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GIT-RESET(1)			  Git Manual			  GIT-RESET(1)

       git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state

       git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--]	<pathspec>...
       git reset [-q] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]] [<tree-ish>]
       git reset (--patch | -p)	[<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
       git reset [--soft | --mixed [-N]	| --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]

       In the first three forms, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the index. In
       the last	form, set the current branch head (HEAD) to <commit>,
       optionally modifying index and working tree to match. The
       <tree-ish>/<commit> defaults to HEAD in all forms.

       git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--]	<pathspec>..., git reset [-q]
       [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]] [<tree-ish>]
	   These forms reset the index entries for all paths that match	the
	   <pathspec> to their state at	<tree-ish>. (It	does not affect	the
	   working tree	or the current branch.)

	   This	means that git reset <pathspec>	is the opposite	of git add
	   <pathspec>. This command is equivalent to git restore
	   [--source=<tree-ish>] --staged <pathspec>....

	   After running git reset <pathspec> to update	the index entry, you
	   can use git-restore(1) to check the contents	out of the index to
	   the working tree. Alternatively, using git-restore(1) and
	   specifying a	commit with --source, you can copy the contents	of a
	   path	out of a commit	to the index and to the	working	tree in	one

       git reset (--patch | -p)	[<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
	   Interactively select	hunks in the difference	between	the index and
	   <tree-ish> (defaults	to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied in
	   reverse to the index.

	   This	means that git reset -p	is the opposite	of git add -p, i.e.
	   you can use it to selectively reset hunks. See the "Interactive
	   Mode" section of git-add(1) to learn	how to operate the --patch

       git reset [<mode>] [<commit>]
	   This	form resets the	current	branch head to <commit>	and possibly
	   updates the index (resetting	it to the tree of <commit>) and	the
	   working tree	depending on <mode>. If	<mode> is omitted, defaults to
	   --mixed. The	<mode> must be one of the following:

	       Does not	touch the index	file or	the working tree at all	(but
	       resets the head to <commit>, just like all modes	do). This
	       leaves all your changed files "Changes to be committed",	as git
	       status would put	it.

	       Resets the index	but not	the working tree (i.e.,	the changed
	       files are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what
	       has not been updated. This is the default action.

	       If -N is	specified, removed paths are marked as intent-to-add
	       (see git-add(1)).

	       Resets the index	and working tree. Any changes to tracked files
	       in the working tree since <commit> are discarded.

	       Resets the index	and updates the	files in the working tree that
	       are different between <commit> and HEAD,	but keeps those	which
	       are different between the index and working tree	(i.e. which
	       have changes which have not been	added).	If a file that is
	       different between <commit> and the index	has unstaged changes,
	       reset is	aborted.

	       In other	words, --merge does something like a git read-tree -u
	       -m <commit>, but	carries	forward	unmerged index entries.

	       Resets index entries and	updates	files in the working tree that
	       are different between <commit> and HEAD.	If a file that is
	       different between <commit> and HEAD has local changes, reset is

	       When the	working	tree is	updated, using --recurse-submodules
	       will also recursively reset the working tree of all active
	       submodules according to the commit recorded in the
	       superproject, also setting the submodules' HEAD to be detached
	       at that commit.

       See "Reset, restore and revert" in git(1) for the differences between
       the three commands.

       -q, --quiet, --no-quiet
	   Be quiet, only report errors. The default behavior is set by	the
	   reset.quiet config option.  --quiet and --no-quiet will override
	   the default behavior.

	   Pathspec is passed in <file>	instead	of commandline args. If	<file>
	   is exactly -	then standard input is used. Pathspec elements are
	   separated by	LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be quoted as
	   explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see	git-
	   config(1)). See also	--pathspec-file-nul and	global

	   Only	meaningful with	--pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements	are
	   separated with NUL character	and all	other characters are taken
	   literally (including	newlines and quotes).

	   Do not interpret any	more arguments as options.

	   Limits the paths affected by	the operation.

	   For more details, see the pathspec entry in gitglossary(7).

       Undo add

	       $ edit					  (1)
	       $ git add frotz.c filfre.c
	       $ mailx					  (2)
	       $ git reset				  (3)
	       $ git pull git:// nitfol  (4)

	   1. You are happily working on something, and	find the changes in
	   these files are in good order. You do not want to see them when you
	   run git diff, because you plan to work on other files and changes
	   with	these files are	distracting.
	   2. Somebody asks you	to pull, and the changes sound worthy of
	   3. However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your	index does not
	   match the HEAD commit). But you know	the pull you are going to make
	   does	not affect frotz.c or filfre.c,	so you revert the index
	   changes for these two files.	Your changes in	working	tree remain
	   4. Then you can pull	and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c
	   changes still in the	working	tree.

       Undo a commit and redo

	       $ git commit ...
	       $ git reset --soft HEAD^	     (1)
	       $ edit			     (2)
	       $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD  (3)

	   1. This is most often done when you remembered what you just
	   committed is	incomplete, or you misspelled your commit message, or
	   both. Leaves	working	tree as	it was before "reset".
	   2. Make corrections to working tree files.
	   3. "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the commit
	   by starting with its	log message. If	you do not need	to edit	the
	   message further, you	can give -C option instead.

	   See also the	--amend	option to git-commit(1).

       Undo a commit, making it	a topic	branch

	       $ git branch topic/wip	       (1)
	       $ git reset --hard HEAD~3       (2)
	       $ git switch topic/wip	       (3)

	   1. You have made some commits, but realize they were	premature to
	   be in the master branch. You	want to	continue polishing them	in a
	   topic branch, so create topic/wip branch off	of the current HEAD.
	   2. Rewind the master	branch to get rid of those three commits.
	   3. Switch to	topic/wip branch and keep working.

       Undo commits permanently

	       $ git commit ...
	       $ git reset --hard HEAD~3   (1)

	   1. The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad	and
	   you do not want to ever see them again. Do not do this if you have
	   already given these commits to somebody else. (See the "RECOVERING
	   FROM	UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1) for the implications
	   of doing so.)

       Undo a merge or pull

	       $ git pull			  (1)
	       Auto-merging nitfol
	       CONFLICT	(content): Merge conflict in nitfol
	       Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
	       $ git reset --hard		  (2)
	       $ git pull . topic/branch	  (3)
	       Updating	from 41223... to 13134...
	       $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD	  (4)

	   1. Try to update from the upstream resulted in a lot	of conflicts;
	   you were not	ready to spend a lot of	time merging right now,	so you
	   decide to do	that later.
	   2. "pull" has not made merge	commit,	so git reset --hard which is a
	   synonym for git reset --hard	HEAD clears the	mess from the index
	   file	and the	working	tree.
	   3. Merge a topic branch into	the current branch, which resulted in
	   a fast-forward.
	   4. But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
	   consumption yet. "pull" or "merge" always leaves the	original tip
	   of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it brings
	   your	index file and the working tree	back to	that state, and	resets
	   the tip of the branch to that commit.

       Undo a merge or pull inside a dirty working tree

	       $ git pull			  (1)
	       Auto-merging nitfol
	       Merge made by recursive.
		nitfol		      |	  20 +++++----
	       $ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD	  (2)

	   1. Even if you may have local modifications in your working tree,
	   you can safely say git pull when you	know that the change in	the
	   other branch	does not overlap with them.
	   2. After inspecting the result of the merge,	you may	find that the
	   change in the other branch is unsatisfactory. Running git reset
	   --hard ORIG_HEAD will let you go back to where you were, but	it
	   will	discard	your local changes, which you do not want.  git	reset
	   --merge keeps your local changes.

       Interrupted workflow
	   Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix	request	while you are
	   in the middle of a large change. The	files in your working tree are
	   not in any shape to be committed yet, but you need to get to	the
	   other branch	for a quick bugfix.

	       $ git switch feature  ;#	you were working in "feature" branch and
	       $ work work work	     ;#	got interrupted
	       $ git commit -a -m "snapshot WIP"		 (1)
	       $ git switch master
	       $ fix fix fix
	       $ git commit ;# commit with real	log
	       $ git switch feature
	       $ git reset --soft HEAD^	;# go back to WIP state	 (2)
	       $ git reset					 (3)

	   1. This commit will get blown away so a throw-away log message is
	   2. This removes the WIP commit from the commit history, and sets
	   your	working	tree to	the state just before you made that snapshot.
	   3. At this point the	index file still has all the WIP changes you
	   committed as	snapshot WIP. This updates the index to	show your WIP
	   files as uncommitted.

	   See also git-stash(1).

       Reset a single file in the index
	   Suppose you have added a file to your index,	but later decide you
	   do not want to add it to your commit. You can remove	the file from
	   the index while keeping your	changes	with git reset.

	       $ git reset -- frotz.c			   (1)
	       $ git commit -m "Commit files in	index"	   (2)
	       $ git add frotz.c			   (3)

	   1. This removes the file from the index while keeping it in the
	   working directory.
	   2. This commits all other changes in	the index.
	   3. Adds the file to the index again.

       Keep changes in working tree while discarding some previous commits
	   Suppose you are working on something	and you	commit it, and then
	   you continue	working	a bit more, but	now you	think that what	you
	   have	in your	working	tree should be in another branch that has
	   nothing to do with what you committed previously. You can start a
	   new branch and reset	it while keeping the changes in	your working

	       $ git tag start
	       $ git switch -c branch1
	       $ edit
	       $ git commit ...				   (1)
	       $ edit
	       $ git switch -c branch2			   (2)
	       $ git reset --keep start			   (3)

	   1. This commits your	first edits in branch1.
	   2. In the ideal world, you could have realized that the earlier
	   commit did not belong to the	new topic when you created and
	   switched to branch2 (i.e.  git switch -c branch2 start), but	nobody
	   is perfect.
	   3. But you can use reset --keep to remove the unwanted commit after
	   you switched	to branch2.

       Split a commit apart into a sequence of commits
	   Suppose that	you have created lots of logically separate changes
	   and committed them together.	Then, later you	decide that it might
	   be better to	have each logical chunk	associated with	its own
	   commit. You can use git reset to rewind history without changing
	   the contents	of your	local files, and then successively use git add
	   -p to interactively select which hunks to include into each commit,
	   using git commit -c to pre-populate the commit message.

	       $ git reset -N HEAD^			   (1)
	       $ git add -p				   (2)
	       $ git diff --cached			   (3)
	       $ git commit -c HEAD@{1}			   (4)
	       ...					   (5)
	       $ git add ...				   (6)
	       $ git diff --cached			   (7)
	       $ git commit ...				   (8)

	   1. First, reset the history back one	commit so that we remove the
	   original commit, but	leave the working tree with all	the changes.
	   The -N ensures that any new files added with	HEAD are still marked
	   so that git add -p will find	them.
	   2. Next, we interactively select diff hunks to add using the	git
	   add -p facility. This will ask you about each diff hunk in sequence
	   and you can use simple commands such	as "yes, include this",	"No
	   don't include this" or even the very	powerful "edit"	facility.
	   3. Once satisfied with the hunks you	want to	include, you should
	   verify what has been	prepared for the first commit by using git
	   diff	--cached. This shows all the changes that have been moved into
	   the index and are about to be committed.
	   4. Next, commit the changes stored in the index. The	-c option
	   specifies to	pre-populate the commit	message	from the original
	   message that	you started with in the	first commit. This is helpful
	   to avoid retyping it. The HEAD@{1} is a special notation for	the
	   commit that HEAD used to be at prior	to the original	reset commit
	   (1 change ago). See git-reflog(1) for more details. You may also
	   use any other valid commit reference.
	   5. You can repeat steps 2-4 multiple	times to break the original
	   code	into any number	of commits.
	   6. Now you've split out many	of the changes into their own commits,
	   and might no	longer use the patch mode of git add, in order to
	   select all remaining	uncommitted changes.
	   7. Once again, check	to verify that you've included what you	want
	   to. You may also wish to verify that	git diff doesn't show any
	   remaining changes to	be committed later.
	   8. And finally create the final commit.

       The tables below	show what happens when running:

	   git reset --option target

       to reset	the HEAD to another commit (target) with the different reset
       options depending on the	state of the files.

       In these	tables,	A, B, C	and D are some different states	of a file. For
       example,	the first line of the first table means	that if	a file is in
       state A in the working tree, in state B in the index, in	state C	in
       HEAD and	in state D in the target, then git reset --soft	target will
       leave the file in the working tree in state A and in the	index in state
       B. It resets (i.e. moves) the HEAD (i.e.	the tip	of the current branch,
       if you are on one) to target (which has the file	in state D).

	   working index HEAD target	     working index HEAD
	    A	    B	  C    D     --soft   A	      B	    D
				     --mixed  A	      D	    D
				     --hard   D	      D	    D
				     --merge (disallowed)
				     --keep  (disallowed)

	   working index HEAD target	     working index HEAD
	    A	    B	  C    C     --soft   A	      B	    C
				     --mixed  A	      C	    C
				     --hard   C	      C	    C
				     --merge (disallowed)
				     --keep   A	      C	    C

	   working index HEAD target	     working index HEAD
	    B	    B	  C    D     --soft   B	      B	    D
				     --mixed  B	      D	    D
				     --hard   D	      D	    D
				     --merge  D	      D	    D
				     --keep  (disallowed)

	   working index HEAD target	     working index HEAD
	    B	    B	  C    C     --soft   B	      B	    C
				     --mixed  B	      C	    C
				     --hard   C	      C	    C
				     --merge  C	      C	    C
				     --keep   B	      C	    C

	   working index HEAD target	     working index HEAD
	    B	    C	  C    D     --soft   B	      C	    D
				     --mixed  B	      D	    D
				     --hard   D	      D	    D
				     --merge (disallowed)
				     --keep  (disallowed)

	   working index HEAD target	     working index HEAD
	    B	    C	  C    C     --soft   B	      C	    C
				     --mixed  B	      C	    C
				     --hard   C	      C	    C
				     --merge  B	      C	    C
				     --keep   B	      C	    C

       reset --merge is	meant to be used when resetting	out of a conflicted
       merge. Any mergy	operation guarantees that the working tree file	that
       is involved in the merge	does not have a	local change with respect to
       the index before	it starts, and that it writes the result out to	the
       working tree. So	if we see some difference between the index and	the
       target and also between the index and the working tree, then it means
       that we are not resetting out from a state that a mergy operation left
       after failing with a conflict. That is why we disallow --merge option
       in this case.

       reset --keep is meant to	be used	when removing some of the last commits
       in the current branch while keeping changes in the working tree.	If
       there could be conflicts	between	the changes in the commit we want to
       remove and the changes in the working tree we want to keep, the reset
       is disallowed. That's why it is disallowed if there are both changes
       between the working tree	and HEAD, and between HEAD and the target. To
       be safe,	it is also disallowed when there are unmerged entries.

       The following tables show what happens when there are unmerged entries:

	   working index HEAD target	     working index HEAD
	    X	    U	  A    B     --soft  (disallowed)
				     --mixed  X	      B	    B
				     --hard   B	      B	    B
				     --merge  B	      B	    B
				     --keep  (disallowed)

	   working index HEAD target	     working index HEAD
	    X	    U	  A    A     --soft  (disallowed)
				     --mixed  X	      A	    A
				     --hard   A	      A	    A
				     --merge  A	      A	    A
				     --keep  (disallowed)

       X means any state and U means an	unmerged index.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.30.1			  02/08/2021			  GIT-RESET(1)


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