Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
GIT-FETCH(1)			  Git Manual			  GIT-FETCH(1)

       git-fetch - Download objects and	refs from another repository

       git fetch [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
       git fetch [<options>] <group>
       git fetch --multiple [<options>]	[(<repository> | <group>)...]
       git fetch --all [<options>]

       Fetch branches and/or tags (collectively, "refs") from one or more
       other repositories, along with the objects necessary to complete	their
       histories. Remote-tracking branches are updated (see the	description of
       <refspec> below for ways	to control this	behavior).

       By default, any tag that	points into the	histories being	fetched	is
       also fetched; the effect	is to fetch tags that point at branches	that
       you are interested in. This default behavior can	be changed by using
       the --tags or --no-tags options or by configuring remote.<name>.tagOpt.
       By using	a refspec that fetches tags explicitly,	you can	fetch tags
       that do not point into branches you are interested in as	well.

       git fetch can fetch from	either a single	named repository or URL, or
       from several repositories at once if <group> is given and there is a
       remotes.<group> entry in	the configuration file.	(See git-config(1)).

       When no remote is specified, by default the origin remote will be used,
       unless there's an upstream branch configured for	the current branch.

       The names of refs that are fetched, together with the object names they
       point at, are written to	.git/FETCH_HEAD. This information may be used
       by scripts or other git commands, such as git-pull(1).

	   Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
	   Append ref names and	object names of	fetched	refs to	the existing
	   contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD.	Without	this option old	data in
	   .git/FETCH_HEAD will	be overwritten.

	   Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of
	   each	remote branch history. If fetching to a	shallow	repository
	   created by git clone	with --depth=<depth> option (see git-
	   clone(1)), deepen or	shorten	the history to the specified number of
	   commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

	   Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits from
	   the current shallow boundary	instead	of from	the tip	of each	remote
	   branch history.

	   Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to include
	   all reachable commits after <date>.

	   Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to exclude
	   commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This
	   option can be specified multiple times.

	   If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow repository
	   to a	complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow

	   If the source repository is shallow,	fetch as much as possible so
	   that	the current repository has the same history as the source

	   By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch
	   refuses refs	that require updating .git/shallow. This option
	   updates .git/shallow	and accept such	refs.

	   By default, Git will	report,	to the server, commits reachable from
	   all local refs to find common commits in an attempt to reduce the
	   size	of the to-be-received packfile.	If specified, Git will only
	   report commits reachable from the given tips. This is useful	to
	   speed up fetches when the user knows	which local ref	is likely to
	   have	commits	in common with the upstream ref	being fetched.

	   This	option may be specified	more than once;	if so, Git will	report
	   commits reachable from any of the given commits.

	   The argument	to this	option may be a	glob on	ref names, a ref, or
	   the (possibly abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit. Specifying a glob is
	   equivalent to specifying this option	multiple times,	one for	each
	   matching ref	name.

	   See also the	fetch.negotiationAlgorithm configuration variable
	   documented in git-config(1).

	   Show	what would be done, without making any changes.

	   Write the list of remote refs fetched in the	FETCH_HEAD file
	   directly under $GIT_DIR. This is the	default. Passing
	   --no-write-fetch-head from the command line tells Git not to	write
	   the file. Under --dry-run option, the file is never written.

       -f, --force
	   When	git fetch is used with <src>:<dst> refspec it may refuse to
	   update the local branch as discussed	in the <refspec> part below.
	   This	option overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
	   Keep	downloaded pack.

	   Allow several <repository> and <group> arguments to be specified.
	   No <refspec>s may be	specified.

       --[no-]auto-maintenance,	--[no-]auto-gc
	   Run git maintenance run --auto at the end to	perform	automatic
	   repository maintenance if needed. (--[no-]auto-gc is	a synonym.)
	   This	is enabled by default.

	   Write a commit-graph	after fetching.	This overrides the config
	   setting fetch.writeCommitGraph.

       -p, --prune
	   Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
	   longer exist	on the remote. Tags are	not subject to pruning if they
	   are fetched only because of the default tag auto-following or due
	   to a	--tags option. However,	if tags	are fetched due	to an explicit
	   refspec (either on the command line or in the remote	configuration,
	   for example if the remote was cloned	with the --mirror option),
	   then	they are also subject to pruning. Supplying --prune-tags is a
	   shorthand for providing the tag refspec.

	   See the PRUNING section below for more details.

       -P, --prune-tags
	   Before fetching, remove any local tags that no longer exist on the
	   remote if --prune is	enabled. This option should be used more
	   carefully, unlike --prune it	will remove any	local references
	   (local tags)	that have been created.	This option is a shorthand for
	   providing the explicit tag refspec along with --prune, see the
	   discussion about that in its	documentation.

	   See the PRUNING section below for more details.

       -n, --no-tags
	   By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the
	   remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option
	   disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a
	   remote may be specified with	the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting. See

	   When	fetching refs listed on	the command line, use the specified
	   refspec (can	be given more than once) to map	the refs to
	   remote-tracking branches, instead of	the values of remote.*.fetch
	   configuration variables for the remote repository. Providing	an
	   empty <refspec> to the --refmap option causes Git to	ignore the
	   configured refspecs and rely	entirely on the	refspecs supplied as
	   command-line	arguments. See section on "Configured Remote-tracking
	   Branches" for details.

       -t, --tags
	   Fetch all tags from the remote (i.e., fetch remote tags refs/tags/*
	   into	local tags with	the same name),	in addition to whatever	else
	   would otherwise be fetched. Using this option alone does not
	   subject tags	to pruning, even if --prune is used (though tags may
	   be pruned anyway if they are	also the destination of	an explicit
	   refspec; see	--prune).

	   This	option controls	if and under what conditions new commits of
	   populated submodules	should be fetched too. It can be used as a
	   boolean option to completely	disable	recursion when set to no or to
	   unconditionally recurse into	all populated submodules when set to
	   yes,	which is the default when this option is used without any
	   value. Use on-demand	to only	recurse	into a populated submodule
	   when	the superproject retrieves a commit that updates the
	   submodule's reference to a commit that isn't	already	in the local
	   submodule clone. By default,	on-demand is used, unless
	   fetch.recurseSubmodules is set (see git-config(1)).

       -j, --jobs=<n>
	   Number of parallel children to be used for all forms	of fetching.

	   If the --multiple option was	specified, the different remotes will
	   be fetched in parallel. If multiple submodules are fetched, they
	   will	be fetched in parallel.	To control them	independently, use the
	   config settings fetch.parallel and submodule.fetchJobs (see git-

	   Typically, parallel recursive and multi-remote fetches will be
	   faster. By default fetches are performed sequentially, not in

	   Disable recursive fetching of submodules (this has the same effect
	   as using the	--recurse-submodules=no	option).

	   If the remote is fetched successfully, add upstream (tracking)
	   reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)	and other commands.
	   For more information, see branch.<name>.merge and
	   branch.<name>.remote	in git-config(1).

	   Prepend <path> to paths printed in informative messages such	as
	   "Fetching submodule foo". This option is used internally when
	   recursing over submodules.

	   This	option is used internally to temporarily provide a
	   non-negative	default	value for the --recurse-submodules option. All
	   other methods of configuring	fetch's	submodule recursion (such as
	   settings in gitmodules(5) and git-config(1))	override this option,
	   as does specifying --[no-]recurse-submodules	directly.

       -u, --update-head-ok
	   By default git fetch	refuses	to update the head which corresponds
	   to the current branch. This flag disables the check.	This is	purely
	   for the internal use	for git	pull to	communicate with git fetch,
	   and unless you are implementing your	own Porcelain you are not
	   supposed to use it.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
	   When	given, and the repository to fetch from	is handled by git
	   fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to
	   specify non-default path for	the command run	on the other end.

       -q, --quiet
	   Pass	--quiet	to git-fetch-pack and silence any other	internally
	   used	git commands. Progress is not reported to the standard error

       -v, --verbose
	   Be verbose.

	   Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
	   when	it is attached to a terminal, unless -q	is specified. This
	   flag	forces progress	status even if the standard error stream is
	   not directed	to a terminal.

       -o <option>, --server-option=<option>
	   Transmit the	given string to	the server when	communicating using
	   protocol version 2. The given string	must not contain a NUL or LF
	   character. The server's handling of server options, including
	   unknown ones, is server-specific. When multiple
	   --server-option=<option> are	given, they are	all sent to the	other
	   side	in the order listed on the command line.

	   By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during fetch.
	   This	can be disabled	through	fetch.showForcedUpdates, but the
	   --show-forced-updates option	guarantees this	check occurs. See git-

	   By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during fetch.
	   Pass	--no-show-forced-updates or set	fetch.showForcedUpdates	to
	   false to skip this check for	performance reasons. If	used during
	   git-pull the	--ff-only option will still check for forced updates
	   before attempting a fast-forward update. See	git-config(1).

       -4, --ipv4
	   Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

       -6, --ipv6
	   Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.

	   The "remote"	repository that	is the source of a fetch or pull
	   operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT
	   URLS	below) or the name of a	remote (see the	section	REMOTES

	   A name referring to a list of repositories as the value of
	   remotes.<group> in the configuration	file. (See git-config(1)).

	   Specifies which refs	to fetch and which local refs to update. When
	   no <refspec>s appear	on the command line, the refs to fetch are
	   read	from remote.<repository>.fetch variables instead (see

	   The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed
	   by the source <src>,	followed by a colon :, followed	by the
	   destination ref <dst>. The colon can	be omitted when	<dst> is
	   empty. <src>	is typically a ref, but	it can also be a fully spelled
	   hex object name.

	   A <refspec> may contain a * in its <src> to indicate	a simple
	   pattern match. Such a refspec functions like	a glob that matches
	   any ref with	the same prefix. A pattern <refspec> must have a * in
	   both	the <src> and <dst>. It	will map refs to the destination by
	   replacing the * with	the contents matched from the source.

	   If a	refspec	is prefixed by ^, it will be interpreted as a negative
	   refspec. Rather than	specifying which refs to fetch or which	local
	   refs	to update, such	a refspec will instead specify refs to
	   exclude. A ref will be considered to	match if it matches at least
	   one positive	refspec, and does not match any	negative refspec.
	   Negative refspecs can be useful to restrict the scope of a pattern
	   refspec so that it will not include specific	refs. Negative
	   refspecs can	themselves be pattern refspecs.	However, they may only
	   contain a <src> and do not specify a	<dst>. Fully spelled out hex
	   object names	are also not supported.

	   tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>;	it
	   requests fetching everything	up to the given	tag.

	   The remote ref that matches <src> is	fetched, and if	<dst> is not
	   an empty string, an attempt is made to update the local ref that
	   matches it.

	   Whether that	update is allowed without --force depends on the ref
	   namespace it's being	fetched	to, the	type of	object being fetched,
	   and whether the update is considered	to be a	fast-forward.
	   Generally, the same rules apply for fetching	as when	pushing, see
	   the <refspec>...  section of	git-push(1) for	what those are.
	   Exceptions to those rules particular	to git fetch are noted below.

	   Until Git version 2.20, and unlike when pushing with	git-push(1),
	   any updates to refs/tags/* would be accepted	without	+ in the
	   refspec (or --force). When fetching,	we promiscuously considered
	   all tag updates from	a remote to be forced fetches. Since Git
	   version 2.20, fetching to update refs/tags/*	works the same way as
	   when	pushing. I.e. any updates will be rejected without + in	the
	   refspec (or --force).

	   Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), any updates outside of
	   refs/{tags,heads}/* will be accepted	without	+ in the refspec (or
	   --force), whether that's swapping e.g. a tree object	for a blob, or
	   a commit for	another	commit that's doesn't have the previous	commit
	   as an ancestor etc.

	   Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), there is no configuration
	   which'll amend these	rules, and nothing like	a pre-fetch hook
	   analogous to	the pre-receive	hook.

	   As with pushing with	git-push(1), all of the	rules described	above
	   about what's	not allowed as an update can be	overridden by adding
	   an the optional leading + to	a refspec (or using --force command
	   line	option). The only exception to this is that no amount of
	   forcing will	make the refs/heads/* namespace	accept a non-commit

	       When the	remote branch you want to fetch	is known to be rewound
	       and rebased regularly, it is expected that its new tip will not
	       be descendant of	its previous tip (as stored in your
	       remote-tracking branch the last time you	fetched). You would
	       want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates
	       will be needed for such branches. There is no way to determine
	       or declare that a branch	will be	made available in a repository
	       with this behavior; the pulling user simply must	know this is
	       the expected usage pattern for a	branch.

	   Read	refspecs, one per line,	from stdin in addition to those
	   provided as arguments. The "tag <name>" format is not supported.

       In general, URLs	contain	information about the transport	protocol, the
       address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
       on the transport	protocol, some of this information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and	https protocols	(in addition, ftp, and
       ftps can	be used	for fetching, but this is inefficient and deprecated;
       do not use it).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured	networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the	ssh protocol:

       o   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
       colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
       example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute	path
       or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an	ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username	expansion:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
       syntaxes	may be used:

       o   /path/to/repo.git/

       o   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except	when cloning, when the
       former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       git clone, git fetch and	git pull, but not git push, will also accept a
       suitable	bundle file. See git-bundle(1).

       When Git	doesn't	know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
       attempts	to use the remote-_transport_ remote helper, if	one exists. To
       explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax	may be used:

       o   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a	path, a	server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like	string recognized by the specific remote helper	being invoked.
       See gitremote-helpers(7)	for details.

       If there	are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
       you want	to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
       will be rewritten into URLs that	work), you can create a	configuration
       section of the form:

		   [url	"<actual url base>"]
			   insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url	"git://"]
			   insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
			   insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
       rewritten in any	context	that takes a URL to be

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of	the form:

		   [url	"<actual url base>"]
			   pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url	"ssh://"]
			   pushInsteadOf = git://

       a URL like "git://" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://" for	pushes,	but pulls will still
       use the original	URL.

       The name	of one of the following	can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       o   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the	command	line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote	in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you	had previously
       configured using	git-remote(1), git-config(1) or	even by	a manual edit
       to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The	URL of this remote will	be used	to
       access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
       default when you	do not provide a refspec on the	command	line. The
       entry in	the config file	would appear like this:

		   [remote "<name>"]
			   url = <url>
			   pushurl = <pushurl>
			   push	= <refspec>
			   fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is	used for pushes	only. It is optional and defaults to

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file	will be	used to	access the repository. The refspec in
       this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
       the command line. This file should have the following format:

		   URL:	one of the above URL format
		   Push: <refspec>
		   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push	and Pull: lines	are used by git	pull
       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
       URL in this file	will be	used to	access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:


       <url> is	required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the	operation, git will use	one of the following refspecs,
       if you don't provide one	on the command line. <branch> is the name of
       this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push	uses:


       You often interact with the same	remote repository by regularly and
       repeatedly fetching from	it. In order to	keep track of the progress of
       such a remote repository, git fetch allows you to configure
       remote.<repository>.fetch configuration variables.

       Typically such a	variable may look like this:

	   [remote "origin"]
		   fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*

       This configuration is used in two ways:

       o   When	git fetch is run without specifying what branches and/or tags
	   to fetch on the command line, e.g.  git fetch origin	or git fetch,
	   remote.<repository>.fetch values are	used as	the refspecs--they
	   specify which refs to fetch and which local refs to update. The
	   example above will fetch all	branches that exist in the origin
	   (i.e. any ref that matches the left-hand side of the	value,
	   refs/heads/*) and update the	corresponding remote-tracking branches
	   in the refs/remotes/origin/*	hierarchy.

       o   When	git fetch is run with explicit branches	and/or tags to fetch
	   on the command line,	e.g.  git fetch	origin master, the <refspec>s
	   given on the	command	line determine what are	to be fetched (e.g.
	   master in the example, which	is a short-hand	for master:, which in
	   turn	means "fetch the master	branch but I do	not explicitly say
	   what	remote-tracking	branch to update with it from the command
	   line"), and the example command will	fetch only the master branch.
	   The remote.<repository>.fetch values	determine which
	   remote-tracking branch, if any, is updated. When used in this way,
	   the remote.<repository>.fetch values	do not have any	effect in
	   deciding what gets fetched (i.e. the	values are not used as
	   refspecs when the command-line lists	refspecs); they	are only used
	   to decide where the refs that are fetched are stored	by acting as a

       The latter use of the remote.<repository>.fetch values can be
       overridden by giving the	--refmap=<refspec> parameter(s)	on the command

       Git has a default disposition of	keeping	data unless it's explicitly
       thrown away; this extends to holding onto local references to branches
       on remotes that have themselves deleted those branches.

       If left to accumulate, these stale references might make	performance
       worse on	big and	busy repos that	have a lot of branch churn, and	e.g.
       make the	output of commands like	git branch -a --contains <commit>
       needlessly verbose, as well as impacting	anything else that'll work
       with the	complete set of	known references.

       These remote-tracking references	can be deleted as a one-off with
       either of:

	   # While fetching
	   $ git fetch --prune <name>

	   # Only prune, don't fetch
	   $ git remote	prune <name>

       To prune	references as part of your normal workflow without needing to
       remember	to run that, set fetch.prune globally, or remote.<name>.prune
       per-remote in the config. See git-config(1).

       Here's where things get tricky and more specific. The pruning feature
       doesn't actually	care about branches, instead it'll prune local <->
       remote-references as a function of the refspec of the remote (see
       <refspec> and CONFIGURED	REMOTE-TRACKING	BRANCHES above).

       Therefore if the	refspec	for the	remote includes	e.g.
       refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*,	or you manually	run e.g. git fetch --prune
       <name> "refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*"	it won't be stale remote tracking
       branches	that are deleted, but any local	tag that doesn't exist on the

       This might not be what you expect, i.e. you want	to prune remote
       <name>, but also	explicitly fetch tags from it, so when you fetch from
       it you delete all your local tags, most of which	may not	have come from
       the <name> remote in the	first place.

       So be careful when using	this with a refspec like
       refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*,	or any other refspec which might map
       references from multiple	remotes	to the same local namespace.

       Since keeping up-to-date	with both branches and tags on the remote is a
       common use-case the --prune-tags	option can be supplied along with
       --prune to prune	local tags that	don't exist on the remote, and
       force-update those tags that differ. Tag	pruning	can also be enabled
       with fetch.pruneTags or remote.<name>.pruneTags in the config. See git-

       The --prune-tags	option is equivalent to	having refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*
       declared	in the refspecs	of the remote. This can	lead to	some seemingly
       strange interactions:

	   # These both	fetch tags
	   $ git fetch --no-tags origin	'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
	   $ git fetch --no-tags --prune-tags origin

       The reason it doesn't error out when provided without --prune or	its
       config versions is for flexibility of the configured versions, and to
       maintain	a 1=1 mapping between what the command line flags do, and what
       the configuration versions do.

       It's reasonable to e.g. configure fetch.pruneTags=true in ~/.gitconfig
       to have tags pruned whenever git	fetch --prune is run, without making
       every invocation	of git fetch without --prune an	error.

       Pruning tags with --prune-tags also works when fetching a URL instead
       of a named remote. These	will all prune tags not	found on origin:

	   $ git fetch origin --prune --prune-tags
	   $ git fetch origin --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
	   $ git fetch <url of origin> --prune --prune-tags
	   $ git fetch <url of origin> --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'

       The output of "git fetch" depends on the	transport method used; this
       section describes the output when fetching over the Git protocol
       (either locally or via ssh) and Smart HTTP protocol.

       The status of the fetch is output in tabular form, with each line
       representing the	status of a single ref.	Each line is of	the form:

	    <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> [<reason>]

       The status of up-to-date	refs is	shown only if the --verbose option is

       In compact output mode, specified with configuration variable
       fetch.output, if	either entire <from> or	<to> is	found in the other
       string, it will be substituted with * in	the other string. For example,
       master -> origin/master becomes master -> origin/*.

	   A single character indicating the status of the ref:

	       for a successfully fetched fast-forward;

	       for a successful	forced update;

	       for a successfully pruned ref;

	       for a successful	tag update;

	       for a successfully fetched new ref;

	       for a ref that was rejected or failed to	update;	and

	       for a ref that was up to	date and did not need fetching.

	   For a successfully fetched ref, the summary shows the old and new
	   values of the ref in	a form suitable	for using as an	argument to
	   git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases,	and <old>...<new> for
	   forced non-fast-forward updates).

	   The name of the remote ref being fetched from, minus	its
	   refs/<type>/	prefix.	In the case of deletion, the name of the
	   remote ref is "(none)".

	   The name of the local ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/

	   A human-readable explanation. In the	case of	successfully fetched
	   refs, no explanation	is needed. For a failed	ref, the reason	for
	   failure is described.

       o   Update the remote-tracking branches:

	       $ git fetch origin

	   The above command copies all	branches from the remote refs/heads/
	   namespace and stores	them to	the local refs/remotes/origin/
	   namespace, unless the branch.<name>.fetch option is used to specify
	   a non-default refspec.

       o   Using refspecs explicitly:

	       $ git fetch origin +seen:seen maint:tmp

	   This	updates	(or creates, as	necessary) branches seen and tmp in
	   the local repository	by fetching from the branches (respectively)
	   seen	and maint from the remote repository.

	   The seen branch will	be updated even	if it does not fast-forward,
	   because it is prefixed with a plus sign; tmp	will not be.

       o   Peek	at a remote's branch, without configuring the remote in	your
	   local repository:

	       $ git fetch git:// maint
	       $ git log FETCH_HEAD

	   The first command fetches the maint branch from the repository at
	   git:// and	the second command
	   uses	FETCH_HEAD to examine the branch with git-log(1). The fetched
	   objects will	eventually be removed by git's built-in	housekeeping
	   (see	git-gc(1)).

       The fetch and push protocols are	not designed to	prevent	one side from
       stealing	data from the other repository that was	not intended to	be
       shared. If you have private data	that you need to protect from a
       malicious peer, your best option	is to store it in another repository.
       This applies to both clients and	servers. In particular,	namespaces on
       a server	are not	effective for read access control; you should only
       grant read access to a namespace	to clients that	you would trust	with
       read access to the entire repository.

       The known attack	vectors	are as follows:

	1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of	objects	it has
	   that	are not	explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to
	   optimize the	transfer if the	peer also has them. The	attacker
	   chooses an object ID	X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn't
	   required to send the	content	of X because the victim	already	has
	   it. Now the victim believes that the	attacker has X,	and it sends
	   the content of X back to the	attacker later.	(This attack is	most
	   straightforward for a client	to perform on a	server,	by creating a
	   ref to X in the namespace the client	has access to and then
	   fetching it.	The most likely	way for	a server to perform it on a
	   client is to	"merge"	X into a public	branch and hope	that the user
	   does	additional work	on this	branch and pushes it back to the
	   server without noticing the merge.)

	2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim
	   sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and	the attacker
	   falsely claims to have X and	not Y, so the victim sends Y as	a
	   delta against X. The	delta reveals regions of X that	are similar to
	   Y to	the attacker.

       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in	already
       checked out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new
       submodule in the	just fetched commits of	the superproject the submodule
       itself cannot be	fetched, making	it impossible to check out that
       submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This	is expected to
       be fixed	in a future Git	version.


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.30.1			  02/08/2021			  GIT-FETCH(1)


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help