	special	case, you may use A...B	as a shortcut for the merge
	   base	of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can leave
	   out at most one of A	and B, in which	case it	defaults to HEAD.

	   Name	for the	new branch.

	   The name of a commit	at which to start the new branch; see git-
	   branch(1) for details. Defaults to HEAD.

	   As a	special	case, you may use "A...B" as a shortcut	for the	merge
	   base	of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can leave
	   out at most one of A	and B, in which	case it	defaults to HEAD.

	   Tree	to checkout from (when paths are given). If not	specified, the
	   index will be used.

	   Do not interpret any	more arguments as options.

	   Limits the paths affected by	the operation.

	   For more details, see the pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).

       HEAD normally refers to a named branch (e.g. master). Meanwhile,	each
       branch refers to	a specific commit. Let's look at a repo	with three
       commits,	one of them tagged, and	with branch master checked out:

		      HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
	   a---b---c  branch 'master' (refers to commit	'c')
	     tag 'v2.0'	(refers	to commit 'b')

       When a commit is	created	in this	state, the branch is updated to	refer
       to the new commit. Specifically,	git commit creates a new commit	d,
       whose parent is commit c, and then updates branch master	to refer to
       new commit d. HEAD still	refers to branch master	and so indirectly now
       refers to commit	d:

	   $ edit; git add; git	commit

			  HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
	   a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
	     tag 'v2.0'	(refers	to commit 'b')

       It is sometimes useful to be able to checkout a commit that is not at
       the tip of any named branch, or even to create a	new commit that	is not
       referenced by a named branch. Let's look	at what	happens	when we
       checkout	commit b (here we show two ways	this may be done):

	   $ git checkout v2.0	# or
	   $ git checkout master^^

	      HEAD (refers to commit 'b')
	   a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
	     tag 'v2.0'	(refers	to commit 'b')

       Notice that regardless of which checkout	command	we use,	HEAD now
       refers directly to commit b. This is known as being in detached HEAD
       state. It means simply that HEAD	refers to a specific commit, as
       opposed to referring to a named branch. Let's see what happens when we
       create a	commit:

	   $ edit; git add; git	commit

		HEAD (refers to	commit 'e')
	   a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
	     tag 'v2.0'	(refers	to commit 'b')

       There is	now a new commit e, but	it is referenced only by HEAD. We can
       of course add yet another commit	in this	state:

	   $ edit; git add; git	commit

		    HEAD (refers to commit 'f')
	   a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
	     tag 'v2.0'	(refers	to commit 'b')

       In fact,	we can perform all the normal Git operations. But, let's look
       at what happens when we then checkout master:

	   $ git checkout master

			  HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
		 e---f	   |
		/	   v
	   a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
	     tag 'v2.0'	(refers	to commit 'b')

       It is important to realize that at this point nothing refers to commit
       f. Eventually commit f (and by extension	commit e) will be deleted by
       the routine Git garbage collection process, unless we create a
       reference before	that happens. If we have not yet moved away from
       commit f, any of	these will create a reference to it:

	   $ git checkout -b foo   (1)
	   $ git branch	foo	   (2)
	   $ git tag foo	   (3)

       1. creates a new	branch foo, which refers to commit f, and then updates
       HEAD to refer to	branch foo. In other words, we'll no longer be in
       detached	HEAD state after this command.
       2. similarly creates a new branch foo, which refers to commit f,	but
       leaves HEAD detached.
       3. creates a new	tag foo, which refers to commit	f, leaving HEAD

       If we have moved	away from commit f, then we must first recover its
       object name (typically by using git reflog), and	then we	can create a
       reference to it.	For example, to	see the	last two commits to which HEAD
       referred, we can	use either of these commands:

	   $ git reflog	-2 HEAD	# or
	   $ git log -g	-2 HEAD

       When there is only one argument given and it is not -- (e.g. git
       checkout	abc), and when the argument is both a valid <tree-ish> (e.g. a
       branch abc exists) and a	valid <pathspec> (e.g. a file or a directory
       whose name is "abc" exists), Git	would usually ask you to disambiguate.
       Because checking	out a branch is	so common an operation,	however, git
       checkout	abc takes "abc"	as a <tree-ish>	in such	a situation. Use git
       checkout	-- <pathspec> if you want to checkout these paths out of the

	1. The following sequence checks out the master	branch,	reverts	the
	   Makefile to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by mistake, and
	   gets	it back	from the index.

	       $ git checkout master		 (1)
	       $ git checkout master~2 Makefile	 (2)
	       $ rm -f hello.c
	       $ git checkout hello.c		 (3)

	   1. switch branch
	   2. take a file out of another commit
	   3. restore hello.c from the index

	   If you want to check	out all	C source files out of the index, you
	   can say

	       $ git checkout -- '*.c'

	   Note	the quotes around *.c. The file	hello.c	will also be checked
	   out,	even though it is no longer in the working tree, because the
	   file	globbing is used to match entries in the index (not in the
	   working tree	by the shell).

	   If you have an unfortunate branch that is named hello.c, this step
	   would be confused as	an instruction to switch to that branch. You
	   should instead write:

	       $ git checkout -- hello.c

	2. After working in the	wrong branch, switching	to the correct branch
	   would be done using:

	       $ git checkout mytopic

	   However, your "wrong" branch	and correct mytopic branch may differ
	   in files that you have modified locally, in which case the above
	   checkout would fail like this:

	       $ git checkout mytopic
	       error: You have local changes to	'frotz'; not switching branches.

	   You can give	the -m flag to the command, which would	try a
	   three-way merge:

	       $ git checkout -m mytopic
	       Auto-merging frotz

	   After this three-way	merge, the local modifications are not
	   registered in your index file, so git diff would show you what
	   changes you made since the tip of the new branch.

	3. When	a merge	conflict happens during	switching branches with	the -m
	   option, you would see something like	this:

	       $ git checkout -m mytopic
	       Auto-merging frotz
	       ERROR: Merge conflict in	frotz
	       fatal: merge program failed

	   At this point, git diff shows the changes cleanly merged as in the
	   previous example, as	well as	the changes in the conflicted files.
	   Edit	and resolve the	conflict and mark it resolved with git add as

	       $ edit frotz
	       $ git add frotz

       git-switch(1), git-restore(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.28.0			  07/26/2020		       GIT-CHECKOUT(1)


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