Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)		  Git Manual		    GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)

       git-commit-tree - Create	a new commit object

       git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
       git commit-tree [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]]	[(-m <message>)...]
			 [(-F <file>)...] <tree>

       This is usually not what	an end user wants to run directly. See git-
       commit(1) instead.

       Creates a new commit object based on the	provided tree object and emits
       the new commit object id	on stdout. The log message is read from	the
       standard	input, unless -m or -F options are given.

       The -m and -F options can be given any number of	times, in any order.
       The commit log message will be composed in the order in which the
       options are given.

       A commit	object may have	any number of parents. With exactly one
       parent, it is an	ordinary commit. Having	more than one parent makes the
       commit a	merge between several lines of history.	Initial	(root) commits
       have no parents.

       While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
       directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and	explains how
       to get there.

       Normally	a commit would identify	a new "HEAD" state, and	while Git
       doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
       tend to just write the result to	the file that is pointed at by
       .git/HEAD, so that we can always	see what the last committed state was.

	   An existing tree object.

       -p <parent>
	   Each	-p indicates the id of a parent	commit object.

       -m <message>
	   A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than
	   once	and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.

       -F <file>
	   Read	the commit log message from the	given file. Use	- to read from
	   the standard	input. This can	be given more than once	and the
	   content of each file	becomes	its own	paragraph.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
	   GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument	is optional and	defaults to
	   the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
	   option without a space.  --no-gpg-sign is useful to countermand a
	   --gpg-sign option given earlier on the command line.

       A commit	encapsulates:

       o   all parent object ids

       o   author name,	email and date

       o   committer name and email and	the commit time.

       A commit	comment	is read	from stdin. If a changelog entry is not
       provided	via "<"	redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for	one to
       be entered and terminated with ^D.

       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables support
       the following date formats:

       Git internal format
	   It is <unix timestamp> <time	zone offset>, where <unix timestamp>
	   is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time zone offset>
	   is a	positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which
	   is 1	hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.

       RFC 2822
	   The standard	email format as	described by RFC 2822, for example
	   Thu,	07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
	   Time	and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
	   2005-04-07T22:13:13.	The parser accepts a space instead of the T
	   character as	well. Fractional parts of a second will	be ignored,
	   for example 2005-04-07T22:13:13.019 will be treated as

	       In addition, the	date part is accepted in the following
	       formats:	YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

       Git is to some extent character encoding	agnostic.

       o   The contents	of the blob objects are	uninterpreted sequences	of
	   bytes. There	is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path	names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
	   to tree objects, the	index file, ref	names, as well as path names
	   in command line arguments, environment variables and	config files
	   (.git/config	(see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
	   and gitmodules(5)).

	   Note	that Git at the	core level treats path names simply as
	   sequences of	non-NUL	bytes, there are no path name encoding
	   conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
	   path	names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
	   use legacy extended ASCII encodings.	However, repositories created
	   on such systems will	not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
	   Linux, Mac, Windows)	and vice versa.	Additionally, many Git-based
	   tools simply	assume path names to be	UTF-8 and will fail to display
	   other encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in	UTF-8, but other
	   extended ASCII encodings are	also supported.	This includes
	   ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
	   CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx	etc.).

       Although	we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and	Git Porcelain are designed not to force	UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants	of a particular	project	find it	more
       convenient to use legacy	encodings, Git does not	forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

	1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
	   message given to it does not	look like a valid UTF-8	string,	unless
	   you explicitly say your project uses	a legacy encoding. The way to
	   say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file,	like

		       commitEncoding =	ISO-8859-1

	   Commit objects created with the above setting record	the value of
	   i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
	   people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
	   commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

	2. git log, git	show, git blame	and friends look at the	encoding
	   header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
	   UTF-8 unless	otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
	   output encoding with	i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file,
	   like	this:

		       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

	   If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
	   i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is	made to	force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


       git-write-tree(1) git-commit(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.28.0			  07/26/2020		    GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help