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       gitattributes - Defining	attributes per path

       $GIT_DIR/info/attributes, .gitattributes

       A gitattributes file is a simple	text file that gives attributes	to

       Each line in gitattributes file is of form:

	   pattern attr1 attr2 ...

       That is,	a pattern followed by an attributes list, separated by
       whitespaces. Leading and	trailing whitespaces are ignored. Lines	that
       begin with # are	ignored. Patterns that begin with a double quote are
       quoted in C style. When the pattern matches the path in question, the
       attributes listed on the	line are given to the path.

       Each attribute can be in	one of these states for	a given	path:

	   The path has	the attribute with special value "true"; this is
	   specified by	listing	only the name of the attribute in the
	   attribute list.

	   The path has	the attribute with special value "false"; this is
	   specified by	listing	the name of the	attribute prefixed with	a dash
	   - in	the attribute list.

       Set to a	value
	   The path has	the attribute with specified string value; this	is
	   specified by	listing	the name of the	attribute followed by an equal
	   sign	= and its value	in the attribute list.

	   No pattern matches the path,	and nothing says if the	path has or
	   does	not have the attribute,	the attribute for the path is said to
	   be Unspecified.

       When more than one pattern matches the path, a later line overrides an
       earlier line. This overriding is	done per attribute.

       The rules by which the pattern matches paths are	the same as in
       .gitignore files	(see gitignore(5)), with a few exceptions:

       o   negative patterns are forbidden

       o   patterns that match a directory do not recursively match paths
	   inside that directory (so using the trailing-slash path/ syntax is
	   pointless in	an attributes file; use	path/**	instead)

       When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, Git consults
       $GIT_DIR/info/attributes	file (which has	the highest precedence),
       .gitattributes file in the same directory as the	path in	question, and
       its parent directories up to the	toplevel of the	work tree (the further
       the directory that contains .gitattributes is from the path in
       question, the lower its precedence). Finally global and system-wide
       files are considered (they have the lowest precedence).

       When the	.gitattributes file is missing from the	work tree, the path in
       the index is used as a fall-back. During	checkout process,
       .gitattributes in the index is used and then the	file in	the working
       tree is used as a fall-back.

       If you wish to affect only a single repository (i.e., to	assign
       attributes to files that	are particular to one user's workflow for that
       repository), then attributes should be placed in	the
       $GIT_DIR/info/attributes	file. Attributes which should be
       version-controlled and distributed to other repositories	(i.e.,
       attributes of interest to all users) should go into .gitattributes
       files. Attributes that should affect all	repositories for a single user
       should be placed	in a file specified by the core.attributesFile
       configuration option (see git-config(1)). Its default value is
       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/attributes.	If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set
       or empty, $HOME/.config/git/attributes is used instead. Attributes for
       all users on a system should be placed in the
       $(prefix)/etc/gitattributes file.

       Sometimes you would need	to override a setting of an attribute for a
       path to Unspecified state. This can be done by listing the name of the
       attribute prefixed with an exclamation point !.

       Certain operations by Git can be	influenced by assigning	particular
       attributes to a path. Currently,	the following operations are

   Checking-out	and checking-in
       These attributes	affect how the contents	stored in the repository are
       copied to the working tree files	when commands such as git switch, git
       checkout	and git	merge run. They	also affect how	Git stores the
       contents	you prepare in the working tree	in the repository upon git add
       and git commit.

	   This	attribute enables and controls end-of-line normalization. When
	   a text file is normalized, its line endings are converted to	LF in
	   the repository. To control what line	ending style is	used in	the
	   working directory, use the eol attribute for	a single file and the
	   core.eol configuration variable for all text	files. Note that
	   setting core.autocrlf to true or input overrides core.eol (see the
	   definitions of those	options	in git-config(1)).

	       Setting the text	attribute on a path enables end-of-line
	       normalization and marks the path	as a text file.	End-of-line
	       conversion takes	place without guessing the content type.

	       Unsetting the text attribute on a path tells Git	not to attempt
	       any end-of-line conversion upon checkin or checkout.

	   Set to string value "auto"
	       When text is set	to "auto", the path is marked for automatic
	       end-of-line conversion. If Git decides that the content is
	       text, its line endings are converted to LF on checkin. When the
	       file has	been committed with CRLF, no conversion	is done.

	       If the text attribute is	unspecified, Git uses the
	       core.autocrlf configuration variable to determine if the	file
	       should be converted.

	   Any other value causes Git to act as	if text	has been left

	   This	attribute sets a specific line-ending style to be used in the
	   working directory. It enables end-of-line conversion	without	any
	   content checks, effectively setting the text	attribute. Note	that
	   setting this	attribute on paths which are in	the index with CRLF
	   line	endings	may make the paths to be considered dirty. Adding the
	   path	to the index again will	normalize the line endings in the

	   Set to string value "crlf"
	       This setting forces Git to normalize line endings for this file
	       on checkin and convert them to CRLF when	the file is checked

	   Set to string value "lf"
	       This setting forces Git to normalize line endings to LF on
	       checkin and prevents conversion to CRLF when the	file is
	       checked out.

       Backwards compatibility with crlf attribute
	   For backwards compatibility,	the crlf attribute is interpreted as

	       crlf	       text
	       -crlf	       -text
	       crlf=input      eol=lf

       End-of-line conversion
	   While Git normally leaves file contents alone, it can be configured
	   to normalize	line endings to	LF in the repository and, optionally,
	   to convert them to CRLF when	files are checked out.

	   If you simply want to have CRLF line	endings	in your	working
	   directory regardless	of the repository you are working with,	you
	   can set the config variable "core.autocrlf" without using any

		       autocrlf	= true

	   This	does not force normalization of	text files, but	does ensure
	   that	text files that	you introduce to the repository	have their
	   line	endings	normalized to LF when they are added, and that files
	   that	are already normalized in the repository stay normalized.

	   If you want to ensure that text files that any contributor
	   introduces to the repository	have their line	endings	normalized,
	   you can set the text	attribute to "auto" for	all files.

	       *       text=auto

	   The attributes allow	a fine-grained control,	how the	line endings
	   are converted. Here is an example that will make Git	normalize
	   .txt, .vcproj and .sh files,	ensure that .vcproj files have CRLF
	   and .sh files have LF in the	working	directory, and prevent .jpg
	   files from being normalized regardless of their content.

	       *	       text=auto
	       *.txt	       text
	       *.vcproj	       text eol=crlf
	       *.sh	       text eol=lf
	       *.jpg	       -text

	       When text=auto conversion is enabled in a cross-platform
	       project using push and pull to a	central	repository the text
	       files containing	CRLFs should be	normalized.

	   From	a clean	working	directory:

	       $ echo "* text=auto" >.gitattributes
	       $ git add --renormalize .
	       $ git status	   # Show files	that will be normalized
	       $ git commit -m "Introduce end-of-line normalization"

	   If any files	that should not	be normalized show up in git status,
	   unset their text attribute before running git add -u.

	       manual.pdf      -text

	   Conversely, text files that Git does	not detect can have
	   normalization enabled manually.

	       weirdchars.txt  text

	   If core.safecrlf is set to "true" or	"warn",	Git verifies if	the
	   conversion is reversible for	the current setting of core.autocrlf.
	   For "true", Git rejects irreversible	conversions; for "warn", Git
	   only	prints a warning but accepts an	irreversible conversion. The
	   safety triggers to prevent such a conversion	done to	the files in
	   the work tree, but there are	a few exceptions. Even though...

	   o   git add itself does not touch the files in the work tree, the
	       next checkout would, so the safety triggers;

	   o   git apply to update a text file with a patch does touch the
	       files in	the work tree, but the operation is about text files
	       and CRLF	conversion is about fixing the line ending
	       inconsistencies,	so the safety does not trigger;

	   o   git diff	itself does not	touch the files	in the work tree, it
	       is often	run to inspect the changes you intend to next git add.
	       To catch	potential problems early, safety triggers.

	   Git recognizes files	encoded	in ASCII or one	of its supersets (e.g.
	   UTF-8, ISO-8859-1, ...) as text files. Files	encoded	in certain
	   other encodings (e.g. UTF-16) are interpreted as binary and
	   consequently	built-in Git text processing tools (e.g. git diff) as
	   well	as most	Git web	front ends do not visualize the	contents of
	   these files by default.

	   In these cases you can tell Git the encoding	of a file in the
	   working directory with the working-tree-encoding attribute. If a
	   file	with this attribute is added to	Git, then Git re-encodes the
	   content from	the specified encoding to UTF-8. Finally, Git stores
	   the UTF-8 encoded content in	its internal data structure (called
	   "the	index"). On checkout the content is re-encoded back to the
	   specified encoding.

	   Please note that using the working-tree-encoding attribute may have
	   a number of pitfalls:

	   o   Alternative Git implementations (e.g. JGit or libgit2) and
	       older Git versions (as of March 2018) do	not support the
	       working-tree-encoding attribute.	If you decide to use the
	       working-tree-encoding attribute in your repository, then	it is
	       strongly	recommended to ensure that all clients working with
	       the repository support it.

	       For example, Microsoft Visual Studio resources files (*.rc) or
	       PowerShell script files (*.ps1) are sometimes encoded in
	       UTF-16. If you declare *.ps1 as files as	UTF-16 and you add
	       foo.ps1 with a working-tree-encoding enabled Git	client,	then
	       foo.ps1 will be stored as UTF-8 internally. A client without
	       working-tree-encoding support will checkout foo.ps1 as UTF-8
	       encoded file. This will typically cause trouble for the users
	       of this file.

	       If a Git	client that does not support the working-tree-encoding
	       attribute adds a	new file bar.ps1, then bar.ps1 will be stored
	       "as-is" internally (in this example probably as UTF-16).	A
	       client with working-tree-encoding support will interpret	the
	       internal	contents as UTF-8 and try to convert it	to UTF-16 on
	       checkout. That operation	will fail and cause an error.

	   o   Reencoding content to non-UTF encodings can cause errors	as the
	       conversion might	not be UTF-8 round trip	safe. If you suspect
	       your encoding to	not be round trip safe,	then add it to
	       core.checkRoundtripEncoding to make Git check the round trip
	       encoding	(see git-config(1)). SHIFT-JIS (Japanese character
	       set) is known to	have round trip	issues with UTF-8 and is
	       checked by default.

	   o   Reencoding content requires resources that might	slow down
	       certain Git operations (e.g git checkout	or git add).

	   Use the working-tree-encoding attribute only	if you cannot store a
	   file	in UTF-8 encoding and if you want Git to be able to process
	   the content as text.

	   As an example, use the following attributes if your *.ps1 files are
	   UTF-16 encoded with byte order mark (BOM) and you want Git to
	   perform automatic line ending conversion based on your platform.

	       *.ps1	       text working-tree-encoding=UTF-16

	   Use the following attributes	if your	*.ps1 files are	UTF-16 little
	   endian encoded without BOM and you want Git to use Windows line
	   endings in the working directory (use UTF-16LE-BOM instead of
	   UTF-16LE if you want	UTF-16 little endian with BOM).	Please note,
	   it is highly	recommended to explicitly define the line endings with
	   eol if the working-tree-encoding attribute is used to avoid

	       *.ps1	       text working-tree-encoding=UTF-16LE eol=CRLF

	   You can get a list of all available encodings on your platform with
	   the following command:

	       iconv --list

	   If you do not know the encoding of a	file, then you can use the
	   file	command	to guess the encoding:

	       file foo.ps1

	   When	the attribute ident is set for a path, Git replaces $Id$ in
	   the blob object with	$Id:, followed by the 40-character hexadecimal
	   blob	object name, followed by a dollar sign $ upon checkout.	Any
	   byte	sequence that begins with $Id: and ends	with $ in the worktree
	   file	is replaced with $Id$ upon check-in.

	   A filter attribute can be set to a string value that	names a	filter
	   driver specified in the configuration.

	   A filter driver consists of a clean command and a smudge command,
	   either of which can be left unspecified. Upon checkout, when	the
	   smudge command is specified,	the command is fed the blob object
	   from	its standard input, and	its standard output is used to update
	   the worktree	file. Similarly, the clean command is used to convert
	   the contents	of worktree file upon checkin. By default these
	   commands process only a single blob and terminate. If a long
	   running process filter is used in place of clean and/or smudge
	   filters, then Git can process all blobs with	a single filter
	   command invocation for the entire life of a single Git command, for
	   example git add --all. If a long running process filter is
	   configured then it always takes precedence over a configured	single
	   blob	filter.	See section below for the description of the protocol
	   used	to communicate with a process filter.

	   One use of the content filtering is to massage the content into a
	   shape that is more convenient for the platform, filesystem, and the
	   user	to use.	For this mode of operation, the	key phrase here	is
	   "more convenient" and not "turning something	unusable into usable".
	   In other words, the intent is that if someone unsets	the filter
	   driver definition, or does not have the appropriate filter program,
	   the project should still be usable.

	   Another use of the content filtering	is to store the	content	that
	   cannot be directly used in the repository (e.g. a UUID that refers
	   to the true content stored outside Git, or an encrypted content)
	   and turn it into a usable form upon checkout	(e.g. download the
	   external content, or	decrypt	the encrypted content).

	   These two filters behave differently, and by	default, a filter is
	   taken as the	former,	massaging the contents into more convenient
	   shape. A missing filter driver definition in	the config, or a
	   filter driver that exits with a non-zero status, is not an error
	   but makes the filter	a no-op	passthru.

	   You can declare that	a filter turns a content that by itself	is
	   unusable into a usable content by setting the
	   filter.<driver>.required configuration variable to true.

	   Note: Whenever the clean filter is changed, the repo	should be
	   renormalized: $ git add --renormalize .

	   For example,	in .gitattributes, you would assign the	filter
	   attribute for paths.

	       *.c     filter=indent

	   Then	you would define a "filter.indent.clean" and
	   "filter.indent.smudge" configuration	in your	.git/config to specify
	   a pair of commands to modify	the contents of	C programs when	the
	   source files	are checked in ("clean"	is run)	and checked out	(no
	   change is made because the command is "cat").

	       [filter "indent"]
		       clean = indent
		       smudge =	cat

	   For best results, clean should not alter its	output further if it
	   is run twice	("clean->clean"	should be equivalent to	"clean"), and
	   multiple smudge commands should not alter clean's output
	   ("smudge->smudge->clean" should be equivalent to "clean"). See the
	   section on merging below.

	   The "indent"	filter is well-behaved in this regard: it will not
	   modify input	that is	already	correctly indented. In this case, the
	   lack	of a smudge filter means that the clean	filter must accept its
	   own output without modifying	it.

	   If a	filter must succeed in order to	make the stored	contents
	   usable, you can declare that	the filter is required,	in the

	       [filter "crypt"]
		       clean = openssl enc ...
		       smudge =	openssl	enc -d ...

	   Sequence "%f" on the	filter command line is replaced	with the name
	   of the file the filter is working on. A filter might	use this in
	   keyword substitution. For example:

	       [filter "p4"]
		       clean = git-p4-filter --clean %f
		       smudge =	git-p4-filter --smudge %f

	   Note	that "%f" is the name of the path that is being	worked on.
	   Depending on	the version that is being filtered, the	corresponding
	   file	on disk	may not	exist, or may have different contents. So,
	   smudge and clean commands should not	try to access the file on
	   disk, but only act as filters on the	content	provided to them on
	   standard input.

       Long Running Filter Process
	   If the filter command (a string value) is defined via
	   filter.<driver>.process then	Git can	process	all blobs with a
	   single filter invocation for	the entire life	of a single Git
	   command. This is achieved by	using the long-running process
	   protocol (described in

	   When	Git encounters the first file that needs to be cleaned or
	   smudged, it starts the filter and performs the handshake. In	the
	   handshake, the welcome message sent by Git is "git-filter-client",
	   only	version	2 is supported,	and the	supported capabilities are
	   "clean", "smudge", and "delay".

	   Afterwards Git sends	a list of "key=value" pairs terminated with a
	   flush packet. The list will contain at least	the filter command
	   (based on the supported capabilities) and the pathname of the file
	   to filter relative to the repository	root. Right after the flush
	   packet Git sends the	content	split in zero or more pkt-line packets
	   and a flush packet to terminate content. Please note, that the
	   filter must not send	any response before it received	the content
	   and the final flush packet. Also note that the "value" of a
	   "key=value" pair can	contain	the "="	character whereas the key
	   would never contain that character.

	       packet:		git> command=smudge
	       packet:		git> pathname=path/testfile.dat
	       packet:		git> 0000
	       packet:		git> CONTENT
	       packet:		git> 0000

	   The filter is expected to respond with a list of "key=value"	pairs
	   terminated with a flush packet. If the filter does not experience
	   problems then the list must contain a "success" status. Right after
	   these packets the filter is expected	to send	the content in zero or
	   more	pkt-line packets and a flush packet at the end.	Finally, a
	   second list of "key=value" pairs terminated with a flush packet is
	   expected. The filter	can change the status in the second list or
	   keep	the status as is with an empty list. Please note that the
	   empty list must be terminated with a	flush packet regardless.

	       packet:		git< status=success
	       packet:		git< 0000
	       packet:		git< SMUDGED_CONTENT
	       packet:		git< 0000
	       packet:		git< 0000  # empty list, keep "status=success" unchanged!

	   If the result content is empty then the filter is expected to
	   respond with	a "success" status and a flush packet to signal	the
	   empty content.

	       packet:		git< status=success
	       packet:		git< 0000
	       packet:		git< 0000  # empty content!
	       packet:		git< 0000  # empty list, keep "status=success" unchanged!

	   In case the filter cannot or	does not want to process the content,
	   it is expected to respond with an "error" status.

	       packet:		git< status=error
	       packet:		git< 0000

	   If the filter experiences an	error during processing, then it can
	   send	the status "error" after the content was (partially or
	   completely) sent.

	       packet:		git< status=success
	       packet:		git< 0000
	       packet:		git< 0000
	       packet:		git< status=error
	       packet:		git< 0000

	   In case the filter cannot or	does not want to process the content
	   as well as any future content for the lifetime of the Git process,
	   then	it is expected to respond with an "abort" status at any	point
	   in the protocol.

	       packet:		git< status=abort
	       packet:		git< 0000

	   Git neither stops nor restarts the filter process in	case the
	   "error"/"abort" status is set. However, Git sets its	exit code
	   according to	the filter.<driver>.required flag, mimicking the
	   behavior of the filter.<driver>.clean / filter.<driver>.smudge

	   If the filter dies during the communication or does not adhere to
	   the protocol	then Git will stop the filter process and restart it
	   with	the next file that needs to be processed. Depending on the
	   filter.<driver>.required flag Git will interpret that as error.

	   If the filter supports the "delay" capability, then Git can send
	   the flag "can-delay"	after the filter command and pathname. This
	   flag	denotes	that the filter	can delay filtering the	current	blob
	   (e.g. to compensate network latencies) by responding	with no
	   content but with the	status "delayed" and a flush packet.

	       packet:		git> command=smudge
	       packet:		git> pathname=path/testfile.dat
	       packet:		git> can-delay=1
	       packet:		git> 0000
	       packet:		git> CONTENT
	       packet:		git> 0000
	       packet:		git< status=delayed
	       packet:		git< 0000

	   If the filter supports the "delay" capability then it must support
	   the "list_available_blobs" command. If Git sends this command, then
	   the filter is expected to return a list of pathnames	representing
	   blobs that have been	delayed	earlier	and are	now available. The
	   list	must be	terminated with	a flush	packet followed	by a "success"
	   status that is also terminated with a flush packet. If no blobs for
	   the delayed paths are available, yet, then the filter is expected
	   to block the	response until at least	one blob becomes available.
	   The filter can tell Git that	it has no more delayed blobs by
	   sending an empty list. As soon as the filter	responds with an empty
	   list, Git stops asking. All blobs that Git has not received at this
	   point are considered	missing	and will result	in an error.

	       packet:		git> command=list_available_blobs
	       packet:		git> 0000
	       packet:		git< pathname=path/testfile.dat
	       packet:		git< pathname=path/otherfile.dat
	       packet:		git< 0000
	       packet:		git< status=success
	       packet:		git< 0000

	   After Git received the pathnames, it	will request the corresponding
	   blobs again.	These requests contain a pathname and an empty content
	   section. The	filter is expected to respond with the smudged content
	   in the usual	way as explained above.

	       packet:		git> command=smudge
	       packet:		git> pathname=path/testfile.dat
	       packet:		git> 0000
	       packet:		git> 0000  # empty content!
	       packet:		git< status=success
	       packet:		git< 0000
	       packet:		git< SMUDGED_CONTENT
	       packet:		git< 0000
	       packet:		git< 0000  # empty list, keep "status=success" unchanged!

	   A long running filter demo implementation can be found in
	   contrib/long-running-filter/ located in the Git core
	   repository. If you develop your own long running filter process
	   then	the GIT_TRACE_PACKET environment variables can be very helpful
	   for debugging (see git(1)).

	   Please note that you	cannot use an existing filter.<driver>.clean
	   or filter.<driver>.smudge command with filter.<driver>.process
	   because the former two use a	different inter	process	communication
	   protocol than the latter one.

       Interaction between checkin/checkout attributes
	   In the check-in codepath, the worktree file is first	converted with
	   filter driver (if specified and corresponding driver	defined), then
	   the result is processed with	ident (if specified), and then finally
	   with	text (again, if	specified and applicable).

	   In the check-out codepath, the blob content is first	converted with
	   text, and then ident	and fed	to filter.

       Merging branches	with differing checkin/checkout	attributes
	   If you have added attributes	to a file that cause the canonical
	   repository format for that file to change, such as adding a
	   clean/smudge	filter or text/eol/ident attributes, merging anything
	   where the attribute is not in place would normally cause merge

	   To prevent these unnecessary	merge conflicts, Git can be told to
	   run a virtual check-out and check-in	of all three stages of a file
	   when	resolving a three-way merge by setting the merge.renormalize
	   configuration variable. This	prevents changes caused	by check-in
	   conversion from causing spurious merge conflicts when a converted
	   file	is merged with an unconverted file.

	   As long as a	"smudge->clean"	results	in the same output as a
	   "clean" even	on files that are already smudged, this	strategy will
	   automatically resolve all filter-related conflicts. Filters that do
	   not act in this way may cause additional merge conflicts that must
	   be resolved manually.

   Generating diff text
	   The attribute diff affects how Git generates	diffs for particular
	   files. It can tell Git whether to generate a	textual	patch for the
	   path	or to treat the	path as	a binary file. It can also affect what
	   line	is shown on the	hunk header @@ -k,l +n,m @@ line, tell Git to
	   use an external command to generate the diff, or ask	Git to convert
	   binary files	to a text format before	generating the diff.

	       A path to which the diff	attribute is set is treated as text,
	       even when they contain byte values that normally	never appear
	       in text files, such as NUL.

	       A path to which the diff	attribute is unset will	generate
	       Binary files differ (or a binary	patch, if binary patches are

	       A path to which the diff	attribute is unspecified first gets
	       its contents inspected, and if it looks like text and is
	       smaller than core.bigFileThreshold, it is treated as text.
	       Otherwise it would generate Binary files	differ.

	       Diff is shown using the specified diff driver. Each driver may
	       specify one or more options, as described in the	following
	       section.	The options for	the diff driver	"foo" are defined by
	       the configuration variables in the "" section of	the
	       Git config file.

       Defining	an external diff driver
	   The definition of a diff driver is done in gitconfig, not
	   gitattributes file, so strictly speaking this manual	page is	a
	   wrong place to talk about it. However...

	   To define an	external diff driver jcdiff, add a section to your
	   $GIT_DIR/config file	(or $HOME/.gitconfig file) like	this:

	       [diff "jcdiff"]
		       command = j-c-diff

	   When	Git needs to show you a	diff for the path with diff attribute
	   set to jcdiff, it calls the command you specified with the above
	   configuration, i.e. j-c-diff, with 7	parameters, just like
	   GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF program is	called.	See git(1) for details.

       Defining	a custom hunk-header
	   Each	group of changes (called a "hunk") in the textual diff output
	   is prefixed with a line of the form:

	       @@ -k,l +n,m @@ TEXT

	   This	is called a hunk header. The "TEXT" portion is by default a
	   line	that begins with an alphabet, an underscore or a dollar	sign;
	   this	matches	what GNU diff -p output	uses. This default selection
	   however is not suited for some contents, and	you can	use a
	   customized pattern to make a	selection.

	   First, in .gitattributes, you would assign the diff attribute for

	       *.tex   diff=tex

	   Then, you would define a "diff.tex.xfuncname" configuration to
	   specify a regular expression	that matches a line that you would
	   want	to appear as the hunk header "TEXT". Add a section to your
	   $GIT_DIR/config file	(or $HOME/.gitconfig file) like	this:

	       [diff "tex"]
		       xfuncname = "^(\\\\(sub)*section\\{.*)$"

	   Note. A single level	of backslashes are eaten by the	configuration
	   file	parser,	so you would need to double the	backslashes; the
	   pattern above picks a line that begins with a backslash, and	zero
	   or more occurrences of sub followed by section followed by open
	   brace, to the end of	line.

	   There are a few built-in patterns to	make this easier, and tex is
	   one of them,	so you do not have to write the	above in your
	   configuration file (you still need to enable	this with the
	   attribute mechanism,	via .gitattributes). The following built in
	   patterns are	available:

	   o   ada suitable for	source code in the Ada language.

	   o   bash suitable for source	code in	the Bourne-Again SHell
	       language. Covers	a superset of POSIX shell function

	   o   bibtex suitable for files with BibTeX coded references.

	   o   cpp suitable for	source code in the C and C++ languages.

	   o   csharp suitable for source code in the C# language.

	   o   css suitable for	cascading style	sheets.

	   o   dts suitable for	devicetree (DTS) files.

	   o   elixir suitable for source code in the Elixir language.

	   o   fortran suitable	for source code	in the Fortran language.

	   o   fountain	suitable for Fountain documents.

	   o   golang suitable for source code in the Go language.

	   o   html suitable for HTML/XHTML documents.

	   o   java suitable for source	code in	the Java language.

	   o   markdown	suitable for Markdown documents.

	   o   matlab suitable for source code in the MATLAB and Octave

	   o   objc suitable for source	code in	the Objective-C	language.

	   o   pascal suitable for source code in the Pascal/Delphi language.

	   o   perl suitable for source	code in	the Perl language.

	   o   php suitable for	source code in the PHP language.

	   o   python suitable for source code in the Python language.

	   o   ruby suitable for source	code in	the Ruby language.

	   o   rust suitable for source	code in	the Rust language.

	   o   tex suitable for	source code for	LaTeX documents.

       Customizing word	diff
	   You can customize the rules that git	diff --word-diff uses to split
	   words in a line, by specifying an appropriate regular expression in
	   the "diff.*.wordRegex" configuration	variable. For example, in TeX
	   a backslash followed	by a sequence of letters forms a command, but
	   several such	commands can be	run together without intervening
	   whitespace. To separate them, use a regular expression in your
	   $GIT_DIR/config file	(or $HOME/.gitconfig file) like	this:

	       [diff "tex"]
		       wordRegex = "\\\\[a-zA-Z]+|[{}]|\\\\.|[^\\{}[:space:]]+"

	   A built-in pattern is provided for all languages listed in the
	   previous section.

       Performing text diffs of	binary files
	   Sometimes it	is desirable to	see the	diff of	a text-converted
	   version of some binary files. For example, a	word processor
	   document can	be converted to	an ASCII text representation, and the
	   diff	of the text shown. Even	though this conversion loses some
	   information,	the resulting diff is useful for human viewing (but
	   cannot be applied directly).

	   The textconv	config option is used to define	a program for
	   performing such a conversion. The program should take a single
	   argument, the name of a file	to convert, and	produce	the resulting
	   text	on stdout.

	   For example,	to show	the diff of the	exif information of a file
	   instead of the binary information (assuming you have	the exif tool
	   installed), add the following section to your $GIT_DIR/config file
	   (or $HOME/.gitconfig	file):

	       [diff "jpg"]
		       textconv	= exif

	       The text	conversion is generally	a one-way conversion; in this
	       example,	we lose	the actual image contents and focus just on
	       the text	data. This means that diffs generated by textconv are
	       not suitable for	applying. For this reason, only	git diff and
	       the git log family of commands (i.e., log, whatchanged, show)
	       will perform text conversion. git format-patch will never
	       generate	this output. If	you want to send somebody a
	       text-converted diff of a	binary file (e.g., because it quickly
	       conveys the changes you have made), you should generate it
	       separately and send it as a comment in addition to the usual
	       binary diff that	you might send.

	   Because text	conversion can be slow,	especially when	doing a	large
	   number of them with git log -p, Git provides	a mechanism to cache
	   the output and use it in future diffs. To enable caching, set the
	   "cachetextconv" variable in your diff driver's config. For example:

	       [diff "jpg"]
		       textconv	= exif
		       cachetextconv = true

	   This	will cache the result of running "exif"	on each	blob
	   indefinitely. If you	change the textconv config variable for	a diff
	   driver, Git will automatically invalidate the cache entries and
	   re-run the textconv filter. If you want to invalidate the cache
	   manually (e.g., because your	version	of "exif" was updated and now
	   produces better output), you	can remove the cache manually with git
	   update-ref -d refs/notes/textconv/jpg (where	"jpg" is the name of
	   the diff driver, as in the example above).

       Choosing	textconv versus	external diff
	   If you want to show differences between binary or
	   specially-formatted blobs in	your repository, you can choose	to use
	   either an external diff command, or to use textconv to convert them
	   to a	diff-able text format. Which method you	choose depends on your
	   exact situation.

	   The advantage of using an external diff command is flexibility. You
	   are not bound to find line-oriented changes,	nor is it necessary
	   for the output to resemble unified diff. You	are free to locate and
	   report changes in the most appropriate way for your data format.

	   A textconv, by comparison, is much more limiting. You provide a
	   transformation of the data into a line-oriented text	format,	and
	   Git uses its	regular	diff tools to generate the output. There are
	   several advantages to choosing this method:

	    1. Ease of use. It is often	much simpler to	write a	binary to text
	       transformation than it is to perform your own diff. In many
	       cases, existing programs	can be used as textconv	filters	(e.g.,
	       exif, odt2txt).

	    2. Git diff	features. By performing	only the transformation	step
	       yourself, you can still utilize many of Git's diff features,
	       including colorization, word-diff, and combined diffs for

	    3. Caching.	Textconv caching can speed up repeated diffs, such as
	       those you might trigger by running git log -p.

       Marking files as	binary
	   Git usually guesses correctly whether a blob	contains text or
	   binary data by examining the	beginning of the contents. However,
	   sometimes you may want to override its decision, either because a
	   blob	contains binary	data later in the file,	or because the
	   content, while technically composed of text characters, is opaque
	   to a	human reader. For example, many	postscript files contain only
	   ASCII characters, but produce noisy and meaningless diffs.

	   The simplest	way to mark a file as binary is	to unset the diff
	   attribute in	the .gitattributes file:

	       *.ps -diff

	   This	will cause Git to generate Binary files	differ (or a binary
	   patch, if binary patches are	enabled) instead of a regular diff.

	   However, one	may also want to specify other diff driver attributes.
	   For example,	you might want to use textconv to convert postscript
	   files to an ASCII representation for	human viewing, but otherwise
	   treat them as binary	files. You cannot specify both -diff and
	   diff=ps attributes. The solution is to use the diff.*.binary	config

	       [diff "ps"]
		 textconv = ps2ascii
		 binary	= true

   Performing a	three-way merge
	   The attribute merge affects how three versions of a file are	merged
	   when	a file-level merge is necessary	during git merge, and other
	   commands such as git	revert and git cherry-pick.

	       Built-in	3-way merge driver is used to merge the	contents in a
	       way similar to merge command of RCS suite. This is suitable for
	       ordinary	text files.

	       Take the	version	from the current branch	as the tentative merge
	       result, and declare that	the merge has conflicts. This is
	       suitable	for binary files that do not have a well-defined merge

	       By default, this	uses the same built-in 3-way merge driver as
	       is the case when	the merge attribute is set. However, the
	       merge.default configuration variable can	name different merge
	       driver to be used with paths for	which the merge	attribute is

	       3-way merge is performed	using the specified custom merge
	       driver. The built-in 3-way merge	driver can be explicitly
	       specified by asking for "text" driver; the built-in "take the
	       current branch" driver can be requested with "binary".

       Built-in	merge drivers
	   There are a few built-in low-level merge drivers defined that can
	   be asked for	via the	merge attribute.

	       Usual 3-way file	level merge for	text files. Conflicted regions
	       are marked with conflict	markers	<<<<<<<, ======= and >>>>>>>.
	       The version from	your branch appears before the ======= marker,
	       and the version from the	merged branch appears after the
	       ======= marker.

	       Keep the	version	from your branch in the	work tree, but leave
	       the path	in the conflicted state	for the	user to	sort out.

	       Run 3-way file level merge for text files, but take lines from
	       both versions, instead of leaving conflict markers. This	tends
	       to leave	the added lines	in the resulting file in random	order
	       and the user should verify the result. Do not use this if you
	       do not understand the implications.

       Defining	a custom merge driver
	   The definition of a merge driver is done in the .git/config file,
	   not in the gitattributes file, so strictly speaking this manual
	   page	is a wrong place to talk about it. However...

	   To define a custom merge driver filfre, add a section to your
	   $GIT_DIR/config file	(or $HOME/.gitconfig file) like	this:

	       [merge "filfre"]
		       name = feel-free	merge driver
		       driver =	filfre %O %A %B	%L %P
		       recursive = binary

	   The merge.*.name variable gives the driver a	human-readable name.

	   The `merge.*.driver`	variable's value is used to construct a
	   command to run to merge ancestor's version (%O), current version
	   (%A)	and the	other branches'	version	(%B). These three tokens are
	   replaced with the names of temporary	files that hold	the contents
	   of these versions when the command line is built. Additionally, %L
	   will	be replaced with the conflict marker size (see below).

	   The merge driver is expected	to leave the result of the merge in
	   the file named with %A by overwriting it, and exit with zero	status
	   if it managed to merge them cleanly,	or non-zero if there were

	   The merge.*.recursive variable specifies what other merge driver to
	   use when the	merge driver is	called for an internal merge between
	   common ancestors, when there	are more than one. When	left
	   unspecified,	the driver itself is used for both internal merge and
	   the final merge.

	   The merge driver can	learn the pathname in which the	merged result
	   will	be stored via placeholder %P.

	   This	attribute controls the length of conflict markers left in the
	   work	tree file during a conflicted merge. Only setting to the value
	   to a	positive integer has any meaningful effect.

	   For example,	this line in .gitattributes can	be used	to tell	the
	   merge machinery to leave much longer	(instead of the	usual
	   7-character-long) conflict markers when merging the file
	   Documentation/git-merge.txt results in a conflict.

	       Documentation/git-merge.txt     conflict-marker-size=32

   Checking whitespace errors
	   The core.whitespace configuration variable allows you to define
	   what	diff and apply should consider whitespace errors for all paths
	   in the project (See git-config(1)). This attribute gives you	finer
	   control per path.

	       Notice all types	of potential whitespace	errors known to	Git.
	       The tab width is	taken from the value of	the core.whitespace
	       configuration variable.

	       Do not notice anything as error.

	       Use the value of	the core.whitespace configuration variable to
	       decide what to notice as	error.

	       Specify a comma separate	list of	common whitespace problems to
	       notice in the same format as the	core.whitespace	configuration

   Creating an archive
	   Files and directories with the attribute export-ignore won't	be
	   added to archive files.

	   If the attribute export-subst is set	for a file then	Git will
	   expand several placeholders when adding this	file to	an archive.
	   The expansion depends on the	availability of	a commit ID, i.e., if
	   git-archive(1) has been given a tree	instead	of a commit or a tag
	   then	no replacement will be done. The placeholders are the same as
	   those for the option	--pretty=format: of git-log(1),	except that
	   they	need to	be wrapped like	this: $Format:PLACEHOLDERS$ in the
	   file. E.g. the string $Format:%H$ will be replaced by the commit

   Packing objects
	   Delta compression will not be attempted for blobs for paths with
	   the attribute delta set to false.

   Viewing files in GUI	tools
	   The value of	this attribute specifies the character encoding	that
	   should be used by GUI tools (e.g. gitk(1) and git-gui(1)) to
	   display the contents	of the relevant	file. Note that	due to
	   performance considerations gitk(1) does not use this	attribute
	   unless you manually enable per-file encodings in its	options.

	   If this attribute is	not set	or has an invalid value, the value of
	   the gui.encoding configuration variable is used instead (See	git-

       You do not want any end-of-line conversions applied to, nor textual
       diffs produced for, any binary file you track. You would	need to
       specify e.g.

	   *.jpg -text -diff

       but that	may become cumbersome, when you	have many attributes. Using
       macro attributes, you can define	an attribute that, when	set, also sets
       or unsets a number of other attributes at the same time.	The system
       knows a built-in	macro attribute, binary:

	   *.jpg binary

       Setting the "binary" attribute also unsets the "text" and "diff"
       attributes as above. Note that macro attributes can only	be "Set",
       though setting one might	have the effect	of setting or unsetting	other
       attributes or even returning other attributes to	the "Unspecified"

       Custom macro attributes can be defined only in top-level	gitattributes
       files ($GIT_DIR/info/attributes,	the .gitattributes file	at the top
       level of	the working tree, or the global	or system-wide gitattributes
       files), not in .gitattributes files in working tree subdirectories. The
       built-in	macro attribute	"binary" is equivalent to:

	   [attr]binary	-diff -merge -text

       If you have these three gitattributes file:

	   (in $GIT_DIR/info/attributes)

	   a*	   foo !bar -baz

	   (in .gitattributes)
	   abc	   foo bar baz

	   (in t/.gitattributes)
	   ab*	   merge=filfre
	   abc	   -foo	-bar
	   *.c	   frotz

       the attributes given to path t/abc are computed as follows:

	1. By examining	t/.gitattributes (which	is in the same directory as
	   the path in question), Git finds that the first line	matches.
	   merge attribute is set. It also finds that the second line matches,
	   and attributes foo and bar are unset.

	2. Then	it examines .gitattributes (which is in	the parent directory),
	   and finds that the first line matches, but t/.gitattributes file
	   already decided how merge, foo and bar attributes should be given
	   to this path, so it leaves foo and bar unset. Attribute baz is set.

	3. Finally it examines $GIT_DIR/info/attributes. This file is used to
	   override the	in-tree	settings. The first line is a match, and foo
	   is set, bar is reverted to unspecified state, and baz is unset.

       As the result, the attributes assignment	to t/abc becomes:

	   foo	   set to true
	   bar	   unspecified
	   baz	   set to false
	   merge   set to string value "filfre"
	   frotz   unspecified


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.30.1			  02/08/2021		      GITATTRIBUTES(5)


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