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GROFF(1)		    General Commands Manual		      GROFF(1)

       groff - front-end for the groff document	formatting system

       groff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir]	[-I dir]
	     [-L arg] [-m name]	[-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P	arg] [-r cn]
	     [-T dev] [-w name]	[-W name] [file	...]
       groff -h	| --help
       groff -v	| --version [option ...]

       The  command line is parsed according to	the usual GNU convention.  The
       whitespace between a command line option	and its	argument is  optional.
       Options can be grouped behind a single -	(minus character).  A filename
       of - (minus character) denotes the standard input.

       This document describes the groff program, the main front-end  for  the
       groff document formatting system.  The groff program and	macro suite is
       the implementation of a roff(7) system within the free software collec-
       tion  GNU  <>.	  The groff system has all features of
       the classical roff, but adds many extensions.

       The groff program allows	to control the whole groff system  by  command
       line  options.	This  is  a  great simplification in comparison	to the
       classical case (which uses pipes	only).

       As groff	is a wrapper program for troff both programs share  a  set  of
       options.	 But the groff program has some	additional, native options and
       gives a new meaning to some troff options.  On the other	hand, not  all
       troff options can be fed	into groff.

   Native groff	Options
       The  following options either do	not exist for troff or are differently
       interpreted by groff.

       -e     Preprocess with eqn.

       -g     Preprocess with grn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.

       -h --help
	      Print a help message.

       -I dir This option may be used to specify a  directory  to  search  for
	      files  (both  those on the command line and those	named in .psbb
	      and .so requests,	and \X'ps: import' and \X'ps: file'  escapes).
	      The current directory is always searched first.  This option may
	      be specified more	than once; the directories will	be searched in
	      the order	specified.  No directory search	is performed for files
	      specified	using an absolute path.	 This option  implies  the  -s

       -l     Send  the	output to a spooler program for	printing.  The command
	      that should be used for this is specified	by the	print  command
	      in the device description	file, see groff_font(5).  If this com-
	      mand is not present, the output is piped into the	lpr(1) program
	      by default.  See options -L and -X.

       -L arg Pass  arg	 to  the spooler program.  Several arguments should be
	      passed with a separate -L	option each.  Note that	groff does not
	      prepend -	(a minus sign) to arg before passing it	to the spooler

       -N     Don't allow newlines within eqn delimiters.  This	is the same as
	      the -N option in eqn.

       -p     Preprocess with pic.

       -P -option
       -P -option -P arg
	      Pass  -option  or	 -option arg to	the postprocessor.  The	option
	      must be specified	with the necessary preceding minus sign(s) `-'
	      or `--' because groff does not prepend any dashes	before passing
	      it to the	postprocessor.	For example, to	pass a	title  to  the
	      gxditview	postprocessor, the shell command

	      sh# groff	-X -P -title -P	'groff it' foo

	      is equivalent to

	      sh# groff	-X -Z foo | gxditview -title 'groff it'	-

       -R     Preprocess with refer.  No mechanism is provided for passing ar-
	      guments to refer because most refer options have equivalent lan-
	      guage  elements  that can	be specified within the	document.  See
	      refer(1) for more	details.

       -s     Preprocess with soelim.

       -S     Safer mode.  Pass	the -S option to pic and disable the following
	      troff requests: .open, .opena, .pso, .sy,	and .pi.  For security
	      reasons, safer mode is enabled by	default.

       -t     Preprocess with tbl.

       -T dev Set output device	to dev.	 For this device, troff	generates  the
	      intermediate output; see groff_out(5).  Then groff calls a post-
	      processor	to convert troff's intermediate	output	to  its	 final
	      format.  Real devices in groff are

		     dvi    TeX	DVI format (postprocessor is grodvi).

		     html   HTML   output   (preprocessors   are   soelim  and
			    pre-grohtml, postprocessor is post-grohtml).

		     lbp    Canon CAPSL	printers (LBP-4	and LBP-8 series laser
			    printers; postprocessor is grolbp).

		     lj4    HP LaserJet4 compatible (or	other PCL5 compatible)
			    printers (postprocessor is grolj4).

		     ps	    PostScript output (postprocessor is	grops).

	      For the following	TTY output devices  (postprocessor  is	always
	      grotty), -T selects the output encoding:

		     ascii  7bit ASCII.

		     cp1047 Latin-1 character set for EBCDIC hosts.

		     latin1 ISO	8859-1.

		     utf8   Unicode character set in UTF-8 encoding.

	      The  following arguments select gxditview	as the `postprocessor'
	      (it is rather a viewing program):

		     X75    75dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

		     X75-12 75dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

		     X100   100dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

			    100dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

	      The default device is ps.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the (old) unsafe	behaviour; see	option

       -v --version
	      Output version information of groff and of all programs that are
	      run by it; that is, the given command line is parsed in the usu-
	      al way, passing -v to all	subprograms.

       -V     Output  the  pipeline  that  would be run	by groff (as a wrapper
	      program) on the standard output, but do not execute it.  If giv-
	      en  more	than  once,  the  commands will	be both	printed	on the
	      standard error and run.

       -X     Use gxditview  instead  of  using	 the  usual  postprocessor  to
	      (pre)view	a document.  The printing spooler behavior as outlined
	      with options -l and -L is	carried	over to	gxditview(1) by	deter-
	      mining an	argument for the -printCommand option of gxditview(1).
	      This sets	the default Print action and  the  corresponding  menu
	      entry  to	 that value.  -X only produces good results with -Tps,
	      -TX75, -TX75-12, -TX100, and -TX100-12.  The default  resolution
	      for  previewing  -Tps  output  is	 75dpi;	this can be changed by
	      passing the -resolution option to	gxditview, for example

	      sh# groff	-X -P-resolution -P100 -man foo.1

       -z     Suppress output generated	by troff.  Only	error messages will be

       -Z     Print  the  groff	 intermediate  output  to standard output; see
	      groff_out(5).  Normally groff calls automatically	a  postproces-
	      sor.   With this option, the output of troff for the device, the
	      so-called	intermediate output is issued without postprocessing.

   Transparent Options
       The following options are transparently handed over  to	the  formatter
       program	troff that is called by	groff subsequently.  These options are
       described in more detail	in troff(1).

       -a     ascii approximation of output.

       -b     backtrace	on error or warning.

       -c     disable color output.  Please consult the	grotty(1) man page for
	      more details.

       -C     enable compatibility mode.

       -d cs
       -d name=s
	      define string.

       -E     disable troff error messages.

       -f fam set default font family.

       -F dir set path for font	DESC files.

       -i     process standard input after the specified input files.

       -m name
	      include	macro	file   name.tmac   (or;  see  also

       -M dir path for macro files.

       -n num number the first page num.

       -o list
	      output only pages	in list.

       -r cn
       -r name=n
	      set number register.

       -w name
	      enable warning name.

       -W name
	      disable warning name.

       The groff system	implements the infrastructure of classical  roff;  see
       roff(7) for a survey on how a roff system works in general.  Due	to the
       front-end programs available within the groff system,  using  groff  is
       much easier than	classical roff.	 This section gives an overview	of the
       parts that constitute the groff system.	It  complements	 roff(7)  with
       groff-specific  features.   This	 section can be	regarded as a guide to
       the documentation around	the groff system.

   Paper Size
       The virtual paper size used by troff to format the input	is  controlled
       globally	 with  the  requests .po, .pl, and .ll.	 See groff_tmac(5) for
       the `papersize' macro package which provides a convenient interface.

       The physical paper size,	giving the  actual  dimensions	of  the	 paper
       sheets,	is  controlled	by  output devices like	grops with the command
       line options -p and -l.	See groff_font(5) and the  man	pages  of  the
       output devices for more details.	 groff uses the	command	line option -P
       to pass options to output devices; for example, the  following  selects
       A4 paper	in landscape orientation for the PS device:

	      groff -Tps -P-pa4	-P-l ...

       The  groff program is a wrapper around the troff(1) program.  It	allows
       to specify the preprocessors by command line options and	 automatically
       runs  the  postprocessor	 that  is appropriate for the selected device.
       Doing so, the sometimes tedious piping mechanism	of  classical  roff(7)
       can be avoided.

       The  grog(1) program can	be used	for guessing the correct groff command
       line to format a	file.

       The groffer(1) program is an allround-viewer for	groff  files  and  man

       The  groff  preprocessors  are  reimplementations of the	classical pre-
       processors with moderate	 extensions.   The  preprocessors  distributed
       with the	groff package are

       eqn(1) for mathematical formulae,

       grn(1) for including gremlin(1) pictures,

       pic(1) for drawing diagrams,

	      for bibliographic	references,

	      for including macro files	from standard locations,


       tbl(1) for tables.

       Besides these, there are	some internal preprocessors that are automati-
       cally run with some devices.  These aren't visible to the user.

   Macro Packages
       Macro packages can be included by option	-m.  The groff	system	imple-
       ments  and extends all classical	macro packages in a compatible way and
       adds some packages of its own.  Actually, the following macro  packages
       come with groff:

       man    The  traditional	man  page format; see groff_man(7).  It	can be
	      specified	on the command line as -man or -m man.

       mandoc The general package for man pages; it  automatically  recognizes
	      whether  the  documents  uses  the  man  or  the mdoc format and
	      branches to the corresponding macro package.  It can  be	speci-
	      fied on the command line as -mandoc or -m	mandoc.

       mdoc   The  BSD-style  man  page	 format; see groff_mdoc(7).  It	can be
	      specified	on the command line as -mdoc or	-m mdoc.

       me     The classical me document	format;	see groff_me(7).   It  can  be
	      specified	on the command line as -me or -m me.

       mm     The  classical  mm  document format; see groff_mm(7).  It	can be
	      specified	on the command line as -mm or -m mm.

       ms     The classical ms document	format;	see groff_ms(7).   It  can  be
	      specified	on the command line as -ms or -m ms.

       www    HTML-like	macros for inclusion in	arbitrary groff	documents; see

       Details on the naming of	macro files and	their placement	can  be	 found
       in groff_tmac(5); this man page also documents some other, minor	auxil-
       iary macro packages not mentioned here.

   Programming Language
       General concepts	common to all roff programming languages are described
       in roff(7).

       The  groff extensions to	the classical troff language are documented in

       The groff language as a whole is	described in  the  (still  incomplete)
       groff  info  file;  a  short  (but  complete) reference can be found in

       The central roff	formatter within the groff  system  is	troff(1).   It
       provides	the features of	both the classical troff and nroff, as well as
       the groff extensions.  The command line option -C switches  troff  into
       compatibility  mode  which  tries  to emulate classical roff as much as

       There is	a shell	script nroff(1)	that emulates the behavior of  classi-
       cal  nroff.   It	tries to automatically select the proper output	encod-
       ing, according to the current locale.

       The formatter program generates intermediate output; see	groff_out(7).

       In roff,	the output targets are called devices.	 A  device  can	 be  a
       piece of	hardware, e.g. a printer, or a software	file format.  A	device
       is specified by the option -T.  The groff devices are as	follows.

       ascii  Text output using	the ascii(7) character set.

       cp1047 Text output using	the EBCDIC code	page IBM cp1047	 (e.g.	OS/390

       dvi    TeX DVI format.

       html   HTML output.

       latin1 Text  output  using  the ISO Latin-1 (ISO	8859-1)	character set;
	      see iso_8859_1(7).

       koi8-r Text output using	the Russian KOI8-R character set.

       lbp    Output for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and  LBP-8	 series	 laser

       lj4    HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other	PCL5-compatible) printers.

       ps     PostScript  output;  suitable  for  printers and previewers like

       utf8   Text output using	the Unicode (ISO  10646)  character  set  with
	      UTF-8 encoding; see unicode(7).

       X75    75dpi  X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers
	      xditview(1x) and gxditview(1).  A	variant	for  a	12pt  document
	      base font	is X75-12.

       X100   100dpi  X	 Window	 System	 output	 suitable  for	the previewers
	      xditview(1x) and gxditview(1).  A	variant	for  a	12pt  document
	      base font	is X100-12.

       The  postprocessor  to be used for a device is specified	by the postpro
       command in the device description file; see groff_font(5).  This	can be
       overridden with the -X option.

       The default device is ps.

       groff provides 3	hardware postprocessors:

	      for some Canon printers,

	      for printers compatible to the HP	LaserJet 4 and PCL5,

	      for  text	 output	using various encodings, e.g. on text-oriented
	      terminals	or line-printers.

       Today, most printing or drawing hardware	is handled  by	the  operating
       system, by device drivers, or by	software interfaces, usually accepting
       PostScript.  Consequently, there	isn't an urgent	need for more hardware
       device postprocessors.

       The groff software devices for conversion into other document file for-
       mats are

	      for the DVI format,

	      for HTML format,

	      for PostScript.

       Combined	with the many existing free conversion tools  this  should  be
       sufficient to convert a troff document into virtually any existing data

       The following utility programs around groff are available.

	      Add information to troff font description	 files	for  use  with

	      Create font description files for	PostScript device.

	      General viewer program for groff files and man pages.

	      The groff	X viewer, the GNU version of xditview.

	      Create font description files for	lj4 device.

	      Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.

	      Search bibliographic databases.

	      Interactively search bibliographic databases.

	      Translate	a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII.

	      Create font description files for	TeX DVI	device.

	      roff viewer distributed with X window.

       Normally,  the path separator in	the following environment variables is
       the colon; this may vary	depending on the operating system.  For	 exam-
       ple, DOS	and Windows use	a semicolon instead.

	      This  search  path, followed by $PATH, will be used for commands
	      that are executed	by groff.  If it is not	set then the directory
	      where the	groff binaries were installed is prepended to PATH.

	      When  there  is  a need to run different roff implementations at
	      the same time groff provides the facility	to prepend a prefix to
	      most  of	its  programs that could provoke name clashings	at run
	      time (default is to have none).  Historically, this  prefix  was
	      the  character  g,  but it can be	anything.  For example,	gtroff
	      stood for	groff's	troff, gtbl for	the groff version of tbl.   By
	      setting  GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX to different values, the different
	      roff installations can be	addressed.  More exactly, if it	is set
	      to  prefix  xxx  then groff as a wrapper program will internally
	      call xxxtroff instead of troff.  This also applies to  the  pre-
	      processors  eqn, grn, pic, refer,	tbl, soelim, and to the	utili-
	      ties indxbib and lookbib.	 This feature does not	apply  to  any
	      programs	different  from	the ones above (most notably groff it-
	      self) since they are unique to the groff package.

	      A	list of	directories in which to	search for the devname	direc-
	      tory  in	addition  to  the  default  ones.   See	 troff(1)  and
	      groff_font(5) for	more details.

	      A	list of	directories in which to	search for macro files in  ad-
	      dition   to   the	  default   directories.    See	 troff(1)  and
	      groff_tmac(5) for	more details.

	      The directory in which temporary files will be created.  If this
	      is  not  set but the environment variable	TMPDIR instead,	tempo-
	      rary files will be created in the	directory $TMPDIR.  On	MS-DOS
	      and Windows 32 platforms,	the environment	variables TMP and TEMP
	      (in that	order)	are  searched  also,  after  GROFF_TMPDIR  and
	      TMPDIR.	Otherwise,  temporary  files  will be created in /tmp.
	      The refer(1), groffer(1),	grohtml(1), and	grops(1) commands  use
	      temporary	files.

	      Preset  the default device.  If this is not set the ps device is
	      used as default.	This device name is overwritten	by the	option

       There  are  some	 directories  in  which	groff installs all of its data
       files.  Due to different	installation  habits  on  different  operating
       systems,	 their	locations are not absolutely fixed, but	their function
       is clearly defined and coincides	on all systems.

   groff Macro Directory
       This contains all information related to	 macro	packages.   Note  that
       more  than a single directory is	searched for those files as documented
       in groff_tmac(5).  For the groff	 installation  corresponding  to  this
       document,  it  is located at /usr/share/tmac.  The following files con-
       tained in the groff macro directory have	a special meaning:

	      Initialization file for troff.  This is interpreted by troff be-
	      fore reading the macro sets and any input.

	      Final  startup file for troff, it	is parsed after	all macro sets
	      have been	read.

	      Macro file for macro package name.

   groff Font Directory
       This contains all information related to	 output	 devices.   Note  that
       more than a single directory is searched	for those files; see troff(1).
       For the groff installation corresponding	to this	document, it is	locat-
       ed  at  /usr/share/groff_font.	The  following	files contained	in the
       groff font directory have a special meaning:

	      Device description file for device name, see groff_font(5).

	      Font file	for font F of device name.

       The following example illustrates the power of the groff	program	 as  a
       wrapper around troff.

       To  process  a roff file	using the preprocessors	tbl and	pic and	the me
       macro set, classical troff had to be called by

       sh# pic |	tbl | troff -me	-Tlatin1 | grotty

       Using groff, this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command

       sh# groff -p -t -me -T latin1

       An even easier way to call this is to use grog(1)  to  guess  the  pre-
       processor and macro options and execute the generated command (by using
       backquotes to specify shell command substitution)

       sh# `grog -Tlatin1`

       The simplest way	is to view the contents	in an automated	way by calling

       sh# groffer

       On EBCDIC hosts (e.g. OS/390 Unix), output  devices  ascii  and	latin1
       aren't available.  Similarly, output for	EBCDIC code page cp1047	is not
       available on ASCII based	operating systems.

       Report bugs to  Include a  complete,	self-contained
       example that will allow the bug to be reproduced, and say which version
       of groff	you are	using.

       Information on how to get groff and related information is available at
       the  GNU	 website <>.  The most	recent
       released	version	of groff is available for anonymous ftp	at the groff
       development site	<

       Three groff mailing lists are available:
	      for reporting bugs,
	      for general discussion of	groff,
	      a	read-only list showing logs of commitments to the CVS  reposi-

       Details	on CVS access and much more can	be found in the	file README at
       the top directory of the	groff source package.

       There is	a free implementation of the grap preprocessor,	written	by Ted
       Faber <>.  The	actual version can be found at the
       grap   website	<>.
       This is the only	grap version supported by groff.

       Copyright  (C)  1989,  2002, 2003, 2004,	2005 Free Software Foundation,

       This document is	distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation  License)  version  1.1 or later.  You	should have received a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft	site <>.

       This  document is based on the original groff man page written by James
       Clark <>.	It was rewritten, enhanced, and	put under  the
       FDL  license  by	 Bernd	Warken.	  It  is  maintained by	Werner Lemberg

       groff is	a GNU free software project.  All parts	of the	groff  package
       are  protected  by  GNU copyleft	licenses.  The software	files are dis-
       tributed	under the terms	of the GNU General Public License (GPL), while
       the  documentation  files mostly	use the	GNU Free Documentation License

       The groff info file contains all	information on the groff system	within
       a  single document.  Beneath the	detailed documentation of all aspects,
       it provides examples and	background information.	 See info(1) on	how to
       read it.

       Due  to	its  complex  structure,  the groff system has many man	pages.
       They can	be read	with man(1) or groffer(1).

       Introduction, history and further readings:

       Viewer for groff	files:
	      groffer(1), gxditview(1),	xditview(1x).

       Wrapper programs	for formatters:
	      groff(1),	grog(1).

       Roff preprocessors:
	      eqn(1), grn(1), pic(1), refer(1),	soelim(1), tbl(1), grap(1).

       Roff language with the groff extensions:
	      groff(7),	groff_char(7), groff_diff(7), groff_font(5).

       Roff formatter programs:
	      nroff(1),	troff(1), ditroff(7).

       The    intermediate output language: groff_out(7).

       Postprocessors for the output devices:
	      grodvi(1),  grohtml(1),	grolbp(1),   grolj4(1),	  lj4_font(5),
	      grops(1),	grotty(1).

       Groff macro packages and	macro-specific utilities:
	      groff_tmac(5),	groff_man(7),	 groff_mdoc(7),	  groff_me(7),
	      groff_mm(7),    groff_mmse(7),	groff_mom(7),	  groff_ms(7),
	      groff_www(7), groff_trace(7), mmroff(7).

       The following utilities are available:
	      addftinfo(1),    afmtodit(1),    eqn2graph(1),	grap2graph(1),
	      groffer(1), gxditview(1),	hpftodit(1),  indxbib(1),  lookbib(1),
	      pfbtops(1), pic2graph(1),	tfmtodit(1).

Groff Version 1.19.2		3 December 2012			      GROFF(1)


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