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       git-format-patch	- Prepare patches for e-mail submission

       git format-patch	[-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
			  [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
			  [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
			  [-s |	--signoff]
			  [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
			  [-n |	--numbered | -N	| --no-numbered]
			  [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
			  [--in-reply-to=<message id>] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
			  [--ignore-if-in-upstream] [--always]
			  [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=<subject prefix>]
			  [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
			  [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
			  [--[no-]cover-letter]	[--quiet]
			  [--no-notes |	--notes[=<ref>]]
			  [--range-diff=<previous> [--creation-factor=<percent>]]
			  [<common diff	options>]
			  [ <since> | <revision	range> ]

       Prepare each non-merge commit with its "patch" in one "message" per
       commit, formatted to resemble a UNIX mailbox. The output	of this
       command is convenient for e-mail	submission or for use with git am.

       A "message" generated by	the command consists of	three parts:

       o   A brief metadata header that	begins with From <commit> with a fixed
	   Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001 datestamp to help programs like "file(1)"
	   to recognize	that the file is an output from	this command, fields
	   that	record the author identity, the	author date, and the title of
	   the change (taken from the first paragraph of the commit log

       o   The second and subsequent paragraphs	of the commit log message.

       o   The "patch",	which is the "diff -p --stat" output (see git-diff(1))
	   between the commit and its parent.

       The log message and the patch is	separated by a line with a three-dash

       There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.

	1. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the	commits	leading	to the
	   tip of the current branch that are not in the history that leads to
	   the <since> to be output.

	2. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING	REVISIONS"
	   section in gitrevisions(7)) means the commits in the	specified

       The first rule takes precedence in the case of a	single <commit>. To
       apply the second	rule, i.e., format everything since the	beginning of
       history up until	<commit>, use the --root option: git format-patch
       --root <commit>.	If you want to format only <commit> itself, you	can do
       this with git format-patch -1 <commit>.

       By default, each	output file is numbered	sequentially from 1, and uses
       the first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
       the filename. With the --numbered-files option, the output file names
       will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
       The names of the	output files are printed to standard output, unless
       the --stdout option is specified.

       If -o is	specified, output files	are created in <dir>. Otherwise	they
       are created in the current working directory. The default path can be
       set with	the format.outputDirectory configuration option. The -o	option
       takes precedence	over format.outputDirectory. To	store patches in the
       current working directory even when format.outputDirectory points
       elsewhere, use -o .. All	directory components will be created.

       By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed	by the
       concatenation of	lines from the commit message up to the	first blank
       line (see the DISCUSSION	section	of git-commit(1)).

       When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
       "[PATCH n/m] ". To force	1/1 to be added	for a single patch, use	-n. To
       omit patch numbers from the subject, use	-N.

       If given	--thread, git-format-patch will	generate In-Reply-To and
       References headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails	appear
       as replies to the first mail; this also generates a Message-Id header
       to reference.

       -p, --no-stat
	   Generate plain patches without any diffstats.

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
	   Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual

	   Output to a specific	file instead of	stdout.

       --output-indicator-new=<char>, --output-indicator-old=<char>,
	   Specify the character used to indicate new, old or context lines in
	   the generated patch.	Normally they are +, - and ' ' respectively.

	   Enable the heuristic	that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make
	   patches easier to read. This	is the default.

	   Disable the indent heuristic.

	   Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is

	   Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

	   Generate a diff using the "histogram	diff" algorithm.

	   Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

	   This	option may be specified	more than once.

	   If a	line exists in both the	source and destination,	exists only
	   once, and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts to prevent
	   it from appearing as	a deletion or addition in the output. It uses
	   the "patience diff" algorithm internally.

	   Choose a diff algorithm. The	variants are as	follows:

	   default, myers
	       The basic greedy	diff algorithm.	Currently, this	is the

	       Spend extra time	to make	sure the smallest possible diff	is

	       Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

	       This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to	"support
	       low-occurrence common elements".

	   For instance, if you	configured the diff.algorithm variable to a
	   non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have to
	   use --diff-algorithm=default	option.

	   Generate a diffstat.	By default, as much space as necessary will be
	   used	for the	filename part, and the rest for	the graph part.
	   Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or	80 columns if not
	   connected to	a terminal, and	can be overridden by <width>. The
	   width of the	filename part can be limited by	giving another width
	   <name-width>	after a	comma. The width of the	graph part can be
	   limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects	all commands
	   generating a	stat graph) or by setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width>
	   (does not affect git	format-patch). By giving a third parameter
	   <count>, you	can limit the output to	the first <count> lines,
	   followed by ...  if there are more.

	   These parameters can	also be	set individually with
	   --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width>	and

	   Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
	   file	creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l" if
	   it's	a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding or
	   removing executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The information
	   is put between the filename part and	the graph part.	Implies

	   Similar to --stat, but shows	number of added	and deleted lines in
	   decimal notation and	pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
	   machine friendly. For binary	files, outputs two - instead of	saying
	   0 0.

	   Output only the last	line of	the --stat format containing total
	   number of modified files, as	well as	number of added	and deleted

       -X[<param1,param2,...>],	--dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
	   Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
	   sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can	be customized by
	   passing it a	comma separated	list of	parameters. The	defaults are
	   controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration	variable (see git-
	   config(1)). The following parameters	are available:

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have
	       been removed from the source, or	added to the destination. This
	       ignores the amount of pure code movements within	a file.	In
	       other words, rearranging	lines in a file	is not counted as much
	       as other	changes. This is the default behavior when no
	       parameter is given.

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the	regular	line-based
	       diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For
	       binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary	files
	       have no natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
	       --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
	       rearranged lines	within a file as much as other changes.	The
	       resulting output	is consistent with what	you get	from the other
	       --*stat options.

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
	       changed.	Each changed file counts equally in the	dirstat
	       analysis. This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat
	       behavior, since it does not have	to look	at the file contents
	       at all.

	       Count changes in	a child	directory for the parent directory as
	       well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the
	       percentages reported may	exceed 100%. The default
	       (non-cumulative)	behavior can be	specified with the
	       noncumulative parameter.

	       An integer parameter specifies a	cut-off	percent	(3% by
	       default). Directories contributing less than this percentage of
	       the changes are not shown in the	output.

	   Example: The	following will count changed files, while ignoring
	   directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed
	   files, and accumulating child directory counts in the parent
	   directories:	--dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

	   Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative

	   Synonym for --dirstat=files,param1,param2...

	   Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
	   creations, renames and mode changes.

	   Turn	off rename detection, even when	the configuration file gives
	   the default to do so.

	   Whether to use empty	blobs as rename	source.

	   Instead of the first	handful	of characters, show the	full pre- and
	   post-image blob object names	on the "index" line when generating
	   patch format	output.

	   In addition to --full-index,	output a binary	diff that can be
	   applied with	git-apply.

	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
	   diff-raw format output and diff-tree	header lines, show the
	   shortest prefix that	is at least _n_	hexdigits long that uniquely
	   refers the object. In diff-patch output format, --full-index	takes
	   higher precedence, i.e. if --full-index is specified, full blob
	   names will be shown regardless of --abbrev. Non default number of
	   digits can be specified with	--abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
	   Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of	delete and create.
	   This	serves two purposes:

	   It affects the way a	change that amounts to a total rewrite of a
	   file	not as a series	of deletion and	insertion mixed	together with
	   a very few lines that happen	to match textually as the context, but
	   as a	single deletion	of everything old followed by a	single
	   insertion of	everything new,	and the	number m controls this aspect
	   of the -B option (defaults to 60%).	-B/70% specifies that less
	   than	30% of the original should remain in the result	for Git	to
	   consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch
	   will	be a series of deletion	and insertion mixed together with
	   context lines).

	   When	used with -M, a	totally-rewritten file is also considered as
	   the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
	   disappeared as the source of	a rename), and the number n controls
	   this	aspect of the -B option	(defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
	   that	a change with addition and deletion compared to	20% or more of
	   the file's size are eligible	for being picked up as a possible
	   source of a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>],	--find-renames[=<n>]
	   Detect renames. If n	is specified, it is a threshold	on the
	   similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared	to the
	   file's size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a
	   delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't
	   changed. Without a %	sign, the number is to be read as a fraction,
	   with	a decimal point	before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus
	   the same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit
	   detection to	exact renames, use -M100%. The default similarity
	   index is 50%.

       -C[<n>],	--find-copies[=<n>]
	   Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If
	   n is	specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

	   For performance reasons, by default,	-C option finds	copies only if
	   the original	file of	the copy was modified in the same changeset.
	   This	flag makes the command inspect unmodified files	as candidates
	   for the source of copy. This	is a very expensive operation for
	   large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one	-C
	   option has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
	   Omit	the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
	   the diff between the	preimage and /dev/null.	The resulting patch is
	   not meant to	be applied with	patch or git apply; this is solely for
	   people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the	text after the
	   change. In addition,	the output obviously lacks enough information
	   to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of
	   the option.

	   When	used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion
	   part	of a delete/create pair.

	   The -M and -C options involve some preliminary steps	that can
	   detect subsets of renames/copies cheaply, followed by an exhaustive
	   fallback portion that compares all remaining	unpaired destinations
	   to all relevant sources. (For renames, only remaining unpaired
	   sources are relevant; for copies, all original sources are
	   relevant.) For N sources and	destinations, this exhaustive check is
	   O(N^2). This	option prevents	the exhaustive portion of rename/copy
	   detection from running if the number	of source/destination files
	   involved exceeds the	specified number. Defaults to
	   diff.renameLimit. Note that a value of 0 is treated as unlimited.

	   Control the order in	which files appear in the output. This
	   overrides the diff.orderFile	configuration variable (see git-
	   config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

	   The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns	in
	   <orderfile>.	All files with pathnames that match the	first pattern
	   are output first, all files with pathnames that match the second
	   pattern (but	not the	first) are output next,	and so on. All files
	   with	pathnames that do not match any	pattern	are output last, as if
	   there was an	implicit match-all pattern at the end of the file. If
	   multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern
	   but no earlier patterns), their output order	relative to each other
	   is the normal order.

	   <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

	   o   Blank lines are ignored,	so they	can be used as separators for

	   o   Lines starting with a hash ("#")	are ignored, so	they can be
	       used for	comments. Add a	backslash ("\")	to the beginning of
	       the pattern if it starts	with a hash.

	   o   Each other line contains	a single pattern.

	   Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used	for
	   fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
	   matches a pattern if	removing any number of the final pathname
	   components matches the pattern. For example,	the pattern "foo*bar"
	   matches "fooasdfbar"	and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

       --skip-to=<file>, --rotate-to=<file>
	   Discard the files before the	named <file> from the output (i.e.
	   skip	to), or	move them to the end of	the output (i.e.  rotate to).
	   These were invented primarily for use of the	git difftool command,
	   and may not be very useful otherwise.

       --relative[=<path>], --no-relative
	   When	run from a subdirectory	of the project,	it can be told to
	   exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative
	   to it with this option. When	you are	not in a subdirectory (e.g. in
	   a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the
	   output relative to by giving	a <path> as an argument.
	   --no-relative can be	used to	countermand both diff.relative config
	   option and previous --relative.

       -a, --text
	   Treat all files as text.

	   Ignore carriage-return at the end of	line when doing	a comparison.

	   Ignore changes in whitespace	at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
	   Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This	ignores	whitespace at
	   line	end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
	   whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
	   Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This	ignores	differences
	   even	if one line has	whitespace where the other line	has none.

	   Ignore changes whose	lines are all blank.

       -I<regex>, --ignore-matching-lines=<regex>
	   Ignore changes whose	all lines match	<regex>. This option may be
	   specified more than once.

	   Show	the context between diff hunks,	up to the specified number of
	   lines, thereby fusing hunks that are	close to each other. Defaults
	   to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the	config option is unset.

       -W, --function-context
	   Show	whole function as context lines	for each change. The function
	   names are determined	in the same way	as git diff works out patch
	   hunk	headers	(see Defining a	custom hunk-header in

	   Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you	set an
	   external diff driver	with gitattributes(5), you need	to use this
	   option with git-log(1) and friends.

	   Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
	   Allow (or disallow) external	text conversion	filters	to be run when
	   comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5)	for details. Because
	   textconv filters are	typically a one-way conversion,	the resulting
	   diff	is suitable for	human consumption, but cannot be applied. For
	   this	reason,	textconv filters are enabled by	default	only for git-
	   diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff
	   plumbing commands.

	   Ignore changes to submodules	in the diff generation.	<when> can be
	   either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
	   Using "none"	will consider the submodule modified when it either
	   contains untracked or modified files	or its HEAD differs from the
	   commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
	   settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5).
	   When	"untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty	when
	   they	only contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for
	   modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all	changes	to the work
	   tree	of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the
	   superproject	are shown (this	was the	behavior until 1.7.0). Using
	   "all" hides all changes to submodules.

	   Show	the given source prefix	instead	of "a/".

	   Show	the given destination prefix instead of	"b/".

	   Do not show any source or destination prefix.

	   Prepend an additional prefix	to every line of output.

	   By default entries added by "git add	-N" appear as an existing
	   empty file in "git diff" and	a new file in "git diff	--cached".
	   This	option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff" and
	   non-existent	in "git	diff --cached".	This option could be reverted
	   with	--ita-visible-in-index.	Both options are experimental and
	   could be removed in future.

       For more	detailed explanation on	these common options, see also

	   Prepare patches from	the topmost <n>	commits.

       -o <dir>, --output-directory <dir>
	   Use <dir> to	store the resulting files, instead of the current
	   working directory.

       -n, --numbered
	   Name	output in [PATCH n/m] format, even with	a single patch.

       -N, --no-numbered
	   Name	output in [PATCH] format.

       --start-number <n>
	   Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.

	   Output file names will be a simple number sequence without the
	   default first line of the commit appended.

       -k, --keep-subject
	   Do not strip/add [PATCH] from the first line	of the commit log

       -s, --signoff
	   Add a Signed-off-by trailer to the commit message, using the
	   committer identity of yourself. See the signoff option in git-
	   commit(1) for more information.

	   Print all commits to	the standard output in mbox format, instead of
	   creating a file for each one.

	   Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first	part of	which is the
	   commit message and the patch	itself in the second part, with
	   Content-Disposition:	attachment.

	   Disable the creation	of an attachment, overriding the configuration

	   Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first	part of	which is the
	   commit message and the patch	itself in the second part, with
	   Content-Disposition:	inline.

       --thread[=<style>], --no-thread
	   Controls addition of	In-Reply-To and	References headers to make the
	   second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the	first. Also
	   controls generation of the Message-Id header	to reference.

	   The optional	<style>	argument can be	either shallow or deep.
	   shallow threading makes every mail a	reply to the head of the
	   series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
	   --in-reply-to, and the first	patch mail, in this order.  deep
	   threading makes every mail a	reply to the previous one.

	   The default is --no-thread, unless the format.thread	configuration
	   is set. If --thread is specified without a style, it	defaults to
	   the style specified by format.thread	if any,	or else	shallow.

	   Beware that the default for git send-email is to thread emails
	   itself. If you want git format-patch	to take	care of	threading, you
	   will	want to	ensure that threading is disabled for git send-email.

       --in-reply-to=<message id>
	   Make	the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread) appear as a
	   reply to the	given <message id>, which avoids breaking threads to
	   provide a new patch series.

	   Do not include a patch that matches a commit	in <until>..<since>.
	   This	will examine all patches reachable from	<since>	but not	from
	   <until> and compare them with the patches being generated, and any
	   patch that matches is ignored.

	   Include patches for commits that do not introduce any change, which
	   are omitted by default.

	   Controls which parts	of the cover letter will be automatically
	   populated using the branch's	description.

	   If <mode> is	message	or default, the	cover letter subject will be
	   populated with placeholder text. The	body of	the cover letter will
	   be populated	with the branch's description. This is the default
	   mode	when no	configuration nor command line option is specified.

	   If <mode> is	subject, the first paragraph of	the branch description
	   will	populate the cover letter subject. The remainder of the
	   description will populate the body of the cover letter.

	   If <mode> is	auto, if the first paragraph of	the branch description
	   is greater than 100 bytes, then the mode will be message, otherwise
	   subject will	be used.

	   If <mode> is	none, both the cover letter subject and	body will be
	   populated with placeholder text.

       --subject-prefix=<subject prefix>
	   Instead of the standard [PATCH] prefix in the subject line, instead
	   use [_subject prefix_]. This	allows for useful naming of a patch
	   series, and can be combined with the	--numbered option.

	   Instead of the standard 64 bytes, chomp the generated output
	   filenames at	around _n_ bytes (too short a value will be silently
	   raised to a reasonable length). Defaults to the value of the
	   format.filenameMaxLength configuration variable, or 64 if

	   Alias for --subject-prefix="RFC PATCH". RFC means "Request For
	   Comments"; use this when sending an experimental patch for
	   discussion rather than application.

       -v <n>, --reroll-count=<n>
	   Mark	the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The output
	   filenames have v<n> prepended to them, and the subject prefix
	   ("PATCH" by default,	but configurable via the --subject-prefix
	   option) has ` v<n>` appended	to it. E.g.  --reroll-count=4 may
	   produce v4-0001-add-makefile.patch file that	has "Subject: [PATCH
	   v4 1/20] Add	makefile" in it.  <n> does not have to be an integer
	   (e.g. "--reroll-count=4.4", or "--reroll-count=4rev2" are allowed),
	   but the downside of using such a reroll-count is that the
	   range-diff/interdiff	with the previous version does not state
	   exactly which version the new interation is compared	against.

	   Add a To: header to the email headers. This is in addition to any
	   configured headers, and may be used multiple	times. The negated
	   form	--no-to	discards all To: headers added so far (from config or
	   command line).

	   Add a Cc: header to the email headers. This is in addition to any
	   configured headers, and may be used multiple	times. The negated
	   form	--no-cc	discards all Cc: headers added so far (from config or
	   command line).

       --from, --from=<ident>
	   Use ident in	the From: header of each commit	email. If the author
	   ident of the	commit is not textually	identical to the provided
	   ident, place	a From:	header in the body of the message with the
	   original author. If no ident	is given, use the committer ident.

	   Note	that this option is only useful	if you are actually sending
	   the emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain
	   the original	author (and git	am will	correctly pick up the in-body
	   header). Note also that git send-email already handles this
	   transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you
	   are feeding the result to git send-email.

	   With	the e-mail sender specified via	the --from option, by default,
	   an in-body "From:" to identify the real author of the commit	is
	   added at the	top of the commit log message if the sender is
	   different from the author. With this	option,	the in-body "From:" is
	   added even when the sender and the author have the same name	and
	   address, which may help if the mailing list software	mangles	the
	   sender's identity. Defaults to the value of the
	   format.forceInBodyFrom configuration	variable.

	   Add an arbitrary header to the email	headers. This is in addition
	   to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times. For
	   example, --add-header="Organization:	git-foo". The negated form
	   --no-add-header discards all	(To:, Cc:, and custom) headers added
	   so far from config or command line.

	   In addition to the patches, generate	a cover	letter file containing
	   the branch description, shortlog and	the overall diffstat. You can
	   fill	in a description in the	file before sending it out.

       --encode-email-headers, --no-encode-email-headers
	   Encode email	headers	that have non-ASCII characters with
	   "Q-encoding"	(described in RFC 2047), instead of outputting the
	   headers verbatim. Defaults to the value of the
	   format.encodeEmailHeaders configuration variable.

	   As a	reviewer aid, insert an	interdiff into the cover letter, or as
	   commentary of the lone patch	of a 1-patch series, showing the
	   differences between the previous version of the patch series	and
	   the series currently	being formatted.  previous is a	single
	   revision naming the tip of the previous series which	shares a
	   common base with the	series being formatted (for example git
	   format-patch	--cover-letter --interdiff=feature/v1 -3 feature/v2).

	   As a	reviewer aid, insert a range-diff (see git-range-diff(1)) into
	   the cover letter, or	as commentary of the lone patch	of a 1-patch
	   series, showing the differences between the previous	version	of the
	   patch series	and the	series currently being formatted.  previous
	   can be a single revision naming the tip of the previous series if
	   it shares a common base with	the series being formatted (for
	   example git format-patch --cover-letter --range-diff=feature/v1 -3
	   feature/v2),	or a revision range if the two versions	of the series
	   are disjoint	(for example git format-patch --cover-letter
	   --range-diff=feature/v1~3..feature/v1 -3 feature/v2).

	   Note	that diff options passed to the	command	affect how the primary
	   product of format-patch is generated, and they are not passed to
	   the underlying range-diff machinery used to generate	the
	   cover-letter	material (this may change in the future).

	   Used	with --range-diff, tweak the heuristic which matches up
	   commits between the previous	and current series of patches by
	   adjusting the creation/deletion cost	fudge factor. See git-range-
	   diff(1)) for	details.

       --notes[=<ref>],	--no-notes
	   Append the notes (see git-notes(1)) for the commit after the
	   three-dash line.

	   The expected	use case of this is to write supporting	explanation
	   for the commit that does not	belong to the commit log message
	   proper, and include it with the patch submission. While one can
	   simply write	these explanations after format-patch has run but
	   before sending, keeping them	as Git notes allows them to be
	   maintained between versions of the patch series (but	see the
	   discussion of the notes.rewrite configuration options in git-
	   notes(1) to use this	workflow).

	   The default is --no-notes, unless the format.notes configuration is

	   Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the
	   signature is	separated from the body	by a line with '-- ' on	it. If
	   the signature option	is omitted the signature defaults to the Git
	   version number.

	   Works just like --signature except the signature is read from a

	   Instead of using .patch as the suffix for generated filenames, use
	   specified suffix. A common alternative is --suffix=.txt. Leaving
	   this	empty will remove the .patch suffix.

	   Note	that the leading character does	not have to be a dot; for
	   example, you	can use	--suffix=-patch	to get

       -q, --quiet
	   Do not print	the names of the generated files to standard output.

	   Do not output contents of changes in	binary files, instead display
	   a notice that those files changed. Patches generated	using this
	   option cannot be applied properly, but they are still useful	for
	   code	review.

	   Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From	header instead of the
	   hash	of the commit.

	   Record the base tree	information to identify	the state the patch
	   series applies to. See the BASE TREE	INFORMATION section below for
	   details. If <commit>	is "auto", a base commit is automatically
	   chosen. The --no-base option	overrides a format.useAutoBase

	   Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it is
	   just	a single commit	(that would normally be	treated	as a <since>).
	   Note	that root commits included in the specified range are always
	   formatted as	creation patches, independently	of this	flag.

	   Show	progress reports on stderr as patches are generated.

       You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
       defaults	for the	subject	prefix and file	suffix,	number patches when
       outputting more than one	patch, add "To:" or "Cc:" headers, configure
       attachments, change the patch output directory, and sign	off patches
       with configuration variables.

		   headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
		   subjectPrefix = CHANGE
		   suffix = .txt
		   numbered = auto
		   to =	<email>
		   cc =	<email>
		   attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
		   signOff = true
		   outputDirectory = <directory>
		   coverLetter = auto
		   coverFromDescription	= auto

       The patch produced by git format-patch is in UNIX mailbox format, with
       a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output from
       format-patch rather than	a real mailbox,	like so:

	   From	8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
	   From: Tony Luck <>
	   Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
	   Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
	   MIME-Version: 1.0
	   Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
	   Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

	   arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
	   (See	commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae	comment)

	   Do the same for ia64	so we can have sleek & trim looking

       Typically it will be placed in a	MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
       timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
       dashes, and then	sent as	a message whose	body, in our example, starts
       with "arch/arm config files were...". On	the receiving end, readers can
       save interesting	patches	in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with git-

       When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch	generated by
       git format-patch	can be tweaked to take advantage of the	git am
       --scissors feature. After your response to the discussion comes a line
       that consists solely of "-- >8 --" (scissors and	perforation), followed
       by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:

	   > So	we should do such-and-such.

	   Makes sense to me.  How about this patch?

	   -- >8 --
	   Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the	Uwe Kleine-Konig diet

	   arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script

       When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
       patch, so in addition to	the "From $SHA1	$magic_timestamp" marker you
       should omit From: and Date: lines from the patch	file. The patch	title
       is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the	patch
       is in response to, so it	is likely that you would want to keep the
       Subject:	line, like the example above.

   Checking for	patch corruption
       Many mailers if not set up properly will	corrupt	whitespace. Here are
       two common types	of corruption:

       o   Empty context lines that do not have	any whitespace.

       o   Non-empty context lines that	have one extra whitespace at the

       One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:

       o   Send	the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except with
	   To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and maintainer

       o   Save	that patch to a	file in	UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,

       o   Apply it:

	       $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
	       $ git switch test-apply
	       $ git restore --source=HEAD --staged --worktree :/
	       $ git am	a.patch

       If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.

       o   The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is bad	but does not
	   have	much to	do with	your MUA. You might want to rebase the patch
	   with	git-rebase(1) before regenerating it in	this case.

       o   The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that the patch
	   does	not apply. Look	in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and see
	   what	patch file contains and	check for the common corruption
	   patterns mentioned above.

       o   While at it,	check the info and final-commit	files as well. If what
	   is in final-commit is not exactly what you would want to see	in the
	   commit log message, it is very likely that the receiver would end
	   up hand editing the log message when	applying your patch. Things
	   like	"Hi, this is my	first patch.\n"	in the patch e-mail should
	   come	after the three-dash line that signals the end of the commit

       Here are	some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline	using
       various mailers.

       GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in	the web
       interface, so it	will mangle any	emails that you	send. You can however
       use "git	send-email" and	send your patches through the GMail SMTP
       server, or use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP
       server and forward the emails through that.

       For hints on using git send-email to send your patches through the
       GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of git-send-email(1).

       For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
       section of git-imap-send(1).

       By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as	well as	flag them as
       being format=flowed, both of which will make the	resulting email
       unusable	by Git.

       There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line
       wraps, configure	Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use an external
       editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling	the patches.

       Approach	#1 (add-on)
	   Install the Toggle Word Wrap	add-on that is available from It
	   adds	a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap"	in the composer's "Options"
	   menu	that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you
	   otherwise do	(cut + paste, git format-patch | git imap-send,	etc),
	   but you have	to insert line breaks manually in any text that	you

       Approach	#2 (configuration)
	   Three steps:

	    1. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
	       Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing, uncheck
	       "Compose	Messages in HTML".

	    2. Configure your general composition window to not	wrap.

	       In Thunderbird 2: Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain
	       text messages at	0

	       In Thunderbird 3: Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor.
	       Search for "mail.wrap_long_lines". Toggle it to make sure it is
	       set to false. Also, search for "mailnews.wraplength" and	set
	       the value to 0.

	    3. Disable the use of format=flowed:
	       Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
	       "mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed". Toggle	it to make sure	it is
	       set to false.

	   After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
	   otherwise would (cut	+ paste, git format-patch | git	imap-send,
	   etc), and the patches will not be mangled.

       Approach	#3 (external editor)
	   The following Thunderbird extensions	are needed: AboutConfig	from and External Editor from

	    1. Prepare the patch as a text file	using your method of choice.

	    2. Before opening a	compose	window,	use Edit->Account Settings to
	       uncheck the "Compose messages in	HTML format" setting in	the
	       "Composition & Addressing" panel	of the account to be used to
	       send the	patch.

	    3. In the main Thunderbird window, before you open the compose
	       window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to	set the
	       following to the	indicated values:

			   mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed  => false
			   mailnews.wraplength		   => 0

	    4. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.

	    5. In the external editor window, read in the patch	file and exit
	       the editor normally.

	   Side	note: it may be	possible to do step 2 with about:config	and
	   the following settings but no one's tried yet.

		       mail.html_compose		       => false
		       mail.identity.default.compose_html      => false	       => false

	   There is a script in	contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can
	   help	you include patches with Thunderbird in	an easy	way. To	use
	   it, do the steps above and then use the script as the external

       This should help	you to submit patches inline using KMail.

	1. Prepare the patch as	a text file.

	2. Click on New	Mail.

	3. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that "Word
	   wrap" is not	set.

	4. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the	patch.

	5. Back	in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish	to the
	   message, complete the addressing and	subject	fields,	and press

       The base	tree information block is used for maintainers or third	party
       testers to know the exact state the patch series	applies	to. It
       consists	of the base commit, which is a well-known commit that is part
       of the stable part of the project history everybody else	works off of,
       and zero	or more	prerequisite patches, which are	well-known patches in
       flight that is not yet part of the base commit that need	to be applied
       on top of base commit in	topological order before the patches can be

       The base	commit is shown	as "base-commit: " followed by the 40-hex of
       the commit object name. A prerequisite patch is shown as
       "prerequisite-patch-id: " followed by the 40-hex	patch id, which	can be
       obtained	by passing the patch through the git patch-id --stable

       Imagine that on top of the public commit	P, you applied well-known
       patches X, Y and	Z from somebody	else, and then built your three-patch
       series A, B, C, the history would be like:


       With git	format-patch --base=P -3 C (or variants	thereof, e.g. with
       --cover-letter or using Z..C instead of -3 C to specify the range), the
       base tree information block is shown at the end of the first message
       the command outputs (either the first patch, or the cover letter), like

	   base-commit:	P
	   prerequisite-patch-id: X
	   prerequisite-patch-id: Y
	   prerequisite-patch-id: Z

       For non-linear topology,	such as

	       \	 /

       You can also use	git format-patch --base=P -3 C to generate patches for
       A, B and	C, and the identifiers for P, X, Y, Z are appended at the end
       of the first message.

       If set --base=auto in cmdline, it will automatically compute the	base
       commit as the merge base	of tip commit of the remote-tracking branch
       and revision-range specified in cmdline.	For a local branch, you	need
       to make it to track a remote branch by git branch --set-upstream-to
       before using this option.

       o   Extract commits between revisions R1	and R2,	and apply them on top
	   of the current branch using git am to cherry-pick them:

	       $ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k

       o   Extract all commits which are in the	current	branch but not in the
	   origin branch:

	       $ git format-patch origin

	   For each commit a separate file is created in the current

       o   Extract all commits that lead to origin since the inception of the

	       $ git format-patch --root origin

       o   The same as the previous one:

	       $ git format-patch -M -B	origin

	   Additionally, it detects and	handles	renames	and complete rewrites
	   intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A	renaming patch reduces
	   the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
	   Note	that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming
	   patches, so use it only when	you know the recipient uses Git	to
	   apply your patch.

       o   Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format
	   them	as e-mailable patches:

	       $ git format-patch -3

       Note that format-patch will omit	merge commits from the output, even if
       they are	part of	the requested range. A simple "patch" does not include
       enough information for the receiving end	to reproduce the same merge

       git-am(1), git-send-email(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.39.1			  01/13/2023		   GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)


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