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GIT-PULL(1)			  Git Manual			   GIT-PULL(1)

       git-pull	- Fetch	from and integrate with	another	repository or a	local

       git pull	[<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

       Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current branch.
       In its default mode, git	pull is	shorthand for git fetch	followed by
       git merge FETCH_HEAD.

       More precisely, git pull	runs git fetch with the	given parameters and
       calls git merge to merge	the retrieved branch heads into	the current
       branch. With --rebase, it runs git rebase instead of git	merge.

       <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as passed	to
       git-fetch(1). <refspec> can name	an arbitrary remote ref	(for example,
       the name	of a tag) or even a collection of refs with corresponding
       remote-tracking branches	(e.g., refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*),
       but usually it is the name of a branch in the remote repository.

       Default values for <repository> and <branch> are	read from the "remote"
       and "merge" configuration for the current branch	as set by git-
       branch(1) --track.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":

		     A---B---C master on origin
	       D---E---F---G master
		   origin/master in your repository

       Then "git pull" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
       master branch since it diverged from the	local master (i.e., E) until
       its current commit (C) on top of	master and record the result in	a new
       commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log message
       from the	user describing	the changes.

		     A---B---C origin/master
		    /	      \
	       D---E---F---G---H master

       See git-merge(1)	for details, including how conflicts are presented and

       In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel	a conflicting merge, use git reset
       --merge.	Warning: In older versions of Git, running git pull with
       uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in a
       state that may be hard to back out of in	the case of a conflict.

       If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes,
       the merge will be automatically canceled	and the	work tree untouched.
       It is generally best to get any local changes in	working	order before
       pulling or stash	them away with git-stash(1).

       -q, --quiet
	   This	is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of
	   during transfer, and	underlying git-merge to	squelch	output during

       -v, --verbose
	   Pass	--verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.

	   This	option controls	if new commits of populated submodules should
	   be fetched, and if the working trees	of active submodules should be
	   updated, too	(see git-fetch(1), git-config(1) and gitmodules(5)).

	   If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are
	   rebased as well.

	   If the update is done via merge, the	submodule conflicts are
	   resolved and	checked	out.

   Options related to merging
       --commit, --no-commit
	   Perform the merge and commit	the result. This option	can be used to
	   override --no-commit.

	   With	--no-commit perform the	merge and stop just before creating a
	   merge commit, to give the user a chance to inspect and further
	   tweak the merge result before committing.

	   Note	that fast-forward updates do not create	a merge	commit and
	   therefore there is no way to	stop those merges with --no-commit.
	   Thus, if you	want to	ensure your branch is not changed or updated
	   by the merge	command, use --no-ff with --no-commit.

       --edit, -e, --no-edit
	   Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to
	   further edit	the auto-generated merge message, so that the user can
	   explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit	option can be used to
	   accept the auto-generated message (this is generally	discouraged).

	   Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour	of not
	   allowing the	user to	edit the merge log message. They will see an
	   editor opened when they run git merge. To make it easier to adjust
	   such	scripts	to the updated behaviour, the environment variable
	   GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning	of them.

	   This	option determines how the merge	message	will be	cleaned	up
	   before committing. See git-commit(1)	for more details. In addition,
	   if the _mode_ is given a value of scissors, scissors	will be
	   appended to MERGE_MSG before	being passed on	to the commit
	   machinery in	the case of a merge conflict.

       --ff, --no-ff, --ff-only
	   Specifies how a merge is handled when the merged-in history is
	   already a descendant	of the current history.	 --ff is the default
	   unless merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not
	   stored in its natural place in the refs/tags/ hierarchy, in which
	   case	--no-ff	is assumed.

	   With	--ff, when possible resolve the	merge as a fast-forward	(only
	   update the branch pointer to	match the merged branch; do not	create
	   a merge commit). When not possible (when the	merged-in history is
	   not a descendant of the current history), create a merge commit.

	   With	--no-ff, create	a merge	commit in all cases, even when the
	   merge could instead be resolved as a	fast-forward.

	   With	--ff-only, resolve the merge as	a fast-forward when possible.
	   When	not possible, refuse to	merge and exit with a non-zero status.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
	   GPG-sign the	resulting merge	commit.	The keyid argument is optional
	   and defaults	to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
	   stuck to the	option without a space.	 --no-gpg-sign is useful to
	   countermand both commit.gpgSign configuration variable, and earlier

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
	   In addition to branch names,	populate the log message with one-line
	   descriptions	from at	most <n> actual	commits	that are being merged.
	   See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).

	   With	--no-log do not	list one-line descriptions from	the actual
	   commits being merged.

       --signoff, --no-signoff
	   Add a Signed-off-by trailer by the committer	at the end of the
	   commit log message. The meaning of a	signoff	depends	on the project
	   to which you're committing. For example, it may certify that	the
	   committer has the rights to submit the work under the project's
	   license or agrees to	some contributor representation, such as a
	   Developer Certificate of Origin. (See for the one used by the Linux
	   kernel and Git projects.) Consult the documentation or leadership
	   of the project to which you're contributing to understand how the
	   signoffs are	used in	that project.

	   The --no-signoff option can be used to countermand an earlier
	   --signoff option on the command line.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
	   Show	a diffstat at the end of the merge. The	diffstat is also
	   controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.

	   With	-n or --no-stat	do not show a diffstat at the end of the

       --squash, --no-squash
	   Produce the working tree and	index state as if a real merge
	   happened (except for	the merge information),	but do not actually
	   make	a commit, move the HEAD, or record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to
	   cause the next git commit command to	create a merge commit).	This
	   allows you to create	a single commit	on top of the current branch
	   whose effect	is the same as merging another branch (or more in case
	   of an octopus).

	   With	--no-squash perform the	merge and commit the result. This
	   option can be used to override --squash.

	   With	--squash, --commit is not allowed, and will fail.

	   This	option bypasses	the pre-merge and commit-msg hooks. See	also

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
	   Use the given merge strategy; can be	supplied more than once	to
	   specify them	in the order they should be tried. If there is no -s
	   option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead (git
	   merge-recursive when	merging	a single head, git merge-octopus

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
	   Pass	merge strategy specific	option through to the merge strategy.

       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
	   Verify that the tip commit of the side branch being merged is
	   signed with a valid key, i.e. a key that has	a valid	uid: in	the
	   default trust model,	this means the signing key has been signed by
	   a trusted key. If the tip commit of the side	branch is not signed
	   with	a valid	key, the merge is aborted.

       --summary, --no-summary
	   Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be
	   removed in the future.

       --autostash, --no-autostash
	   Automatically create	a temporary stash entry	before the operation
	   begins, and apply it	after the operation ends. This means that you
	   can run the operation on a dirty worktree. However, use with	care:
	   the final stash application after a successful merge	might result
	   in non-trivial conflicts.

	   By default, git merge command refuses to merge histories that do
	   not share a common ancestor.	This option can	be used	to override
	   this	safety when merging histories of two projects that started
	   their lives independently. As that is a very	rare occasion, no
	   configuration variable to enable this by default exists and will
	   not be added.

       -r, --rebase[=false|true|merges|preserve|interactive]
	   When	true, rebase the current branch	on top of the upstream branch
	   after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch	corresponding
	   to the upstream branch and the upstream branch was rebased since
	   last	fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing
	   non-local changes.

	   When	set to merges, rebase using git	rebase --rebase-merges so that
	   the local merge commits are included	in the rebase (see git-
	   rebase(1) for details).

	   When	set to preserve	(deprecated in favor of	merges), rebase	with
	   the --preserve-merges option	passed to git rebase so	that locally
	   created merge commits will not be flattened.

	   When	false, merge the current branch	into the upstream branch.

	   When	interactive, enable the	interactive mode of rebase.

	   See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and branch.autoSetupRebase in
	   git-config(1) if you	want to	make git pull always use --rebase
	   instead of merging.

	       This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites
	       history,	which does not bode well when you published that
	       history already.	Do not use this	option unless you have read
	       git-rebase(1) carefully.

	   Override earlier --rebase.

   Options related to fetching
	   Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
	   Append ref names and	object names of	fetched	refs to	the existing
	   contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD.	Without	this option old	data in
	   .git/FETCH_HEAD will	be overwritten.

	   Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of
	   each	remote branch history. If fetching to a	shallow	repository
	   created by git clone	with --depth=<depth> option (see git-
	   clone(1)), deepen or	shorten	the history to the specified number of
	   commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

	   Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits from
	   the current shallow boundary	instead	of from	the tip	of each	remote
	   branch history.

	   Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to include
	   all reachable commits after <date>.

	   Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to exclude
	   commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This
	   option can be specified multiple times.

	   If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow repository
	   to a	complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow

	   If the source repository is shallow,	fetch as much as possible so
	   that	the current repository has the same history as the source

	   By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch
	   refuses refs	that require updating .git/shallow. This option
	   updates .git/shallow	and accept such	refs.

	   By default, Git will	report,	to the server, commits reachable from
	   all local refs to find common commits in an attempt to reduce the
	   size	of the to-be-received packfile.	If specified, Git will only
	   report commits reachable from the given tips. This is useful	to
	   speed up fetches when the user knows	which local ref	is likely to
	   have	commits	in common with the upstream ref	being fetched.

	   This	option may be specified	more than once;	if so, Git will	report
	   commits reachable from any of the given commits.

	   The argument	to this	option may be a	glob on	ref names, a ref, or
	   the (possibly abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit. Specifying a glob is
	   equivalent to specifying this option	multiple times,	one for	each
	   matching ref	name.

	   See also the	fetch.negotiationAlgorithm configuration variable
	   documented in git-config(1).

	   Show	what would be done, without making any changes.

       -f, --force
	   When	git fetch is used with <src>:<dst> refspec it may refuse to
	   update the local branch as discussed	in the <refspec> part of the
	   git-fetch(1)	documentation. This option overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
	   Keep	downloaded pack.

       -p, --prune
	   Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
	   longer exist	on the remote. Tags are	not subject to pruning if they
	   are fetched only because of the default tag auto-following or due
	   to a	--tags option. However,	if tags	are fetched due	to an explicit
	   refspec (either on the command line or in the remote	configuration,
	   for example if the remote was cloned	with the --mirror option),
	   then	they are also subject to pruning. Supplying --prune-tags is a
	   shorthand for providing the tag refspec.

	   By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the
	   remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option
	   disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a
	   remote may be specified with	the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting. See

	   When	fetching refs listed on	the command line, use the specified
	   refspec (can	be given more than once) to map	the refs to
	   remote-tracking branches, instead of	the values of remote.*.fetch
	   configuration variables for the remote repository. Providing	an
	   empty <refspec> to the --refmap option causes Git to	ignore the
	   configured refspecs and rely	entirely on the	refspecs supplied as
	   command-line	arguments. See section on "Configured Remote-tracking
	   Branches" for details.

       -t, --tags
	   Fetch all tags from the remote (i.e., fetch remote tags refs/tags/*
	   into	local tags with	the same name),	in addition to whatever	else
	   would otherwise be fetched. Using this option alone does not
	   subject tags	to pruning, even if --prune is used (though tags may
	   be pruned anyway if they are	also the destination of	an explicit
	   refspec; see	--prune).

       -j, --jobs=<n>
	   Number of parallel children to be used for all forms	of fetching.

	   If the --multiple option was	specified, the different remotes will
	   be fetched in parallel. If multiple submodules are fetched, they
	   will	be fetched in parallel.	To control them	independently, use the
	   config settings fetch.parallel and submodule.fetchJobs (see git-

	   Typically, parallel recursive and multi-remote fetches will be
	   faster. By default fetches are performed sequentially, not in

	   If the remote is fetched successfully, add upstream (tracking)
	   reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)	and other commands.
	   For more information, see branch.<name>.merge and
	   branch.<name>.remote	in git-config(1).

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
	   When	given, and the repository to fetch from	is handled by git
	   fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to
	   specify non-default path for	the command run	on the other end.

	   Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
	   when	it is attached to a terminal, unless -q	is specified. This
	   flag	forces progress	status even if the standard error stream is
	   not directed	to a terminal.

       -o <option>, --server-option=<option>
	   Transmit the	given string to	the server when	communicating using
	   protocol version 2. The given string	must not contain a NUL or LF
	   character. The server's handling of server options, including
	   unknown ones, is server-specific. When multiple
	   --server-option=<option> are	given, they are	all sent to the	other
	   side	in the order listed on the command line.

	   By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during fetch.
	   This	can be disabled	through	fetch.showForcedUpdates, but the
	   --show-forced-updates option	guarantees this	check occurs. See git-

	   By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during fetch.
	   Pass	--no-show-forced-updates or set	fetch.showForcedUpdates	to
	   false to skip this check for	performance reasons. If	used during
	   git-pull the	--ff-only option will still check for forced updates
	   before attempting a fast-forward update. See	git-config(1).

       -4, --ipv4
	   Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

       -6, --ipv6
	   Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.

	   The "remote"	repository that	is the source of a fetch or pull
	   operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT
	   URLS	below) or the name of a	remote (see the	section	REMOTES

	   Specifies which refs	to fetch and which local refs to update. When
	   no <refspec>s appear	on the command line, the refs to fetch are
	   read	from remote.<repository>.fetch variables instead (see the
	   section "CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING BRANCHES" in git-fetch(1)).

	   The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed
	   by the source <src>,	followed by a colon :, followed	by the
	   destination ref <dst>. The colon can	be omitted when	<dst> is
	   empty. <src>	is typically a ref, but	it can also be a fully spelled
	   hex object name.

	   A <refspec> may contain a * in its <src> to indicate	a simple
	   pattern match. Such a refspec functions like	a glob that matches
	   any ref with	the same prefix. A pattern <refspec> must have a * in
	   both	the <src> and <dst>. It	will map refs to the destination by
	   replacing the * with	the contents matched from the source.

	   If a	refspec	is prefixed by ^, it will be interpreted as a negative
	   refspec. Rather than	specifying which refs to fetch or which	local
	   refs	to update, such	a refspec will instead specify refs to
	   exclude. A ref will be considered to	match if it matches at least
	   one positive	refspec, and does not match any	negative refspec.
	   Negative refspecs can be useful to restrict the scope of a pattern
	   refspec so that it will not include specific	refs. Negative
	   refspecs can	themselves be pattern refspecs.	However, they may only
	   contain a <src> and do not specify a	<dst>. Fully spelled out hex
	   object names	are also not supported.

	   tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>;	it
	   requests fetching everything	up to the given	tag.

	   The remote ref that matches <src> is	fetched, and if	<dst> is not
	   an empty string, an attempt is made to update the local ref that
	   matches it.

	   Whether that	update is allowed without --force depends on the ref
	   namespace it's being	fetched	to, the	type of	object being fetched,
	   and whether the update is considered	to be a	fast-forward.
	   Generally, the same rules apply for fetching	as when	pushing, see
	   the <refspec>...  section of	git-push(1) for	what those are.
	   Exceptions to those rules particular	to git fetch are noted below.

	   Until Git version 2.20, and unlike when pushing with	git-push(1),
	   any updates to refs/tags/* would be accepted	without	+ in the
	   refspec (or --force). When fetching,	we promiscuously considered
	   all tag updates from	a remote to be forced fetches. Since Git
	   version 2.20, fetching to update refs/tags/*	works the same way as
	   when	pushing. I.e. any updates will be rejected without + in	the
	   refspec (or --force).

	   Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), any updates outside of
	   refs/{tags,heads}/* will be accepted	without	+ in the refspec (or
	   --force), whether that's swapping e.g. a tree object	for a blob, or
	   a commit for	another	commit that's doesn't have the previous	commit
	   as an ancestor etc.

	   Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), there is no configuration
	   which'll amend these	rules, and nothing like	a pre-fetch hook
	   analogous to	the pre-receive	hook.

	   As with pushing with	git-push(1), all of the	rules described	above
	   about what's	not allowed as an update can be	overridden by adding
	   an the optional leading + to	a refspec (or using --force command
	   line	option). The only exception to this is that no amount of
	   forcing will	make the refs/heads/* namespace	accept a non-commit

	       When the	remote branch you want to fetch	is known to be rewound
	       and rebased regularly, it is expected that its new tip will not
	       be descendant of	its previous tip (as stored in your
	       remote-tracking branch the last time you	fetched). You would
	       want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates
	       will be needed for such branches. There is no way to determine
	       or declare that a branch	will be	made available in a repository
	       with this behavior; the pulling user simply must	know this is
	       the expected usage pattern for a	branch.

	       There is	a difference between listing multiple <refspec>
	       directly	on git pull command line and having multiple
	       remote.<repository>.fetch entries in your configuration for a
	       <repository> and	running	a git pull command without any
	       explicit	<refspec> parameters. <refspec>s listed	explicitly on
	       the command line	are always merged into the current branch
	       after fetching. In other	words, if you list more	than one
	       remote ref, git pull will create	an Octopus merge. On the other
	       hand, if	you do not list	any explicit <refspec> parameter on
	       the command line, git pull will fetch all the <refspec>s	it
	       finds in	the remote.<repository>.fetch configuration and	merge
	       only the	first <refspec>	found into the current branch. This is
	       because making an Octopus from remote refs is rarely done,
	       while keeping track of multiple remote heads in one-go by
	       fetching	more than one is often useful.

       In general, URLs	contain	information about the transport	protocol, the
       address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
       on the transport	protocol, some of this information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and	https protocols	(in addition, ftp, and
       ftps can	be used	for fetching, but this is inefficient and deprecated;
       do not use it).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured	networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the	ssh protocol:

       o   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
       colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
       example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute	path
       or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an	ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username	expansion:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
       syntaxes	may be used:

       o   /path/to/repo.git/

       o   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except	when cloning, when the
       former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       git clone, git fetch and	git pull, but not git push, will also accept a
       suitable	bundle file. See git-bundle(1).

       When Git	doesn't	know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
       attempts	to use the remote-_transport_ remote helper, if	one exists. To
       explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax	may be used:

       o   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a	path, a	server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like	string recognized by the specific remote helper	being invoked.
       See gitremote-helpers(7)	for details.

       If there	are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
       you want	to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
       will be rewritten into URLs that	work), you can create a	configuration
       section of the form:

		   [url	"<actual url base>"]
			   insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url	"git://"]
			   insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
			   insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
       rewritten in any	context	that takes a URL to be

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of	the form:

		   [url	"<actual url base>"]
			   pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url	"ssh://"]
			   pushInsteadOf = git://

       a URL like "git://" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://" for	pushes,	but pulls will still
       use the original	URL.

       The name	of one of the following	can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       o   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the	command	line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote	in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you	had previously
       configured using	git-remote(1), git-config(1) or	even by	a manual edit
       to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The	URL of this remote will	be used	to
       access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
       default when you	do not provide a refspec on the	command	line. The
       entry in	the config file	would appear like this:

		   [remote "<name>"]
			   url = <url>
			   pushurl = <pushurl>
			   push	= <refspec>
			   fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is	used for pushes	only. It is optional and defaults to

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file	will be	used to	access the repository. The refspec in
       this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
       the command line. This file should have the following format:

		   URL:	one of the above URL format
		   Push: <refspec>
		   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push	and Pull: lines	are used by git	pull
       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
       URL in this file	will be	used to	access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:


       <url> is	required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the	operation, git will use	one of the following refspecs,
       if you don't provide one	on the command line. <branch> is the name of
       this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push	uses:


       The merge mechanism (git	merge and git pull commands) allows the
       backend merge strategies	to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies
       can also	take their own options,	which can be passed by giving
       -X<option> arguments to git merge and/or	git pull.

	   This	can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
	   another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It
	   tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
	   considered generally	safe and fast.

	   This	can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When
	   there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way
	   merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and uses
	   that	as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This	has been
	   reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing
	   mismerges by	tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
	   2.6 kernel development history. Additionally	this can detect	and
	   handle merges involving renames, but	currently cannot make use of
	   detected copies. This is the	default	merge strategy when pulling or
	   merging one branch.

	   The recursive strategy can take the following options:

	       This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved
	       cleanly by favoring our version.	Changes	from the other tree
	       that do not conflict with our side are reflected	in the merge
	       result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken	from
	       our side.

	       This should not be confused with	the ours merge strategy, which
	       does not	even look at what the other tree contains at all. It
	       discards	everything the other tree did, declaring our history
	       contains	all that happened in it.

	       This is the opposite of ours; note that,	unlike ours, there is
	       no theirs merge strategy	to confuse this	merge option with.

	       With this option, merge-recursive spends	a little extra time to
	       avoid mismerges that sometimes occur due	to unimportant
	       matching	lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use this
	       when the	branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See	also
	       git-diff(1) --patience.

	       Tells merge-recursive to	use a different	diff algorithm,	which
	       can help	avoid mismerges	that occur due to unimportant matching
	       lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See also	git-
	       diff(1) --diff-algorithm.

	   ignore-space-change,	ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol,
	       Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
	       unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace changes
	       mixed with other	changes	to a line are not ignored. See also
	       git-diff(1) -b, -w, --ignore-space-at-eol, and

	       o   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a
		   line, our version is	used;

	       o   If our version introduces whitespace	changes	but their
		   version includes a substantial change, their	version	is

	       o   Otherwise, the merge	proceeds in the	usual way.

	       This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages
	       of a file when resolving	a three-way merge. This	option is
	       meant to	be used	when merging branches with different clean
	       filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging
	       branches	with differing checkin/checkout	attributes" in
	       gitattributes(5)	for details.

	       Disables	the renormalize	option.	This overrides the
	       merge.renormalize configuration variable.

	       Turn off	rename detection. This overrides the merge.renames
	       configuration variable. See also	git-diff(1) --no-renames.

	       Turn on rename detection, optionally setting the	similarity
	       threshold. This is the default. This overrides the
	       merge.renames configuration variable. See also git-diff(1)

	       Deprecated synonym for find-renames=<n>.

	       This option is a	more advanced form of subtree strategy,	where
	       the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must	be shifted to
	       match with each other when merging. Instead, the	specified path
	       is prefixed (or stripped	from the beginning) to make the	shape
	       of two trees to match.

	   This	resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to	do a
	   complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant
	   to be used for bundling topic branch	heads together.	This is	the
	   default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one

	   This	resolves any number of heads, but the resulting	tree of	the
	   merge is always that	of the current branch head, effectively
	   ignoring all	changes	from all other branches. It is meant to	be
	   used	to supersede old development history of	side branches. Note
	   that	this is	different from the -Xours option to the	recursive
	   merge strategy.

	   This	is a modified recursive	strategy. When merging trees A and B,
	   if B	corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match
	   the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at the	same
	   level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.

       With the	strategies that	use 3-way merge	(including the default,
       recursive), if a	change is made on both branches, but later reverted on
       one of the branches, that change	will be	present	in the merged result;
       some people find	this behavior confusing. It occurs because only	the
       heads and the merge base	are considered when performing a merge,	not
       the individual commits. The merge algorithm therefore considers the
       reverted	change as no change at all, and	substitutes the	changed
       version instead.

       Often people use	git pull without giving	any parameter. Traditionally,
       this has	been equivalent	to saying git pull origin. However, when
       configuration branch.<name>.remote is present while on branch <name>,
       that value is used instead of origin.

       In order	to determine what URL to use to	fetch from, the	value of the
       configuration remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not any
       such variable, the value	on the URL: line in $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>
       is used.

       In order	to determine what remote branches to fetch (and	optionally
       store in	the remote-tracking branches) when the command is run without
       any refspec parameters on the command line, values of the configuration
       variable	remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted, and if there aren't any,
       $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> is consulted and its Pull: lines are used. In
       addition	to the refspec formats described in the	OPTIONS	section, you
       can have	a globbing refspec that	looks like this:


       A globbing refspec must have a non-empty	RHS (i.e. must store what were
       fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS must end with
       /*. The above specifies that all	remote branches	are tracked using
       remote-tracking branches	in refs/remotes/origin/	hierarchy under	the
       same name.

       The rule	to determine which remote branch to merge after	fetching is a
       bit involved, in	order not to break backward compatibility.

       If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull,	they
       are all merged.

       When no refspec was given on the	command	line, then git pull uses the
       refspec from the	configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such
       cases, the following rules apply:

	1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration	for the	current	branch <name>
	   exists, that	is the name of the branch at the remote	site that is

	2. If the refspec is a globbing	one, nothing is	merged.

	3. Otherwise the remote	branch of the first refspec is merged.

       o   Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned
	   from, then merge one	of them	into your current branch:

	       $ git pull
	       $ git pull origin

	   Normally the	branch merged in is the	HEAD of	the remote repository,
	   but the choice is determined	by the branch.<name>.remote and
	   branch.<name>.merge options;	see git-config(1) for details.

       o   Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:

	       $ git pull origin next

	   This	leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, and updates
	   the remote-tracking branch origin/next. The same can	be done	by
	   invoking fetch and merge:

	       $ git fetch origin
	       $ git merge origin/next

       If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and would want
       to start	over, you can recover with git reset.

       The fetch and push protocols are	not designed to	prevent	one side from
       stealing	data from the other repository that was	not intended to	be
       shared. If you have private data	that you need to protect from a
       malicious peer, your best option	is to store it in another repository.
       This applies to both clients and	servers. In particular,	namespaces on
       a server	are not	effective for read access control; you should only
       grant read access to a namespace	to clients that	you would trust	with
       read access to the entire repository.

       The known attack	vectors	are as follows:

	1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of	objects	it has
	   that	are not	explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to
	   optimize the	transfer if the	peer also has them. The	attacker
	   chooses an object ID	X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn't
	   required to send the	content	of X because the victim	already	has
	   it. Now the victim believes that the	attacker has X,	and it sends
	   the content of X back to the	attacker later.	(This attack is	most
	   straightforward for a client	to perform on a	server,	by creating a
	   ref to X in the namespace the client	has access to and then
	   fetching it.	The most likely	way for	a server to perform it on a
	   client is to	"merge"	X into a public	branch and hope	that the user
	   does	additional work	on this	branch and pushes it back to the
	   server without noticing the merge.)

	2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim
	   sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and	the attacker
	   falsely claims to have X and	not Y, so the victim sends Y as	a
	   delta against X. The	delta reveals regions of X that	are similar to
	   Y to	the attacker.

       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in	already
       checked out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new
       submodule in the	just fetched commits of	the superproject the submodule
       itself cannot be	fetched, making	it impossible to check out that
       submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This	is expected to
       be fixed	in a future Git	version.

       git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.30.1			  02/08/2021			   GIT-PULL(1)


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