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GIT-LOG(1)			  Git Manual			    GIT-LOG(1)

       git-log - Show commit logs

       git log [<options>] [<revision-range>] [[--] <path>...]

       Shows the commit	logs.

       List commits that are reachable by following the	parent links from the
       given commit(s),	but exclude commits that are reachable from the	one(s)
       given with a ^ in front of them.	The output is given in reverse
       chronological order by default.

       You can think of	this as	a set operation. Commits reachable from	any of
       the commits given on the	command	line form a set, and then commits
       reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are	subtracted
       from that set. The remaining commits are	what comes out in the
       command's output. Various other options and paths parameters can	be
       used to further limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

	   $ git log foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo	or bar,	but
       not from	baz".

       A special notation "_commit1_.._commit2_" can be	used as	a short-hand
       for "^_commit1_ _commit2_". For example,	either of the following	may be
       used interchangeably:

	   $ git log origin..HEAD
	   $ git log HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation	is "_commit1_..._commit2_" which is useful for
       merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
       between the two operands. The following two commands are	equivalent:

	   $ git log A B --not $(git merge-base	--all A	B)
	   $ git log A...B

       The command takes options applicable to the git-rev-list(1) command to
       control what is shown and how, and options applicable to	the git-
       diff(1) command to control how the changes each commit introduces are

	   Continue listing the	history	of a file beyond renames (works	only
	   for a single	file).

       --no-decorate, --decorate[=short|full|auto|no]
	   Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If short is
	   specified, the ref name prefixes refs/heads/, refs/tags/ and
	   refs/remotes/ will not be printed. If full is specified, the	full
	   ref name (including prefix) will be printed.	If auto	is specified,
	   then	if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names are	shown
	   as if short were given, otherwise no	ref names are shown. The
	   option --decorate is	short-hand for --decorate=short. Default to
	   configuration value of log.decorate if configured, otherwise, auto.

       --decorate-refs=<pattern>, --decorate-refs-exclude=<pattern>
	   For each candidate reference, do not	use it for decoration if it
	   matches any patterns	given to --decorate-refs-exclude or if it
	   doesn't match any of	the patterns given to --decorate-refs. The
	   log.excludeDecoration config	option allows excluding	refs from the
	   decorations,	but an explicit	--decorate-refs	pattern	will override
	   a match in log.excludeDecoration.

	   If none of these options or config settings are given, then
	   references are used as decoration if	they match HEAD, refs/heads/,
	   refs/remotes/, refs/stash/, or refs/tags/.

	   When	specified, this	option clears all previous --decorate-refs or
	   --decorate-refs-exclude options and relaxes the default decoration
	   filter to include all references. This option is assumed if the
	   config value	log.initialDecorationSet is set	to all.

	   Print out the ref name given	on the command line by which each
	   commit was reached.

       --[no-]mailmap, --[no-]use-mailmap
	   Use mailmap file to map author and committer	names and email
	   addresses to	canonical real names and email addresses. See git-

	   Without this	flag, git log -p <path>...  shows commits that touch
	   the specified paths,	and diffs about	the same specified paths. With
	   this, the full diff is shown	for commits that touch the specified
	   paths; this means that "<path>..." limits only commits, and doesn't
	   limit diff for those	commits.

	   Note	that this affects all diff-based output	types, e.g. those
	   produced by --stat, etc.

	   Include a line "log size <number>" in the output for	each commit,
	   where <number> is the length	of that	commit's message in bytes.
	   Intended to speed up	tools that read	log messages from git log
	   output by allowing them to allocate space in	advance.

       -L<start>,<end>:<file>, -L:<funcname>:<file>
	   Trace the evolution of the line range given by _start_,_end_, or by
	   the function	name regex _funcname_, within the _file_. You may not
	   give	any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to a walk
	   starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only give zero or
	   one positive	revision arguments, and	_start_	and _end_ (or
	   _funcname_) must exist in the starting revision. You	can specify
	   this	option more than once. Implies --patch.	Patch output can be
	   suppressed using --no-patch,	but other diff formats (namely --raw,
	   --numstat, --shortstat, --dirstat, --summary, --name-only,
	   --name-status, --check) are not currently implemented.

	   _start_ and _end_ can take one of these forms:

	   o   number

	       If _start_ or _end_ is a	number,	it specifies an	absolute line
	       number (lines count from	1).

	   o   /regex/

	       This form will use the first line matching the given POSIX
	       regex. If _start_ is a regex, it	will search from the end of
	       the previous -L range, if any, otherwise	from the start of
	       file. If	_start_	is ^/regex/, it	will search from the start of
	       file. If	_end_ is a regex, it will search starting at the line
	       given by	_start_.

	   o   +offset or -offset

	       This is only valid for _end_ and	will specify a number of lines
	       before or after the line	given by _start_.

	   If :<funcname> is given in place of _start_ and _end_, it is	a
	   regular expression that denotes the range from the first funcname
	   line	that matches _funcname_, up to the next	funcname line.
	   :<funcname> searches	from the end of	the previous -L	range, if any,
	   otherwise from the start of file.  ^:<funcname> searches from the
	   start of file. The function names are determined in the same	way as
	   git diff works out patch hunk headers (see Defining a custom
	   hunk-header in gitattributes(5)).

	   Show	only commits in	the specified revision range. When no
	   <revision-range> is specified, it defaults to HEAD (i.e. the	whole
	   history leading to the current commit).  origin..HEAD specifies all
	   the commits reachable from the current commit (i.e.	HEAD), but not
	   from	origin.	For a complete list of ways to spell <revision-range>,
	   see the Specifying Ranges section of	gitrevisions(7).

       [--] <path>...
	   Show	only commits that are enough to	explain	how the	files that
	   match the specified paths came to be. See History Simplification
	   below for details and other simplification modes.

	   Paths may need to be	prefixed with -- to separate them from options
	   or the revision range, when confusion arises.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting	may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern>	further	limits to commits whose	log message has	a line
       that matches <pattern>),	unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options,	such as	--reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
	   Limit the number of commits to output.

	   Skip	number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
	   Show	commits	more recent than a specific date.

	   Show	all commits more recent	than a specific	date. This visits all
	   commits in the range, rather	than stopping at the first commit
	   which is older than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
	   Show	commits	older than a specific date.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
	   Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
	   that	match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
	   than	one --author=<pattern>,	commits	whose author matches any of
	   the given patterns are chosen (similarly for	multiple

	   Limit the commits output to ones with reflog	entries	that match the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With	more than one
	   --grep-reflog, commits whose	reflog message matches any of the
	   given patterns are chosen. It is an error to	use this option	unless
	   --walk-reflogs is in	use.

	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With	more than one
	   --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
	   patterns are	chosen (but see	--all-match).

	   When	--notes	is in effect, the message from the notes is matched as
	   if it were part of the log message.

	   Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
	   instead of ones that	match at least one.

	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
	   the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
	   Match the regular expression	limiting patterns without regard to
	   letter case.

	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	basic regular expressions;
	   this	is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	extended regular expressions
	   instead of the default basic	regular	expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	fixed strings (don't interpret
	   pattern as a	regular	expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
	   Consider the	limiting patterns to be	Perl-compatible	regular

	   Support for these types of regular expressions is an	optional
	   compile-time	dependency. If Git wasn't compiled with	support	for
	   them	providing this option will cause it to die.

	   Stop	when a given path disappears from the tree.

	   Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

	   Do not print	commits	with more than one parent. This	is exactly the
	   same	as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
	   Show	only commits which have	at least (or at	most) that many	parent
	   commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
	   --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
	   root	commits	and --min-parents=3 all	octopus	merges.

	   --no-min-parents and	--no-max-parents reset these limits (to	no
	   limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has
	   0 or	more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
	   upper limit).

	   When	finding	commits	to include, follow only	the first parent
	   commit upon seeing a	merge commit. This option can give a better
	   overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
	   because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting
	   to updated upstream from time to time, and this option allows you
	   to ignore the individual commits brought in to your history by such
	   a merge.

	   This	option also changes default diff format	for merge commits to
	   first-parent, see --diff-merges=first-parent	for details.

	   When	finding	commits	to exclude (with a ^), follow only the first
	   parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This can be used to find
	   the set of changes in a topic branch	from the point where it
	   diverged from the remote branch, given that arbitrary merges	can be
	   valid topic branch changes.

	   Reverses the	meaning	of the ^ prefix	(or lack thereof) for all
	   following revision specifiers, up to	the next --not.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/,	along with HEAD, are listed on
	   the command line as _commit_.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are	listed on the command
	   line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit branches to ones
	   matching given shell	glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or	[, /* at the
	   end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
	   line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit tags to ones
	   matching given shell	glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or	[, /* at the
	   end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
	   command line	as _commit_. If	_pattern_ is given, limit
	   remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
	   pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*	at the end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob _glob-pattern_ are
	   listed on the command line as _commit_. Leading refs/, is
	   automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks	?, *, or [, /*
	   at the end is implied.

	   Do not include refs matching	_glob-pattern_ that the	next --all,
	   --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
	   Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
	   next	--all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob	option (other
	   options or arguments	do not clear accumulated patterns).

	   The patterns	given should not begin with refs/heads,	refs/tags, or
	   refs/remotes	when applied to	--branches, --tags, or --remotes,
	   respectively, and they must begin with refs/	when applied to	--glob
	   or --all. If	a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

	   Do not include refs that would be hidden by git-receive-pack	or
	   git-upload-pack by consulting the appropriate receive.hideRefs or
	   uploadpack.hideRefs configuration along with	transfer.hideRefs (see
	   git-config(1)). This	option affects the next	pseudo-ref option
	   --all or --glob and is cleared after	processing them.

	   Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on	the
	   command line	as <commit>.

	   Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
	   repositories	were listed on the command line. An alternate
	   repository is any repository	whose object directory is specified in
	   objects/info/alternates. The	set of included	objects	may be
	   modified by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

	   By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
	   options when	there are more than one	(see git-worktree(1)): --all,
	   --reflog and	--indexed-objects. This	option forces them to examine
	   the current working tree only.

	   Upon	seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
	   bad input was not given.

	   Pretend as if the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad was listed and
	   as if it was	followed by --not and the good bisection refs
	   refs/bisect/good-* on the command line.

	   In addition to the _commit_ listed on the command line, read	them
	   from	the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
	   commits and start reading paths to limit the	result.

	   Like	--cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
	   rather than omitting	them, and inequivalent ones with +.

	   Omit	any commit that	introduces the same change as another commit
	   on the "other side" when the	set of commits are limited with
	   symmetric difference.

	   For example,	if you have two	branches, A and	B, a usual way to list
	   all commits on only one side	of them	is with	--left-right (see the
	   example below in the	description of the --left-right	option).
	   However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the
	   other branch	(for example, "3rd on b" may be	cherry-picked from
	   branch A). With this	option,	such pairs of commits are excluded
	   from	the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
	   List	only commits on	the respective side of a symmetric difference,
	   i.e.	only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

	   For example,	--cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
	   from	B which	are in A or are	patch-equivalent to a commit in	A. In
	   other words,	this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
	   precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

	   A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful	to
	   limit the output to the commits on our side and mark	those that
	   have	been applied to	the other side of a forked history with	git
	   log --cherry	upstream...mybranch, similar to	git cherry upstream

       -g, --walk-reflogs
	   Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
	   from	the most recent	one to older ones. When	this option is used
	   you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
	   commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

	   With	--pretty format	other than oneline and reference (for obvious
	   reasons), this causes the output to have two	extra lines of
	   information taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the
	   output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
	   reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp}
	   (with the timestamp for that	entry),	depending on a few rules:

	    1. If the starting point is	specified as ref@{Nth},	show the index

	    2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
	       timestamp format.

	    3. If neither was used, but	--date was given on the	command	line,
	       show the	timestamp in the format	requested by --date.

	    4. Otherwise, show the index format.

	   Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
	   information on the same line. This option cannot be combined	with
	   --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

	   Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown	at

	   After a failed merge, show refs that	touch files having a conflict
	   and don't exist on all heads	to merge.

	   Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
	   with	-.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are	two parts of
       History Simplification, one part	is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it,	as there are various strategies	to simplify the

       The following options select the	commits	to be shown:

	   Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

	   Commits that	are referred by	some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the	way the	simplification is performed:

       Default mode
	   Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
	   state of the	tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
	   the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same

	   Include all commits from the	default	mode, but also any merge
	   commits that	are not	TREESAME to the	first parent but are TREESAME
	   to a	later parent. This mode	is helpful for showing the merge
	   commits that	"first introduced" a change to a branch.

	   Same	as the default mode, but does not prune	some history.

	   Only	the selected commits are shown,	plus some to have a meaningful

	   All commits in the simplified history are shown.

	   Additional option to	--full-history to remove some needless merges
	   from	the resulting history, as there	are no selected	commits
	   contributing	to this	merge.

	   When	given a	range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
	   commit2 ^commit1), only display commits in that range that are
	   ancestors of	<commit>, descendants of <commit>, or <commit> itself.
	   If no commit	is specified, use commit1 (the excluded	part of	the
	   range) as <commit>. Can be passed multiple times; if	so, a commit
	   is included if it is	any of the commits given or if it is an
	   ancestor or descendant of one of them.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the	<paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In	a diff filtered	for
       foo, they look different	and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always	refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you	are filtering for a file foo in	this commit graph:

		    /	  /   /	  /   /	  /
		   I	 B   C	 D   E	 Y
		    \	/   /	/   /	/
		     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to	be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       o   I is	the initial commit, in which foo exists	with contents "asdf",
	   and a file quux exists with contents	"quux".	Initial	commits	are
	   compared to an empty	tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       o   B contains the same change as A. Its	merge M	is trivial and hence
	   TREESAME to all parents.

       o   C does not change foo, but its merge	N changes it to	"foobar", so
	   it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   D sets foo to "baz".	Its merge O combines the strings from N	and D
	   to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
	   "quux xyzzy".  P is TREESAME	to O, but not to E.

       o   X is	an independent root commit that	added a	new file side, and Y
	   modified it.	 Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and
	   Q is	TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list	walks backwards	through	history, including or excluding
       commits based on	whether	--full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children)	are used. The following	settings are

       Default mode
	   Commits are included	if they	are not	TREESAME to any	parent (though
	   this	can be changed,	see --sparse below). If	the commit was a
	   merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent.
	   (Even if there are several TREESAME parents,	follow only one	of
	   them.) Otherwise, follow all	parents.

	   This	results	in:

			/     /	  /

	   Note	how the	rule to	only follow the	TREESAME parent, if one	is
	   available, removed B	from consideration entirely.  C	was considered
	   via N, but is TREESAME. Root	commits	are compared to	an empty tree,
	   so I	is !TREESAME.

	   Parent/child	relations are only visible with	--parents, but that
	   does	not affect the commits selected	in default mode, so we have
	   shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
	   This	mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
	   parents of a	merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of	them. Even if
	   more	than one side of the merge has commits that are	included, this
	   does	not imply that the merge itself	is! In the example, we get

		       I  A  B	N  D  O	 P  Q

	   M was excluded because it is	TREESAME to both parents.  E, C	and B
	   were	all walked, but	only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not

	   Note	that without parent rewriting, it is not really	possible to
	   talk	about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
	   we show them	disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
	   Ordinary commits are	only included if they are !TREESAME (though
	   this	can be changed,	see --sparse below).

	   Merges are always included. However,	their parent list is
	   rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
	   included themselves.	This results in

			/     /	  /   /	  /
		       I     B	 /   D	 /
			\   /	/   /	/

	   Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that	E was
	   pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P	was
	   rewritten to	contain	E's parent I. The same happened	for C and N,
	   and X, Y and	Q.

       In addition to the above	settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

	   Commits that	are walked are included	if they	are not	TREESAME to
	   any parent.

	   All commits that are	walked are included.

	   Note	that without --full-history, this still	simplifies merges: if
	   one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the
	   other sides of the merge are	never walked.

	   First, build	a history graph	in the same way	that --full-history
	   with	parent rewriting does (see above).

	   Then	simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in	the final
	   history according to	the following rules:

	   o   Set C' to C.

	   o   Replace each parent P of	C' with	its simplification P'. In the
	       process,	drop parents that are ancestors	of other parents or
	       that are	root commits TREESAME to an empty tree,	and remove
	       duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that	we are
	       TREESAME	to.

	   o   If after	this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
	       (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
	       remains.	Otherwise, it is replaced with its only	parent.

	   The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing	to
	   --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

			/     /	      /
		       I     B	     D
			\   /	    /

	   Note	the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

	   o   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor	of the
	       other parent M. Still, N	remained because it is !TREESAME.

	   o   P's parent list similarly had I removed.	 P was then removed
	       completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

	   o   Q's parent list had Y simplified	to X.  X was then removed,
	       because it was a	TREESAME root.	Q was then removed completely,
	       because it had one parent and is	TREESAME.

       There is	another	simplification mode available:

	   Limit the displayed commits to those	which are an ancestor of
	   <commit>, or	which are a descendant of <commit>, or are <commit>

	   As an example use case, consider the	following commit history:

			  /	\	\
			/		      \

	   A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
	   but excludes	the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to
	   see what happened to	the history leading to M since D, in the sense
	   that	"what does M have that did not exist in	D". The	result in this
	   example would be all	the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of

	   When	we want	to find	out what commits in M are contaminated with
	   the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we	might want to
	   view	only the subset	of D..M	that are actually descendants of D,
	   i.e.	excluding C and	K. This	is exactly what	the --ancestry-path
	   option does.	Applied	to the D..M range, it results in:

				\	\

	   We can also use --ancestry-path=D instead of	--ancestry-path	which
	   means the same thing	when applied to	the D..M range but is just
	   more	explicit.

	   If we instead are interested	in a given topic within	this range,
	   and all commits affected by that topic, we may only want to view
	   the subset of D..M which contain that topic in their	ancestry path.
	   So, using --ancestry-path=H D..M for	example	would result in:


	   Whereas --ancestry-path=K D..M would	result in


       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create a new
       example history.

       A common	problem	users face when	looking	at simplified history is that
       a commit	they know changed a file somehow does not appear in the	file's
       simplified history. Let's demonstrate a new example and show how
       options such as --full-history and --simplify-merges works in that

		    /	  / \  \  \/   /   /
		   I	 B   \	R-'`-Z'	  /
		    \	/     \/	 /
		     \ /      /\	/
		      `---X--'	`---Y--'

       For this	example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified by A,
       B, and X	in different ways. The single-parent commits C,	Z, and Y do
       not change file.txt. The	merge commit M was created by resolving	the
       merge conflict to include both changes from A and B and hence is	not
       TREESAME	to either. The merge commit R, however,	was created by
       ignoring	the contents of	file.txt at M and taking only the contents of
       file.txt	at X. Hence, R is TREESAME to X	but not	M. Finally, the
       natural merge resolution	to create N is to take the contents of
       file.txt	at R, so N is TREESAME to R but	not C. The merge commits O and
       P are TREESAME to their first parents, but not to their second parents,
       Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a	TREESAME parent, so
       those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The resulting
       history graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge.	This will discover the
       commits A and B and the merge M,	but also will reveal the merge commits
       O and P.	With parent rewriting, the resulting graph is:

		    /	  / \  \  \/   /   /
		   I	 B   \	R-'`--'	  /
		    \	/     \/	 /
		     \ /      /\	/
		      `---X--'	`------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra	noise, as they did not
       actually	contribute a change to file.txt. They only merged a topic that
       was based on an older version of	file.txt. This is a common issue in
       repositories using a workflow where many	contributors work in parallel
       and merge their topic branches along a single trunk: many unrelated
       merges appear in	the --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges	option,	the commits O and P disappear
       from the	results. This is because the rewritten second parents of O and
       P are reachable from their first	parents. Those edges are removed and
       then the	commits	look like single-parent	commits	that are TREESAME to
       their parent. This also happens to the commit N,	resulting in a history
       view as follows:

		    /	  /    \
		   I	 B	R
		    \	/      /
		     \ /      /

       In this view, we	see all	of the important single-parent changes from A,
       B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and	the
       not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough information
       to determine why	the commits A and B "disappeared" from history in the
       default view. However, there are	a few issues with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option	requires walking the entire commit history
       before returning	a single result. This can make the option difficult to
       use for very large repositories.

       The second issue	is one of auditing. When many contributors are working
       on the same repository, it is important which merge commits introduced
       a change	into an	important branch. The problematic merge	R above	is not
       likely to be the	merge commit that was used to merge into an important
       branch. Instead,	the merge N was	used to	merge R	and X into the
       important branch. This commit may have information about	why the	change
       X came to override the changes from A and B in its commit message.

	   In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show each
	   merge commit	that is	not TREESAME to	its first parent but is
	   TREESAME to a later parent.

	   When	a merge	commit is included by --show-pulls, the	merge is
	   treated as if it "pulled" the change	from another branch. When
	   using --show-pulls on this example (and no other options) the
	   resulting graph is:


	   Here, the merge commits R and N are included	because	they pulled
	   the commits X and R into the	base branch, respectively. These
	   merges are the reason the commits A and B do	not appear in the
	   default history.

	   When	--show-pulls is	paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
	   includes all	of the necessary information:

			 .-A---M--.   N
			/     /	   \ /
		       I     B	    R
			\   /	   /
			 \ /	  /

	   Notice that since M is reachable from R, the	edge from N to M was
	   simplified away. However, N still appears in	the history as an
	   important commit because it "pulled"	the change R into the main

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that	are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification	rules described	above) if (1)
       they are	referenced by tags, or (2) they	change the contents of the
       paths given on the command line.	All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME	(subject to be simplified away).

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

	   Show	no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
	   show	commits	in the commit timestamp	order.

	   Show	no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
	   show	commits	in the author timestamp	order.

	   Show	no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
	   showing commits on multiple lines of	history	intermixed.

	   For example,	in a commit history like this:

		       \	      \

	   where the numbers denote the	order of commit	timestamps, git
	   rev-list and	friends	with --date-order show the commits in the
	   timestamp order: 8 7	6 5 4 3	2 1.

	   With	--topo-order, they would show 8	6 5 3 7	4 2 1 (or 8 7 4	2 6 5
	   3 1); some older commits are	shown before newer ones	in order to
	   avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed

	   Output the commits chosen to	be shown (see Commit Limiting section
	   above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly	targeted for packing of	Git repositories.

	   Only	show the given commits,	but do not traverse their ancestors.
	   This	has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
	   unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
	   given on the	command	line. Otherwise	(if sorted or no argument was
	   given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order	by
	   commit time.	Cannot be combined with	--graph.

	   Overrides a previous	--no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
	   Pretty-print	the contents of	the commit logs	in a given format,
	   where _format_ can be one of	oneline, short,	medium,	full, fuller,
	   reference, email, raw, format:_string_ and tformat:_string_.	When
	   _format_ is none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts
	   as if --pretty=tformat:_format_ were	given.

	   See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for	some additional	details	for
	   each	format.	When =_format_ part is omitted,	it defaults to medium.

	   Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
	   configuration (see git-config(1)).

	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
	   show	a prefix that names the	object uniquely. "--abbrev=<n>"	(which
	   also	modifies diff output, if it is displayed) option can be	used
	   to specify the minimum length of the	prefix.

	   This	should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more	readable for
	   people using	80-column terminals.

	   Show	the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
	   --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied by other	options	such
	   as "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

	   This	is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used

	   Commit objects record the character encoding	used for the log
	   message in their encoding header; this option can be	used to	tell
	   the command to re-code the commit log message in the	encoding
	   preferred by	the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
	   UTF-8. Note that if an object claims	to be encoded in X and we are
	   outputting in X, we will output the object verbatim;	this means
	   that	invalid	sequences in the original commit may be	copied to the
	   output. Likewise, if	iconv(3) fails to convert the commit, we will
	   quietly output the original object verbatim.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
	   Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces	to
	   fill	to the next display column that	is multiple of _n_) in the log
	   message before showing it in	the output.  --expand-tabs is a
	   short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs	is a
	   short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

	   By default, tabs are	expanded in pretty formats that	indent the log
	   message by 4	spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and

	   Show	the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when
	   showing the commit log message. This	is the default for git log,
	   git show and	git whatchanged	commands when there is no --pretty,
	   --format, or	--oneline option given on the command line.

	   By default, the notes shown are from	the notes refs listed in the
	   core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables	(or corresponding
	   environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more details.

	   With	an optional _ref_ argument, use	the ref	to find	the notes to
	   display. The	ref can	specify	the full refname when it begins	with
	   refs/notes/;	when it	begins with notes/, refs/ and otherwise
	   refs/notes/ is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.

	   Multiple --notes options can	be combined to control which notes are
	   being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
	   "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will	show both notes	from
	   "refs/notes/foo" and	from the default notes ref(s).

	   Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by
	   resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
	   Options are parsed in the order given on the	command	line, so e.g.
	   "--notes --notes=foo	--no-notes --notes=bar"	will only show notes
	   from	"refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
	   These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
	   options instead.

	   Check the validity of a signed commit object	by passing the
	   signature to	gpg --verify and show the output.

	   Synonym for --date=relative.

	   Only	takes effect for dates shown in	human-readable format, such as
	   when	using --pretty. config variable sets a default value
	   for the log command's --date	option.	By default, dates are shown in
	   the original	time zone (either committer's or author's). If -local
	   is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local),	the user's local time
	   zone	is used	instead.

	   --date=relative shows dates relative	to the current time, e.g. "2
	   hours ago". The -local option has no	effect for --date=relative.

	   --date=local	is an alias for	--date=default-local.

	   --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows	timestamps in a	ISO 8601-like
	   format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

	   o   a space instead of the T	date/time delimiter

	   o   a space between time and	time zone

	   o   no colon	between	hours and minutes of the time zone

	   --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict)	shows timestamps in
	   strict ISO 8601 format.

	   --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows	timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
	   often found in email	messages.

	   --date=short	shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD

	   --date=raw shows the	date as	seconds	since the epoch	(1970-01-01
	   00:00:00 UTC), followed by a	space, and then	the timezone as	an
	   offset from UTC (a +	or - with four digits; the first two are
	   hours, and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp
	   were	formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note	that the -local	option
	   does	not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which	is always
	   measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying timezone value.

	   --date=human	shows the timezone if the timezone does	not match the
	   current time-zone, and doesn't print	the whole date if that matches
	   (ie skip printing year for dates that are "this year", but also
	   skip	the whole date itself if it's in the last few days and we can
	   just	say what weekday it was). For older dates the hour and minute
	   is also omitted.

	   --date=unix shows the date as a Unix	epoch timestamp	(seconds since
	   1970). As with --raw, this is always	in UTC and therefore -local
	   has no effect.

	   --date=format:...  feeds the	format ...  to your system strftime,
	   except for %s, %z, and %Z, which are	handled	internally. Use
	   --date=format:%c to show the	date in	your system locale's preferred
	   format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of format
	   placeholders. When using -local, the	correct	syntax is

	   --date=default is the default format, and is	similar	to
	   --date=rfc2822, with	a few exceptions:

	   o   there is	no comma after the day-of-week

	   o   the time	zone is	omitted	when the local time zone is used

	   Print also the parents of the commit	(in the	form "commit
	   parent...").	Also enables parent rewriting, see History
	   Simplification above.

	   Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
	   child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
	   Simplification above.

	   Mark	which side of a	symmetric difference a commit is reachable
	   from. Commits from the left side are	prefixed with <	and those from
	   the right with >. If	combined with --boundary, those	commits	are
	   prefixed with -.

	   For example,	if you have this topology:

			    y---b---b  branch B
			   / \ /
			  /   .
			 /   / \
			o---x---a---a  branch A

	   you would get an output like	this:

		       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

		       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
		       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
		       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
		       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
		       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
		       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

	   Draw	a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on
	   the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines	to be
	   printed in between commits, in order	for the	graph history to be
	   drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

	   This	enables	parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

	   This	implies	the --topo-order option	by default, but	the
	   --date-order	option may also	be specified.

	   When	--graph	is not used, all history branches are flattened	which
	   can make it hard to see that	the two	consecutive commits do not
	   belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in between
	   them	in that	case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that
	   will	be shown instead of the	default	one.

       If the commit is	a merge, and if	the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or	raw, an	additional line	is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins	with "Merge: " and the hashes of ancestral commits are
       printed,	separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option	to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here	are the	details	of the built-in	formats:

       o   oneline

	       <hash> <title-line>

	   This	is designed to be as compact as	possible.

       o   short

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>


       o   medium

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>
	       Date:   <author-date>



       o   full

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>
	       Commit: <committer>



       o   fuller

	       commit <hash>
	       Author:	   <author>
	       AuthorDate: <author-date>
	       Commit:	   <committer>
	       CommitDate: <committer-date>



       o   reference

	       <abbrev-hash> (<title-line>, <short-author-date>)

	   This	format is used to refer	to another commit in a commit message
	   and is the same as --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By
	   default, the	date is	formatted with --date=short unless another
	   --date option is explicitly specified. As with any format: with
	   format placeholders,	its output is not affected by other options
	   like	--decorate and --walk-reflogs.

       o   email

	       From <hash> <date>
	       From: <author>
	       Date: <author-date>
	       Subject:	[PATCH]	<title-line>


       o   mboxrd

	   Like	email, but lines in the	commit message starting	with "From "
	   (preceded by	zero or	more ">") are quoted with ">" so they aren't
	   confused as starting	a new commit.

       o   raw

	   The raw format shows	the entire commit exactly as stored in the
	   commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed in full,
	   regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
	   information show the	true parent commits, without taking grafts or
	   history simplification into account.	Note that this format affects
	   the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
	   e.g.	with git log --raw. To get full	object names in	a raw diff
	   format, use --no-abbrev.

       o   format:_format-string_

	   The format:_format-string_ format allows you	to specify which
	   information you want	to show. It works a little bit like printf
	   format, with	the notable exception that you get a newline with %n
	   instead of \n.

	   E.g,	format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was __%s__%n"
	   would show something	like this:

	       The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
	       The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

	   The placeholders are:

	   o   Placeholders that expand	to a single literal character:


		   a raw %

		   print a byte	from a hex code

	   o   Placeholders that affect	formatting of later placeholders:

		   switch color	to red

		   switch color	to green

		   switch color	to blue

		   reset color

		   color specification,	as described under Values in the
		   "CONFIGURATION FILE"	section	of git-config(1). By default,
		   colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
		   color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the	auto
		   settings of the former if we	are going to a terminal).
		   %C(auto,...)	 is accepted as	a historical synonym for the
		   default (e.g., %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...)
		   will	show the colors	even when color	is not otherwise
		   enabled (though consider just using --color=always to
		   enable color	for the	whole output, including	this format
		   and anything	else git might color).	auto alone (i.e.
		   %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring	on the next
		   placeholders	until the color	is switched again.

		   left	(<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

		   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-

		   make	the next placeholder take at least N columns, padding
		   spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally	truncate at
		   the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or the end
		   (trunc) if the output is longer than	N columns. Note	that
		   truncating only works correctly with	N >= 2.

		   make	the next placeholder take at least until Nth columns,
		   padding spaces on the right if necessary

	       %_(_N_),	%_|(_N_)
		   similar to %_(_N_), %_|(_N_)	respectively, but padding
		   spaces on the left

	       %__(_N_), %__|(_N_)
		   similar to %_(_N_), %_|(_N_)	respectively, except that if
		   the next placeholder	takes more spaces than given and there
		   are spaces on its left, use those spaces

	       %__(_N_), %__|(_N_)
		   similar to %_(_N_), %_|(_N_)	respectively, but padding both
		   sides (i.e. the text	is centered)

	   o   Placeholders that expand	to information extracted from the

		   commit hash

		   abbreviated commit hash

		   tree	hash

		   abbreviated tree hash

		   parent hashes

		   abbreviated parent hashes

		   author name

		   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

		   author email

		   author email	(respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

		   author email	local-part (the	part before the	@ sign)

		   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see	git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   author date (format respects	--date=	option)

		   author date,	RFC2822	style

		   author date,	relative

		   author date,	UNIX timestamp

		   author date,	ISO 8601-like format

		   author date,	strict ISO 8601	format

		   author date,	short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

		   author date,	human style (like the --date=human option of

		   committer name

		   committer name (respecting .mailmap,	see git-shortlog(1) or

		   committer email

		   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
		   or git-blame(1))

		   committer email local-part (the part	before the @ sign)

		   committer local-part	(see %cl) respecting .mailmap, see
		   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   committer date (format respects --date= option)

		   committer date, RFC2822 style

		   committer date, relative

		   committer date, UNIX	timestamp

		   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

		   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

		   committer date, short format	(YYYY-MM-DD)

		   committer date, human style (like the --date=human option
		   of git-rev-list(1))

		   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

		   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

		   human-readable name,	like git-describe(1); empty string for
		   undescribable commits. The describe string may be followed
		   by a	colon and zero or more comma-separated options.
		   Descriptions	can be inconsistent when tags are added	or
		   removed at the same time.

		   o   tags[=_bool-value_]: Instead of only considering
		       annotated tags, consider	lightweight tags as well.

		   o   abbrev=_number_:	Instead	of using the default number of
		       hexadecimal digits (which will vary according to	the
		       number of objects in the	repository with	a default of
		       7) of the abbreviated object name, use <number> digits,
		       or as many digits as needed to form a unique object

		   o   match=_pattern_:	Only consider tags matching the	given
		       glob(7) pattern,	excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

		   o   exclude=_pattern_: Do not consider tags matching	the
		       given glob(7) pattern, excluding	the "refs/tags/"

		   ref name given on the command line by which the commit was
		   reached (like git log --source), only works with git	log



		   sanitized subject line, suitable for	a filename


		   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

		   commit notes

		   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

		   show	"G" for	a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
		   signature, "U" for a	good signature with unknown validity,
		   "X" for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a	good
		   signature made by an	expired	key, "R" for a good signature
		   made	by a revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be
		   checked (e.g. missing key) and "N" for no signature

		   show	the name of the	signer for a signed commit

		   show	the key	used to	sign a signed commit

		   show	the fingerprint	of the key used	to sign	a signed

		   show	the fingerprint	of the primary key whose subkey	was
		   used	to sign	a signed commit

		   show	the trust level	for the	key used to sign a signed

		   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
		   minutes ago}; the format follows the	rules described	for
		   the -g option. The portion before the @ is the refname as
		   given on the	command	line (so git log -g refs/heads/master
		   would yield refs/heads/master@{0}).

		   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
		   portion is shortened	for human readability (so
		   refs/heads/master becomes just master).

		   reflog identity name

		   reflog identity name	(respecting .mailmap, see git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   reflog identity email

		   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   reflog subject

		   display the trailers	of the body as interpreted by git-
		   interpret-trailers(1). The trailers string may be followed
		   by a	colon and zero or more comma-separated options.	If any
		   option is provided multiple times the last occurrence wins.

		   o   key=_key_: only show trailers with specified <key>.
		       Matching	is done	case-insensitively and trailing	colon
		       is optional. If option is given multiple	times trailer
		       lines matching any of the keys are shown. This option
		       automatically enables the only option so	that
		       non-trailer lines in the	trailer	block are hidden. If
		       that is not desired it can be disabled with only=false.
		       E.g., %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer lines
		       with key	Reviewed-by.

		   o   only[=_bool_]: select whether non-trailer lines from
		       the trailer block should	be included.

		   o   separator=_sep_:	specify	a separator inserted between
		       trailer lines. When this	option is not given each
		       trailer line is terminated with a line feed character.
		       The string <sep>	may contain the	literal	formatting
		       codes described above. To use comma as separator	one
		       must use	%x2C as	it would otherwise be parsed as	next
		       option. E.g., %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C )
		       shows all trailer lines whose key is "Ticket" separated
		       by a comma and a	space.

		   o   unfold[=_bool_]:	make it	behave as if
		       interpret-trailer's --unfold option was given. E.g.,
		       %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and	shows all
		       trailer lines.

		   o   keyonly[=_bool_]: only show the key part	of the

		   o   valueonly[=_bool_]: only	show the value part of the

		   o   key_value_separator=_sep_: specify a separator inserted
		       between trailer lines. When this	option is not given
		       each trailer key-value pair is separated	by ": ".
		       Otherwise it shares the same semantics as
		       separator=_sep_ above.

	   Some	placeholders may depend	on other options given to the revision
	   traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
	   an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
	   git log -g).	The %d and %D placeholders will	use the	"short"
	   decoration format if	--decorate was not already provided on the
	   command line.

       The boolean options accept an optional value [=<bool-value>]. The
       values true, false, on, off etc.	are all	accepted. See the "boolean"
       sub-section in "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a	boolean	option is
       given with no value, it's enabled.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after	% of a placeholder, a line-feed	is
       inserted	immediately before the expansion if and	only if	the
       placeholder expands to a	non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a	placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding	the expansion are deleted if and only
       if the placeholder expands to an	empty string.

       If you add a ` `	(space)	after %	of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion	if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       o   tformat:

	   The tformat:	format works exactly like format:, except that it
	   provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
	   In other words, each	commit has the message terminator character
	   (usually a newline) appended, rather	than a separator placed
	   between entries. This means that the	final entry of a single-line
	   format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
	   "oneline" format does. For example:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef	\
		 | perl	-pe '$_	.= " --	NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
	       7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h	4da45bef \
		 | perl	-pe '$_	.= " --	NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

	   In addition,	any unrecognized string	that has a % in	it is
	   interpreted as if it	has tformat: in	front of it. For example,
	   these two are equivalent:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h	4da45bef
	       $ git log -2 --pretty=%h	4da45bef

       By default, git log does	not generate any diff output. The options
       below can be used to show the changes made by each commit.

       Note that unless	one of --diff-merges variants (including short -m, -c,
       and --cc	options) is explicitly given, merge commits will not show a
       diff, even if a diff format like	--patch	is selected, nor will they
       match search options like -S. The exception is when --first-parent is
       in use, in which	case first-parent is the default format.

       -p, -u, --patch
	   Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

       -s, --no-patch
	   Suppress diff output. Useful	for commands like git show that	show
	   the patch by	default, or to cancel the effect of --patch.

	   Specify diff	format to be used for merge commits. Default is	off
	   unless --first-parent is in use, in which case first-parent is the

	   --diff-merges=(off|none), --no-diff-merges
	       Disable output of diffs for merge commits. Useful to override
	       implied value.

	   --diff-merges=on, --diff-merges=m, -m
	       This option makes diff output for merge commits to be shown in
	       the default format.  -m will produce the	output only if -p is
	       given as	well. The default format could be changed using
	       log.diffMerges configuration parameter, which default value is

	   --diff-merges=first-parent, --diff-merges=1
	       This option makes merge commits show the	full diff with respect
	       to the first parent only.

	       This makes merge	commits	show the full diff with	respect	to
	       each of the parents. Separate log entry and diff	is generated
	       for each	parent.

	   --diff-merges=remerge, --diff-merges=r, --remerge-diff
	       With this option, two-parent merge commits are remerged to
	       create a	temporary tree object -- potentially containing	files
	       with conflict markers and such. A diff is then shown between
	       that temporary tree and the actual merge	commit.

	       The output emitted when this option is used is subject to
	       change, and so is its interaction with other options (unless
	       explicitly documented).

	   --diff-merges=combined, --diff-merges=c, -c
	       With this option, diff output for a merge commit	shows the
	       differences from	each of	the parents to the merge result
	       simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a
	       parent and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only
	       files which were	modified from all parents.  -c implies -p.

	   --diff-merges=dense-combined, --diff-merges=cc, --cc
	       With this option	the output produced by --diff-merges=combined
	       is further compressed by	omitting uninteresting hunks whose
	       contents	in the parents have only two variants and the merge
	       result picks one	of them	without	modification.  --cc implies

	   This	flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits) to list
	   the name of the file	from all parents. It thus only has effect when
	   --diff-merges=[dense-]combined is in	use, and is likely only	useful
	   if filename changes are detected (i.e. when either rename or	copy
	   detection have been requested).

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
	   Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
	   three. Implies --patch.

	   Output to a specific	file instead of	stdout.

       --output-indicator-new=<char>, --output-indicator-old=<char>,
	   Specify the character used to indicate new, old or context lines in
	   the generated patch.	Normally they are +, - and ' ' respectively.

	   For each commit, show a summary of changes using the	raw diff
	   format. See the "RAW	OUTPUT FORMAT" section of git-diff(1). This is
	   different from showing the log itself in raw	format,	which you can
	   achieve with	--format=raw.

	   Synonym for -p --raw.

	   Show	the tree objects in the	diff output.

	   Enable the heuristic	that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make
	   patches easier to read. This	is the default.

	   Disable the indent heuristic.

	   Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is

	   Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

	   Generate a diff using the "histogram	diff" algorithm.

	   Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

	   This	option may be specified	more than once.

	   If a	line exists in both the	source and destination,	exists only
	   once, and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts to prevent
	   it from appearing as	a deletion or addition in the output. It uses
	   the "patience diff" algorithm internally.

	   Choose a diff algorithm. The	variants are as	follows:

	   default, myers
	       The basic greedy	diff algorithm.	Currently, this	is the

	       Spend extra time	to make	sure the smallest possible diff	is

	       Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

	       This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to	"support
	       low-occurrence common elements".

	   For instance, if you	configured the diff.algorithm variable to a
	   non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have to
	   use --diff-algorithm=default	option.

	   Generate a diffstat.	By default, as much space as necessary will be
	   used	for the	filename part, and the rest for	the graph part.
	   Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or	80 columns if not
	   connected to	a terminal, and	can be overridden by <width>. The
	   width of the	filename part can be limited by	giving another width
	   <name-width>	after a	comma. The width of the	graph part can be
	   limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects	all commands
	   generating a	stat graph) or by setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width>
	   (does not affect git	format-patch). By giving a third parameter
	   <count>, you	can limit the output to	the first <count> lines,
	   followed by ...  if there are more.

	   These parameters can	also be	set individually with
	   --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width>	and

	   Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
	   file	creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l" if
	   it's	a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding or
	   removing executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The information
	   is put between the filename part and	the graph part.	Implies

	   Similar to --stat, but shows	number of added	and deleted lines in
	   decimal notation and	pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
	   machine friendly. For binary	files, outputs two - instead of	saying
	   0 0.

	   Output only the last	line of	the --stat format containing total
	   number of modified files, as	well as	number of added	and deleted

       -X[<param1,param2,...>],	--dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
	   Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
	   sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can	be customized by
	   passing it a	comma separated	list of	parameters. The	defaults are
	   controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration	variable (see git-
	   config(1)). The following parameters	are available:

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have
	       been removed from the source, or	added to the destination. This
	       ignores the amount of pure code movements within	a file.	In
	       other words, rearranging	lines in a file	is not counted as much
	       as other	changes. This is the default behavior when no
	       parameter is given.

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the	regular	line-based
	       diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For
	       binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary	files
	       have no natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
	       --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
	       rearranged lines	within a file as much as other changes.	The
	       resulting output	is consistent with what	you get	from the other
	       --*stat options.

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
	       changed.	Each changed file counts equally in the	dirstat
	       analysis. This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat
	       behavior, since it does not have	to look	at the file contents
	       at all.

	       Count changes in	a child	directory for the parent directory as
	       well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the
	       percentages reported may	exceed 100%. The default
	       (non-cumulative)	behavior can be	specified with the
	       noncumulative parameter.

	       An integer parameter specifies a	cut-off	percent	(3% by
	       default). Directories contributing less than this percentage of
	       the changes are not shown in the	output.

	   Example: The	following will count changed files, while ignoring
	   directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed
	   files, and accumulating child directory counts in the parent
	   directories:	--dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

	   Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative

	   Synonym for --dirstat=files,param1,param2...

	   Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
	   creations, renames and mode changes.

	   Synonym for -p --stat.

	   Separate the	commits	with NULs instead of with new newlines.

	   Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not	munge
	   pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.

	   Without this	option,	pathnames with "unusual" characters are	quoted
	   as explained	for the	configuration variable core.quotePath (see

	   Show	only names of changed files. The file names are	often encoded
	   in UTF-8. For more information see the discussion about encoding in
	   the git-log(1) manual page.

	   Show	only names and status of changed files.	See the	description of
	   the --diff-filter option on what the	status letters mean. Just like
	   --name-only the file	names are often	encoded	in UTF-8.

	   Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
	   --submodule=short the short format is used. This format just	shows
	   the names of	the commits at the beginning and end of	the range.
	   When	--submodule or --submodule=log is specified, the log format is
	   used. This format lists the commits in the range like git-
	   submodule(1)	summary	does. When --submodule=diff is specified, the
	   diff	format is used.	This format shows an inline diff of the
	   changes in the submodule contents between the commit	range.
	   Defaults to diff.submodule or the short format if the config	option
	   is unset.

	   Show	colored	diff.  --color (i.e. without =_when_) is the same as
	   --color=always.  _when_ can be one of always, never,	or auto.

	   Turn	off colored diff. It is	the same as --color=never.

	   Moved lines of code are colored differently.	The <mode> defaults to
	   no if the option is not given and to	zebra if the option with no
	   mode	is given. The mode must	be one of:

	       Moved lines are not highlighted.

	       Is a synonym for	zebra. This may	change to a more sensible mode
	       in the future.

	       Any line	that is	added in one location and was removed in
	       another location	will be	colored	with color.diff.newMoved.
	       Similarly color.diff.oldMoved will be used for removed lines
	       that are	added somewhere	else in	the diff. This mode picks up
	       any moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to
	       determine if a block of code was	moved without permutation.

	       Blocks of moved text of at least	20 alphanumeric	characters are
	       detected	greedily. The detected blocks are painted using	either
	       the color.diff.{old,new}Moved color. Adjacent blocks cannot be
	       told apart.

	       Blocks of moved text are	detected as in blocks mode. The	blocks
	       are painted using either	the color.diff.{old,new}Moved color or
	       color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative. The change	between	the
	       two colors indicates that a new block was detected.

	       Similar to zebra, but additional	dimming	of uninteresting parts
	       of moved	code is	performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
	       blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
	       dimmed_zebra is a deprecated synonym.

	   Turn	off move detection. This can be	used to	override configuration
	   settings. It	is the same as --color-moved=no.

	   This	configures how whitespace is ignored when performing the move
	   detection for --color-moved.	These modes can	be given as a comma
	   separated list:

	       Do not ignore whitespace	when performing	move detection.

	       Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

	       Ignore changes in amount	of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
	       at line end, and	considers all other sequences of one or	more
	       whitespace characters to	be equivalent.

	       Ignore whitespace when comparing	lines. This ignores
	       differences even	if one line has	whitespace where the other
	       line has	none.

	       Initially ignore	any whitespace in the move detection, then
	       group the moved code blocks only	into a block if	the change in
	       whitespace is the same per line.	This is	incompatible with the
	       other modes.

	   Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection. This can
	   be used to override configuration settings. It is the same as

	   Show	a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words.	By
	   default, words are delimited	by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex
	   below. The <mode> defaults to plain,	and must be one	of:

	       Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

	       Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}.	Makes no attempts to
	       escape the delimiters if	they appear in the input, so the
	       output may be ambiguous.

	       Use a special line-based	format intended	for script
	       consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in	the
	       usual unified diff format, starting with	a +/-/`	` character at
	       the beginning of	the line and extending to the end of the line.
	       Newlines	in the input are represented by	a tilde	~ on a line of
	       its own.

	       Disable word diff again.

	   Note	that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
	   highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.

	   Use <regex> to decide what a	word is, instead of considering	runs
	   of non-whitespace to	be a word. Also	implies	--word-diff unless it
	   was already enabled.

	   Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word.
	   Anything between these matches is considered	whitespace and
	   ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You may want to
	   append |[^[:space:]]	to your	regular	expression to make sure	that
	   it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
	   newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

	   For example,	--word-diff-regex=.  will treat	each character as a
	   word	and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.

	   The regex can also be set via a diff	driver or configuration
	   option, see gitattributes(5)	or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
	   overrides any diff driver or	configuration setting. Diff drivers
	   override configuration settings.

	   Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus	(if a regex was	specified)

	   Turn	off rename detection, even when	the configuration file gives
	   the default to do so.

	   Whether to use empty	blobs as rename	source.

	   Warn	if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors.
	   What	are considered whitespace errors is controlled by
	   core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces
	   (including lines that consist solely	of whitespaces)	and a space
	   character that is immediately followed by a tab character inside
	   the initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
	   Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
	   with	--exit-code.

	   Highlight whitespace	errors in the context, old or new lines	of the
	   diff. Multiple values are separated by comma, none resets previous
	   values, default reset the list to new and all is a shorthand	for
	   old,new,context. When this option is	not given, and the
	   configuration variable diff.wsErrorHighlight	is not set, only
	   whitespace errors in	new lines are highlighted. The whitespace
	   errors are colored with color.diff.whitespace.

	   Instead of the first	handful	of characters, show the	full pre- and
	   post-image blob object names	on the "index" line when generating
	   patch format	output.

	   In addition to --full-index,	output a binary	diff that can be
	   applied with	git-apply. Implies --patch.

	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
	   diff-raw format output and diff-tree	header lines, show the
	   shortest prefix that	is at least _n_	hexdigits long that uniquely
	   refers the object. In diff-patch output format, --full-index	takes
	   higher precedence, i.e. if --full-index is specified, full blob
	   names will be shown regardless of --abbrev. Non default number of
	   digits can be specified with	--abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
	   Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of	delete and create.
	   This	serves two purposes:

	   It affects the way a	change that amounts to a total rewrite of a
	   file	not as a series	of deletion and	insertion mixed	together with
	   a very few lines that happen	to match textually as the context, but
	   as a	single deletion	of everything old followed by a	single
	   insertion of	everything new,	and the	number m controls this aspect
	   of the -B option (defaults to 60%).	-B/70% specifies that less
	   than	30% of the original should remain in the result	for Git	to
	   consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch
	   will	be a series of deletion	and insertion mixed together with
	   context lines).

	   When	used with -M, a	totally-rewritten file is also considered as
	   the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
	   disappeared as the source of	a rename), and the number n controls
	   this	aspect of the -B option	(defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
	   that	a change with addition and deletion compared to	20% or more of
	   the file's size are eligible	for being picked up as a possible
	   source of a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>],	--find-renames[=<n>]
	   If generating diffs,	detect and report renames for each commit. For
	   following files across renames while	traversing history, see
	   --follow. If	n is specified,	it is a	threshold on the similarity
	   index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to	the file's
	   size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add
	   pair	to be a	rename if more than 90%	of the file hasn't changed.
	   Without a % sign, the number	is to be read as a fraction, with a
	   decimal point before	it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus the
	   same	as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit
	   detection to	exact renames, use -M100%. The default similarity
	   index is 50%.

       -C[<n>],	--find-copies[=<n>]
	   Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If
	   n is	specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

	   For performance reasons, by default,	-C option finds	copies only if
	   the original	file of	the copy was modified in the same changeset.
	   This	flag makes the command inspect unmodified files	as candidates
	   for the source of copy. This	is a very expensive operation for
	   large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one	-C
	   option has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
	   Omit	the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
	   the diff between the	preimage and /dev/null.	The resulting patch is
	   not meant to	be applied with	patch or git apply; this is solely for
	   people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the	text after the
	   change. In addition,	the output obviously lacks enough information
	   to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of
	   the option.

	   When	used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion
	   part	of a delete/create pair.

	   The -M and -C options involve some preliminary steps	that can
	   detect subsets of renames/copies cheaply, followed by an exhaustive
	   fallback portion that compares all remaining	unpaired destinations
	   to all relevant sources. (For renames, only remaining unpaired
	   sources are relevant; for copies, all original sources are
	   relevant.) For N sources and	destinations, this exhaustive check is
	   O(N^2). This	option prevents	the exhaustive portion of rename/copy
	   detection from running if the number	of source/destination files
	   involved exceeds the	specified number. Defaults to
	   diff.renameLimit. Note that a value of 0 is treated as unlimited.

	   Select only files that are Added (A), Copied	(C), Deleted (D),
	   Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
	   symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown
	   (X),	or have	had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the
	   filter characters (including	none) can be used. When	*
	   (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths	are selected
	   if there is any file	that matches other criteria in the comparison;
	   if there is no file that matches other criteria, nothing is

	   Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
	   --diff-filter=ad excludes added and deleted paths.

	   Note	that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance,	copied
	   and renamed entries cannot appear if	detection for those types is

	   Look	for differences	that change the	number of occurrences of the
	   specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in	a file.	Intended for
	   the scripter's use.

	   It is useful	when you're looking for	an exact block of code (like a
	   struct), and	want to	know the history of that block since it	first
	   came	into being: use	the feature iteratively	to feed	the
	   interesting block in	the preimage back into -S, and keep going
	   until you get the very first	version	of the block.

	   Binary files	are searched as	well.

	   Look	for differences	whose patch text contains added/removed	lines
	   that	match <regex>.

	   To illustrate the difference	between	-S<regex> --pickaxe-regex and
	   -G<regex>, consider a commit	with the following diff	in the same

	       +    return frotz(nitfol, two->ptr, 1, 0);
	       -    hit	= frotz(nitfol,	mf2.ptr, 1, 0);

	   While git log -G"frotz\(nitfol" will	show this commit, git log
	   -S"frotz\(nitfol" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the number of
	   occurrences of that string did not change).

	   Unless --text is supplied patches of	binary files without a
	   textconv filter will	be ignored.

	   See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

	   Look	for differences	that change the	number of occurrences of the
	   specified object. Similar to	-S, just the argument is different in
	   that	it doesn't search for a	specific string	but for	a specific
	   object id.

	   The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies the -t
	   option in git-log to	also find trees.

	   When	-S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that
	   changeset, not just the files that contain the change in <string>.

	   Treat the <string> given to -S as an	extended POSIX regular
	   expression to match.

	   Control the order in	which files appear in the output. This
	   overrides the diff.orderFile	configuration variable (see git-
	   config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

	   The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns	in
	   <orderfile>.	All files with pathnames that match the	first pattern
	   are output first, all files with pathnames that match the second
	   pattern (but	not the	first) are output next,	and so on. All files
	   with	pathnames that do not match any	pattern	are output last, as if
	   there was an	implicit match-all pattern at the end of the file. If
	   multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern
	   but no earlier patterns), their output order	relative to each other
	   is the normal order.

	   <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

	   o   Blank lines are ignored,	so they	can be used as separators for

	   o   Lines starting with a hash ("#")	are ignored, so	they can be
	       used for	comments. Add a	backslash ("\")	to the beginning of
	       the pattern if it starts	with a hash.

	   o   Each other line contains	a single pattern.

	   Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used	for
	   fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
	   matches a pattern if	removing any number of the final pathname
	   components matches the pattern. For example,	the pattern "foo*bar"
	   matches "fooasdfbar"	and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

       --skip-to=<file>, --rotate-to=<file>
	   Discard the files before the	named <file> from the output (i.e.
	   skip	to), or	move them to the end of	the output (i.e.  rotate to).
	   These were invented primarily for use of the	git difftool command,
	   and may not be very useful otherwise.

	   Swap	two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk
	   file	to tree	contents.

       --relative[=<path>], --no-relative
	   When	run from a subdirectory	of the project,	it can be told to
	   exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative
	   to it with this option. When	you are	not in a subdirectory (e.g. in
	   a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the
	   output relative to by giving	a <path> as an argument.
	   --no-relative can be	used to	countermand both diff.relative config
	   option and previous --relative.

       -a, --text
	   Treat all files as text.

	   Ignore carriage-return at the end of	line when doing	a comparison.

	   Ignore changes in whitespace	at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
	   Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This	ignores	whitespace at
	   line	end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
	   whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
	   Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This	ignores	differences
	   even	if one line has	whitespace where the other line	has none.

	   Ignore changes whose	lines are all blank.

       -I<regex>, --ignore-matching-lines=<regex>
	   Ignore changes whose	all lines match	<regex>. This option may be
	   specified more than once.

	   Show	the context between diff hunks,	up to the specified number of
	   lines, thereby fusing hunks that are	close to each other. Defaults
	   to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the	config option is unset.

       -W, --function-context
	   Show	whole function as context lines	for each change. The function
	   names are determined	in the same way	as git diff works out patch
	   hunk	headers	(see Defining a	custom hunk-header in

	   Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you	set an
	   external diff driver	with gitattributes(5), you need	to use this
	   option with git-log(1) and friends.

	   Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
	   Allow (or disallow) external	text conversion	filters	to be run when
	   comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5)	for details. Because
	   textconv filters are	typically a one-way conversion,	the resulting
	   diff	is suitable for	human consumption, but cannot be applied. For
	   this	reason,	textconv filters are enabled by	default	only for git-
	   diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff
	   plumbing commands.

	   Ignore changes to submodules	in the diff generation.	<when> can be
	   either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
	   Using "none"	will consider the submodule modified when it either
	   contains untracked or modified files	or its HEAD differs from the
	   commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
	   settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5).
	   When	"untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty	when
	   they	only contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for
	   modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all	changes	to the work
	   tree	of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the
	   superproject	are shown (this	was the	behavior until 1.7.0). Using
	   "all" hides all changes to submodules.

	   Show	the given source prefix	instead	of "a/".

	   Show	the given destination prefix instead of	"b/".

	   Do not show any source or destination prefix.

	   Prepend an additional prefix	to every line of output.

	   By default entries added by "git add	-N" appear as an existing
	   empty file in "git diff" and	a new file in "git diff	--cached".
	   This	option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff" and
	   non-existent	in "git	diff --cached".	This option could be reverted
	   with	--ita-visible-in-index.	Both options are experimental and
	   could be removed in future.

       For more	detailed explanation on	these common options, see also

       Running git-diff(1), git-log(1),	git-show(1), git-diff-index(1),	git-
       diff-tree(1), or	git-diff-files(1) with the -p option produces patch
       text. You can customize the creation of patch text via the
       GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables (see
       git(1)),	and the	diff attribute (see gitattributes(5)).

       What the	-p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
       diff format:

	1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that	looks like this:

	       diff --git a/file1 b/file2

	   The a/ and b/ filenames are the same	unless rename/copy is
	   involved. Especially, even for a creation or	a deletion, /dev/null
	   is not used in place	of the a/ or b/	filenames.

	   When	rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the
	   source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
	   rename/copy produces, respectively.

	2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

	       old mode	<mode>
	       new mode	<mode>
	       deleted file mode <mode>
	       new file	mode <mode>
	       copy from <path>
	       copy to <path>
	       rename from <path>
	       rename to <path>
	       similarity index	<number>
	       dissimilarity index <number>
	       index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

	   File	modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file
	   type	and file permission bits.

	   Path	names in extended headers do not include the a/	and b/

	   The similarity index	is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the
	   dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is a
	   rounded down	integer, followed by a percent sign. The similarity
	   index value of 100% is thus reserved	for two	equal files, while
	   100%	dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made	it
	   into	the new	one.

	   The index line includes the blob object names before	and after the
	   change. The <mode> is included if the file mode does	not change;
	   otherwise, separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.

	3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for the
	   configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

	4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the commit,
	   and all the file2 files refer to files after	the commit. It is
	   incorrect to	apply each change to each file sequentially. For
	   example, this patch will swap a and b:

	       diff --git a/a b/b
	       rename from a
	       rename to b
	       diff --git a/b b/a
	       rename from b
	       rename to a

	5. Hunk	headers	mention	the name of the	function to which the hunk
	   applies. See	"Defining a custom hunk-header"	in gitattributes(5)
	   for details of how to tailor	to this	to specific languages.

       Any diff-generating command can take the	-c or --cc option to produce a
       combined	diff when showing a merge. This	is the default format when
       showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-show(1). Note also that you can
       give suitable --diff-merges option to any of these commands to force
       generation of diffs in specific format.

       A "combined diff" format	looks like this:

	   diff	--combined describe.c
	   index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
	   --- a/describe.c
	   +++ b/describe.c
	   @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
		   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ?	0 : 1;

	   - static void describe(char *arg)
	    -static void describe(struct commit	*cmit, int last_one)
	   ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
	    +	   unsigned char sha1[20];
	    +	   struct commit *cmit;
		   struct commit_list *list;
		   static int initialized = 0;
		   struct commit_name *n;

	    +	   if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
	    +		   usage(describe_usage);
	    +	   cmit	= lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
	    +	   if (!cmit)
	    +		   usage(describe_usage);
		   if (!initialized) {
			   initialized = 1;

	1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when
	   the -c option is used):

	       diff --combined file

	   or like this	(when the --cc option is used):

	       diff --cc file

	2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
	   shows a merge with two parents):

	       index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
	       mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
	       new file	mode <mode>
	       deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

	   The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least	one of
	   the <mode> is different from	the rest. Extended headers with
	   information about detected contents movement	(renames and copying
	   detection) are designed to work with	diff of	two <tree-ish> and are
	   not used by combined	diff format.

	3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file	header

	       --- a/file
	       +++ b/file

	   Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
	   /dev/null is	used to	signal created or deleted files.

	   However, if the --combined-all-paths	option is provided, instead of
	   a two-line from-file/to-file	you get	a N+1 line from-file/to-file
	   header, where N is the number of parents in the merge commit

	       --- a/file
	       --- a/file
	       --- a/file
	       +++ b/file

	   This	extended format	can be useful if rename	or copy	detection is
	   active, to allow you	to see the original name of the	file in
	   different parents.

	4. Chunk header	format is modified to prevent people from accidentally
	   feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for
	   review of merge commit changes, and was not meant to	be applied.
	   The change is similar to the	change in the extended index header:

	       @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

	   There are (number of	parents	+ 1) @ characters in the chunk header
	   for combined	diff format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
       B with a	single column that has - (minus	-- appears in A	but removed in
       B), + (plus -- missing in A but added to	B), or " " (space --
       unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more files file1,
       file2,... with one file X, and shows how	X differs from each of fileN.
       One column for each of fileN is prepended to the	output line to note
       how X's line is different from it.

       A - character in	the column N means that	the line appears in fileN but
       it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means
       that the	line appears in	the result, and	fileN does not have that line
       (in other words,	the line was added, from the point of view of that

       In the above example output, the	function signature was changed from
       both files (hence two - removals	from both file1	and file2, plus	++ to
       mean one	line that was added does not appear in either file1 or file2).
       Also eight other	lines are the same from	file1 but do not appear	in
       file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge
       commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When
       shown by	git diff-files -c, it compares the two unresolved merge
       parents with the	working	tree file (i.e.	file1 is stage 2 aka "our
       version", file2 is stage	3 aka "their version").

       git log --no-merges
	   Show	the whole commit history, but skip any merges

       git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi
	   Show	all commits since version v2.6.12 that changed any file	in the
	   include/scsi	or drivers/scsi	subdirectories

       git log --since="2 weeks	ago" --	gitk
	   Show	the changes during the last two	weeks to the file gitk.	The --
	   is necessary	to avoid confusion with	the branch named gitk

       git log --name-status release..test
	   Show	the commits that are in	the "test" branch but not yet in the
	   "release" branch, along with	the list of paths each commit

       git log --follow	builtin/rev-list.c
	   Shows the commits that changed builtin/rev-list.c, including	those
	   commits that	occurred before	the file was given its present name.

       git log --branches --not	--remotes=origin
	   Shows all commits that are in any of	local branches but not in any
	   of remote-tracking branches for origin (what	you have that origin

       git log master --not --remotes=*/master
	   Shows all commits that are in local master but not in any remote
	   repository master branches.

       git log -p -m --first-parent
	   Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the "main
	   branch" perspective,	skipping commits that come from	merged
	   branches, and showing full diffs of changes introduced by the
	   merges. This	makes sense only when following	a strict policy	of
	   merging all topic branches when staying on a	single integration

       git log -L '/int	main/',/^}/:main.c
	   Shows how the function main() in the	file main.c evolved over time.

       git log -3
	   Limits the number of	commits	to show	to 3.

       Git is to some extent character encoding	agnostic.

       o   The contents	of the blob objects are	uninterpreted sequences	of
	   bytes. There	is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path	names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
	   to tree objects, the	index file, ref	names, as well as path names
	   in command line arguments, environment variables and	config files
	   (.git/config	(see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
	   and gitmodules(5)).

	   Note	that Git at the	core level treats path names simply as
	   sequences of	non-NUL	bytes, there are no path name encoding
	   conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
	   path	names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
	   use legacy extended ASCII encodings.	However, repositories created
	   on such systems will	not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
	   Linux, Mac, Windows)	and vice versa.	Additionally, many Git-based
	   tools simply	assume path names to be	UTF-8 and will fail to display
	   other encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in	UTF-8, but other
	   extended ASCII encodings are	also supported.	This includes
	   ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
	   CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx	etc.).

       Although	we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and	Git Porcelain are designed not to force	UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants	of a particular	project	find it	more
       convenient to use legacy	encodings, Git does not	forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

	1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
	   message given to it does not	look like a valid UTF-8	string,	unless
	   you explicitly say your project uses	a legacy encoding. The way to
	   say this is to have i18n.commitEncoding in .git/config file,	like

		       commitEncoding =	ISO-8859-1

	   Commit objects created with the above setting record	the value of
	   i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
	   people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
	   commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

	2. git log, git	show, git blame	and friends look at the	encoding
	   header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
	   UTF-8 unless	otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
	   output encoding with	i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file,
	   like	this:

		       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

	   If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
	   i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is	made to	force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.

       See git-config(1) for core variables and	git-diff(1) for	settings
       related to diff generation.

	   Default for the --format option. (See Pretty	Formats	above.)
	   Defaults to medium.

	   Encoding to use when	displaying logs. (See Discussion above.)
	   Defaults to the value of i18n.commitEncoding	if set,	and UTF-8

       Everything above	this line in this section isn't	included from the git-
       config(1) documentation.	The content that follows is the	same as	what's
       found there:

	   If true, makes git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1)
	   assume --abbrev-commit. You may override this option	with
	   Set the default date-time mode for the log command. Setting a value
	   for	is similar to using git	log's --date option. See git-
	   log(1) for details.

	   If the format is set	to "auto:foo" and the pager is in use, format
	   "foo" will be the used for the date format. Otherwise "default"
	   will	be used.

	   Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown by the	log
	   command. If short is	specified, the ref name	prefixes refs/heads/,
	   refs/tags/ and refs/remotes/	will not be printed. If	full is
	   specified, the full ref name	(including prefix) will	be printed. If
	   auto	is specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the
	   ref names are shown as if short were	given, otherwise no ref	names
	   are shown. This is the same as the --decorate option	of the git

	   By default, git log only shows decorations for certain known	ref
	   namespaces. If all is specified, then show all refs as decorations.

	   Exclude the specified patterns from the log decorations. This is
	   similar to the --decorate-refs-exclude command-line option, but the
	   config option can be	overridden by the --decorate-refs option.

	   Set diff format to be used when --diff-merges=on is specified, see
	   --diff-merges in git-log(1) for details. Defaults to	separate.

	   If true, git	log will act as	if the --follow	option was used	when a
	   single <path> is given. This	has the	same limitations as --follow,
	   i.e.	it cannot be used to follow multiple files and does not	work
	   well	on non-linear history.

	   A list of colors, separated by commas, that can be used to draw
	   history lines in git	log --graph.

	   If true, the	initial	commit will be shown as	a big creation event.
	   This	is equivalent to a diff	against	an empty tree. Tools like git-
	   log(1) or git-whatchanged(1), which normally	hide the root commit
	   will	now show it. True by default.

	   If true, makes git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1)
	   assume --show-signature.

	   If true, makes git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1)
	   assume --use-mailmap, otherwise assume --no-use-mailmap. True by

	   Which merge strategy	to choose by default when resolving notes
	   conflicts. Must be one of manual, ours, theirs, union, or
	   cat_sort_uniq. Defaults to manual. See "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES"
	   section of git-notes(1) for more information	on each	strategy.

	   This	setting	can be overridden by passing the --strategy option to

	   Which merge strategy	to choose when doing a notes merge into
	   refs/notes/<name>. This overrides the more general
	   "notes.mergeStrategy". See the "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES" section in
	   git-notes(1)	for more information on	the available strategies.

	   Which ref (or refs, if a glob or specified more than	once), in
	   addition to the default set by core.notesRef	or GIT_NOTES_REF, to
	   read	notes from when	showing	commit messages	with the git log
	   family of commands.

	   This	setting	can be overridden with the GIT_NOTES_DISPLAY_REF
	   environment variable, which must be a colon separated list of refs
	   or globs.

	   A warning will be issued for	refs that do not exist,	but a glob
	   that	does not match any refs	is silently ignored.

	   This	setting	can be disabled	by the --no-notes option to the	git
	   log family of commands, or by the --notes=<ref> option accepted by
	   those commands.

	   The effective value of "core.notesRef" (possibly overridden by
	   GIT_NOTES_REF) is also implicitly added to the list of refs to be

	   When	rewriting commits with <command> (currently amend or rebase),
	   if this variable is false, git will not copy	notes from the
	   original to the rewritten commit. Defaults to true. See also
	   "notes.rewriteRef" below.

	   This	setting	can be overridden with the GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF
	   environment variable, which must be a colon separated list of refs
	   or globs.

	   When	copying	notes during a rewrite (see the
	   "notes.rewrite.<command>" option), determines what to do if the
	   target commit already has a note. Must be one of overwrite,
	   concatenate,	cat_sort_uniq, or ignore. Defaults to concatenate.

	   This	setting	can be overridden with the GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE
	   environment variable.

	   When	copying	notes during a rewrite,	specifies the (fully
	   qualified) ref whose	notes should be	copied.	May be a glob, in
	   which case notes in all matching refs will be copied. You may also
	   specify this	configuration several times.

	   Does	not have a default value; you must configure this variable to
	   enable note rewriting. Set it to refs/notes/commits to enable
	   rewriting for the default commit notes.

	   Can be overridden with the GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF environment
	   variable. See notes.rewrite.<command> above for a further
	   description of its format.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.39.1			  01/13/2023			    GIT-LOG(1)


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