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GITREVISIONS(7)			  Git Manual		       GITREVISIONS(7)

       gitrevisions - Specifying revisions and ranges for Git


       Many Git	commands take revision parameters as arguments.	Depending on
       the command, they denote	a specific commit or, for commands which walk
       the revision graph (such	as git-log(1)),	all commits which are
       reachable from that commit. For commands	that walk the revision graph
       one can also specify a range of revisions explicitly.

       In addition, some Git commands (such as git-show(1) and git-push(1))
       can also	take revision parameters which denote other objects than
       commits,	e.g. blobs ("files") or	trees ("directories of files").

       A revision parameter _rev_ typically, but not necessarily, names	a
       commit object. It uses what is called an	extended SHA-1 syntax. Here
       are various ways	to spell object	names. The ones	listed near the	end of
       this list name trees and	blobs contained	in a commit.

	   This	document shows the "raw" syntax	as seen	by git.	The shell and
	   other UIs might require additional quoting to protect special
	   characters and to avoid word	splitting.

       _sha1_, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
	   The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
	   leading substring that is unique within the repository. E.g.
	   dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and	dae86e both name the
	   same	commit object if there is no other object in your repository
	   whose object	name starts with dae86e.

       _describeOutput_, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
	   Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed
	   by a	dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an
	   abbreviated object name.

       _refname_, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
	   A symbolic ref name.	E.g.  master typically means the commit	object
	   referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both
	   heads/master	and tags/master, you can explicitly say	heads/master
	   to tell Git which one you mean. When	ambiguous, a _refname_ is
	   disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:

	    1. If $GIT_DIR/_refname_ exists, that is what you mean (this is
	       usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD, MERGE_HEAD
	       and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);

	    2. otherwise, refs/_refname_ if it exists;

	    3. otherwise, refs/tags/_refname_ if it exists;

	    4. otherwise, refs/heads/_refname_ if it exists;

	    5. otherwise, refs/remotes/_refname_ if it exists;

	    6. otherwise, refs/remotes/_refname_/HEAD if it exists.

	       HEAD names the commit on	which you based	the changes in the
	       working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched
	       from a remote repository	with your last git fetch invocation.
	       ORIG_HEAD is created by commands	that move your HEAD in a
	       drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their
	       operation, so that you can easily change	the tip	of the branch
	       back to the state before	you ran	them.  MERGE_HEAD records the
	       commit(s) which you are merging into your branch	when you run
	       git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the	commit which you are
	       cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.

	       Note that any of	the refs/* cases above may come	either from
	       the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs
	       file. While the ref name	encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is
	       preferred as some output	processing may assume ref names	in

	   @ alone is a	shortcut for HEAD.

       [_refname_]@{_date_}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
	   A ref followed by the suffix	@ with a date specification enclosed
	   in a	brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month	2 weeks	3 days 1 hour
	   1 second ago} or {1979-02-26	18:30:00}) specifies the value of the
	   ref at a prior point	in time. This suffix may only be used
	   immediately following a ref name and	the ref	must have an existing
	   log ($GIT_DIR/logs/_ref_). Note that	this looks up the state	of
	   your	local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local	master
	   branch last week. If	you want to look at commits made during
	   certain times, see --since and --until.

       _refname_@{_n_},	e.g. master@{1}
	   A ref followed by the suffix	@ with an ordinal specification
	   enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1},	{15}) specifies	the n-th prior
	   value of that ref. For example master@{1} is	the immediate prior
	   value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master.
	   This	suffix may only	be used	immediately following a	ref name and
	   the ref must	have an	existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/_refname_).

       @{_n_}, e.g. @{1}
	   You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at	a
	   reflog entry	of the current branch. For example, if you are on
	   branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.

       @{-_n_},	e.g. @{-1}
	   The construct @{-_n_} means the <n>th branch/commit checked out
	   before the current one.

       [_branchname_]@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
	   The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form
	   _branchname_@{u}) refers to the branch that the branch specified by
	   branchname is set to	build on top of	(configured with
	   branch.<name>.remote	and branch.<name>.merge). A missing branchname
	   defaults to the current one.	These suffixes are also	accepted when
	   spelled in uppercase, and they mean the same	thing no matter	the

       [_branchname_]@{push}, e.g. master@{push}, @{push}
	   The suffix @{push} reports the branch "where	we would push to" if
	   git push were run while branchname was checked out (or the current
	   HEAD	if no branchname is specified).	Since our push destination is
	   in a	remote repository, of course, we report	the local tracking
	   branch that corresponds to that branch (i.e., something in

	   Here's an example to	make it	more clear:

	       $ git config push.default current
	       $ git config remote.pushdefault myfork
	       $ git switch -c mybranch	origin/master

	       $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{upstream}

	       $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{push}

	   Note	in the example that we set up a	triangular workflow, where we
	   pull	from one location and push to another. In a non-triangular
	   workflow, @{push} is	the same as @{upstream}, and there is no need
	   for it.

	   This	suffix is also accepted	when spelled in	uppercase, and means
	   the same thing no matter the	case.

       _rev_^[_n_], e.g. HEAD^,	v1.5.1^0
	   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the	first parent of	that
	   commit object.  ^_n_	means the <n>th	parent (i.e.  _rev_^ is
	   equivalent to _rev_^1). As a	special	rule, _rev_^0 means the	commit
	   itself and is used when _rev_ is the	object name of a tag object
	   that	refers to a commit object.

       _rev_~[_n_], e.g. HEAD~,	master~3
	   A suffix ~ to a revision parameter means the	first parent of	that
	   commit object. A suffix ~_n_	to a revision parameter	means the
	   commit object that is the <n>th generation ancestor of the named
	   commit object, following only the first parents. I.e.  _rev_~3 is
	   equivalent to _rev_^^^ which	is equivalent to _rev_^1^1^1. See
	   below for an	illustration of	the usage of this form.

       _rev_^{_type_}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
	   A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace	pair
	   means dereference the object	at _rev_ recursively until an object
	   of type _type_ is found or the object cannot	be dereferenced
	   anymore (in which case, barf). For example, if _rev_	is a
	   commit-ish, _rev_^{commit} describes	the corresponding commit
	   object. Similarly, if _rev_ is a tree-ish, _rev_^{tree} describes
	   the corresponding tree object.  _rev_^0 is a	short-hand for

	   _rev_^{object} can be used to make sure _rev_ names an object that
	   exists, without requiring _rev_ to be a tag,	and without
	   dereferencing _rev_;	because	a tag is already an object, it does
	   not have to be dereferenced even once to get	to an object.

	   _rev_^{tag} can be used to ensure that _rev_	identifies an existing
	   tag object.

       _rev_^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
	   A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the	object could
	   be a	tag, and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag
	   object is found.

       _rev_^{/_text_},	e.g. HEAD^{/fix	nasty bug}
	   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed	by a brace pair	that
	   contains a text led by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty bug
	   syntax below	except that it returns the youngest matching commit
	   which is reachable from the _rev_ before ^.

       :/_text_, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
	   A colon, followed by	a slash, followed by a text, names a commit
	   whose commit	message	matches	the specified regular expression. This
	   name	returns	the youngest matching commit which is reachable	from
	   any ref, including HEAD. The	regular	expression can match any part
	   of the commit message. To match messages starting with a string,
	   one can use e.g.  :/^foo. The special sequence :/!  is reserved for
	   modifiers to	what is	matched.  :/!-foo performs a negative match,
	   while :/!!foo matches a literal !  character, followed by foo. Any
	   other sequence beginning with :/!  is reserved for now. Depending
	   on the given	text, the shell's word splitting rules might require
	   additional quoting.

       _rev_:_path_, e.g. HEAD:README, master:./README
	   A suffix : followed by a path names the blob	or tree	at the given
	   path	in the tree-ish	object named by	the part before	the colon. A
	   path	starting with ./ or ../	is relative to the current working
	   directory. The given	path will be converted to be relative to the
	   working tree's root directory. This is most useful to address a
	   blob	or tree	from a commit or tree that has the same	tree structure
	   as the working tree.

       :[_n_:]_path_, e.g. :0:README, :README
	   A colon, optionally followed	by a stage number (0 to	3) and a
	   colon, followed by a	path, names a blob object in the index at the
	   given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows it)
	   names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage	1 is the common
	   ancestor, stage 2 is	the target branch's version (typically the
	   current branch), and	stage 3	is the version from the	branch which
	   is being merged.

       Here is an illustration,	by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are
       parents of commit node A. Parent	commits	are ordered left-to-right.

	   G   H   I   J
	    \ /	    \ /
	     D	 E   F
	      \	 |  / \
	       \ | /   |
		\|/    |
		 B     C
		  \   /
		   \ /

	   A =	    = A^0
	   B = A^   = A^1     =	A~1
	   C =	    = A^2
	   D = A^^  = A^1^1   =	A~2
	   E = B^2  = A^^2
	   F = B^3  = A^^3
	   G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 =	A~3
	   H = D^2  = B^^2    =	A^^^2  = A~2^2
	   I = F^   = B^3^    =	A^^3^
	   J = F^2  = B^3^2   =	A^^3^2

       History traversing commands such	as git log operate on a	set of
       commits,	not just a single commit.

       For these commands, specifying a	single revision, using the notation
       described in the	previous section, means	the set	of commits reachable
       from the	given commit.

       A commit's reachable set	is the commit itself and the commits in	its
       ancestry	chain.

   Commit Exclusions
       ^_rev_ (caret) Notation
	   To exclude commits reachable	from a commit, a prefix	^ notation is
	   used. E.g.  ^r1 r2 means commits reachable from r2 but exclude the
	   ones	reachable from r1 (i.e.	 r1 and	its ancestors).

   Dotted Range	Notations
       The .. (two-dot)	Range Notation
	   The ^r1 r2 set operation appears so often that there	is a shorthand
	   for it. When	you have two commits r1	and r2 (named according	to the
	   syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you	can ask	for
	   commits that	are reachable from r2 excluding	those that are
	   reachable from r1 by	^r1 r2 and it can be written as	r1..r2.

       The ... (three-dot) Symmetric Difference	Notation
	   A similar notation r1...r2 is called	symmetric difference of	r1 and
	   r2 and is defined as	r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It
	   is the set of commits that are reachable from either	one of r1
	   (left side) or r2 (right side) but not from both.

       In these	two shorthand notations, you can omit one end and let it
       default to HEAD.	For example, origin.. is a shorthand for origin..HEAD
       and asks	"What did I do since I forked from the origin branch?"
       Similarly, ..origin is a	shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks "What did
       the origin do since I forked from them?"	Note that .. would mean
       HEAD..HEAD which	is an empty range that is both reachable and
       unreachable from	HEAD.

   Other <rev>^	Parent Shorthand Notations
       Three other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
       for naming a set	that is	formed by a commit and its parent commits.

       The r1^@	notation means all parents of r1.

       The r1^!	notation includes commit r1 but	excludes all of	its parents.
       By itself, this notation	denotes	the single commit r1.

       The _rev_^-[_n_]	notation includes _rev_	but excludes the <n>th parent
       (i.e. a shorthand for _rev_^_n_.._rev_),	with _n_ = 1 if	not given.
       This is typically useful	for merge commits where	you can	just pass
       _commit_^- to get all the commits in the	branch that was	merged in
       merge commit _commit_ (including	_commit_ itself).

       While _rev_^_n_ was about specifying a single commit parent, these
       three notations also consider its parents. For example you can say
       HEAD^2^@, however you cannot say	HEAD^@^2.

	   Include commits that	are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its

	   Exclude commits that	are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its

	   Include commits that	are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those
	   that	are reachable from <rev1>. When	either <rev1> or <rev2>	is
	   omitted, it defaults	to HEAD.

	   Include commits that	are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2> but
	   exclude those that are reachable from both. When either <rev1> or
	   <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       _rev_^@,	e.g. HEAD^@
	   A suffix ^ followed by an at	sign is	the same as listing all
	   parents of _rev_ (meaning, include anything reachable from its
	   parents, but	not the	commit itself).

       _rev_^!,	e.g. HEAD^!
	   A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving
	   commit _rev_	and then all its parents prefixed with ^ to exclude
	   them	(and their ancestors).

       _rev_^-_n_, e.g.	HEAD^-,	HEAD^-2
	   Equivalent to _rev_^_n_.._rev_, with	_n_ = 1	if not given.

       Here are	a handful of examples using the	Loeliger illustration above,
       with each step in the notation's	expansion and selection	carefully
       spelt out:

	      Args   Expanded arguments	   Selected commits
	      D				   G H D
	      D	F			   G H I J D F
	      ^G D			   H D
	      ^D B			   E I J F B
	      ^D B C			   E I J F B C
	      C				   I J F C
	      B..C   = ^B C		   C
	      B...C  = B ^F C		   G H D E B C
	      B^-    = B^..B
		     = ^B^1 B		   E I J F B
	      C^@    = C^1
		     = F		   I J F
	      B^@    = B^1 B^2 B^3
		     = D E F		   D G H E F I J
	      C^!    = C ^C^@
		     = C ^C^1
		     = C ^F		   C
	      B^!    = B ^B^@
		     = B ^B^1 ^B^2 ^B^3
		     = B ^D ^E ^F	   B
	      F^! D  = F ^I ^J D	   G H D F


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.28.0			  07/26/2020		       GITREVISIONS(7)


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