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GROFF_CHAR(7)	       Miscellaneous Information Manual		 GROFF_CHAR(7)

       groff_char - groff character names

       This manual page	lists the standard groff input characters.  The	output
       characters in this document will	look different depending on which out-
       put  device  was	 chosen	 (with option -T for the man(1)	program	or the
       roff formatter).	 Only the characters that are available	for the	device
       that  is	being used to print or view this manual	page will be displayed
       (the device currently used is `ascii').

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit	characters for	direct
       input  and  named  characters  for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms,
       character codes in the range 0 to 127  (decimal)	 represent  the	 usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1)  code  set.
       On EBCDIC platforms, only the code page cp1047 is supported (which con-
       tains the same characters as Latin-1).  It  is  rather  straightforward
       (for the	experienced user) to set up other 8bit encodings like Latin-2;
       since groff will	use Unicode in the next	major version,	no  additional
       encodings are provided.

       All  roff  systems  provide the concept of named	characters.  In	tradi-
       tional roff systems, only names of length 2 were	used, while groff also
       provides	 support for longer names.  It is strongly suggested that only
       named characters	are used for all characters outside of the 7-bit ASCII

       Some  of	the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1)
       also produce single characters; these exist for historical  reasons  or
       are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They include \\, \',
       \`, \-, \., and \e; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of	these different	types of characters can	be tested pos-
       itively with the	.if c conditional.

       In this section,	the characters in groff	are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as	follows.

       Output shows how	the character is printed for the current  device;  al-
	      though  this  can	have quite a different shape on	other devices,
	      it always	represents the same glyph.

       Input name
	      specifies	how the	character is input either directly by a	key on
	      the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Input code
	      applies  to  characters which can	be input with a	single charac-
	      ter, and gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input	 char-
	      acter.  Note that	this code is equivalent	to the lowest 256 Uni-
	      code characters; (including 7-bit	ASCII in the range 0 to	127).

       PostScript name
	      gives the	usual PostScript name of the output character.

   ASCII Characters
       These are the basic characters having 7-bit ASCII code  values.	 These
       are  identical  to  the first 127 characters of the character standards
       ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) and	Unicode	(range C0 Controls and	Basic  Latin).
       To save space, not every	code has an entry in the following because the
       following code ranges are well known.

       0-32   Control characters (print	as themselves).

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       127    Control character	(prints	as itself).

       The remaining ranges constitute the printable,  non-alphanumeric	 ASCII
       characters;  only  these	are listed below.  As can be seen in the table
       below, most of these characters print as	themselves;  the  only	excep-
       tions are the following characters:

       `      the  ISO	Latin-1	 `Grave	 Accent' (code 96) prints as `,	a left
	      single quotation mark,

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right sin-
	      gle quotation mark; the corresponding ISO	Latin-1	characters can
	      be obtained with \` and \(aq.

       -      the ISO Latin-1 `Hyphen, Minus Sign' (code 45) prints as	a  hy-
	      phen; a minus sign can be	obtained with \-.

       ~      the  ISO	Latin-1	 `Tilde' (code 126); a larger glyph can	be ob-
	      tained with \(ti.

       ^      the ISO Latin-1 `Circumflex Accent' (code	94);  a	 larger	 glyph
	      can be obtained with \(ha.

       Output	Input	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	code	name

       !	!	33	exclam
       "	"	34	quotedbl
       #	#	35	numbersign
       $	$	36	dollar
       %	%	37	percent
       &	&	38	ampersand
       '	'	39	quoteright
       (	(	40	parenleft
       )	)	41	parenright
       *	*	42	asterisk
       +	+	43	plus
       ,	,	44	comma
       -	-	45	hyphen
       .	.	46	period
       /	/	47	slash
       :	:	58	colon
       ;	;	59	semicolon
       <	<	60	less
       =	=	61	equal
       >	>	62	greater
       ?	?	63	question
       @	@	64	at
       [	[	91	bracketleft
       \	\	92	backslash
       ]	]	93	bracketright
       ^	^	94	circumflex	 circumflex accent
       _	_	95	underscore
       `	`	96	quoteleft
       {	{	123	braceleft
       |	|	124	bar
       }	}	125	braceright
       ~	~	126	tilde		 tilde accent

   Latin-1 Special Characters
       These  characters  have	character codes	between	128 and	255.  They are
       interpreted as characters according to the  Latin-1  (iso-8859-1)  code
       set,  being identical to	the Unicode range C1 Controls and Latin-1 Sup-

	      the C1 Controls; they print as themselves,  but  the  effect  is
	      mostly undefined.

       160    the  ISO	Latin-1	 no-break space	is mapped to `\	', the escaped
	      space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character	 (prints  as  itself).	 groff
	      never  use  this character for output (thus it is	omitted	in the
	      table below); the	input character	173 is mapped onto \%.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255),	called the Latin-1  Supplement
       in  Unicode,  are  printable  characters	that print as themselves.  Al-
       though they can be specified directly with the keyboard on systems with
       a  Latin-1 code page, it	is better to use their named character equiva-
       lent; see next section.

       Output	Input	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	code	name

       !	!	161	exclamdown	 inverted exclamation mark
       c	c	162	cent
       L	L	163	sterling
       x	x	164	currency
       Y	Y	165	yen
       |	|	166	brokenbar
       <section>	<section>		 167section
       "	"	168	dieresis
       (C)	(C)	169	copyright
       a	a	170	ordfeminine
       <<	<<	171	guillemotleft
       ~	~	172	logicalnot
       _R)	_R)	174	registered
			175	macron
       <degree>	<degree>	176		 degree
       +-	+-	177	plusminus
       ^2	^2	178	twosuperior
       ^3	^3	179	threesuperior
       '	'	180	acute		 acute accent
       <micro>	<micro>	181	mu		 micro sign
       <paragraph>	<paragraph>		 182paragraph
       .	.	183	periodcentered
       ,	,	184	cedilla
       ^1	^1	185	onesuperior
       o	o	186	ordmasculine
       >>	>>	187	guillemotright
       1/4	1/4	188	onequarter
       1/2	1/2	189	onehalf
       3/4	3/4	190	threequarters
       ?	?	191	questiondown
       A	A	192	Agrave
       A	A	193	Aacute
       A	A	194	Acircumflex
       A	A	195	Atilde
       A	A	196	Adieresis
       A	A	197	Aring
       AE	AE	198	AE
       C	C	199	Ccedilla
       E	E	200	Egrave
       E	E	201	Eacute
       E	E	202	Ecircumflex
       E	E	203	Edieresis
       I	I	204	Igrave
       I	I	205	Iacute
       I	I	206	Icircumflex
       I	I	207	Idieresis
       Dh	Dh	208	Eth
       N	N	209	Ntilde
       O	O	210	Ograve
       O	O	211	Oacute
       O	O	212	Ocircumflex
       O	O	213	Otilde
       O	O	214	Odieresis
       x	x	215	multiply
       O	O	216	Oslash
       U	U	217	Ugrave
       U	U	218	Uacute
       U	U	219	Ucircumflex
       U	U	220	Udieresis
       Y	Y	221	Yacute
       Th	Th	222	Thorn
       ss	ss	223	germandbls
       a	a	224	agrave
       a	a	225	aacute
       a	a	226	acircumflex
       a	a	227	atilde
       a	a	228	adieresis
       a	a	229	aring
       ae	ae	230	ae
       c	c	231	ccedilla
       e	e	232	egrave
       e	e	233	eacute
       e	e	234	ecircumflex
       e	e	235	edieresis
       i	i	236	igrave
       i	i	237	iacute
       i	i	238	icircumflex
       i	i	239	idieresis
       dh	dh	240	eth
       n	n	241	ntilde
       o	o	242	ograve
       o	o	243	oacute
       o	o	244	ocircumflex
       o	o	245	otilde
       o	o	246	odieresis
       /	/	247	divide
       o	o	248	oslash
       u	u	249	ugrave
       u	u	250	uacute
       u	u	251	ucircumflex
       u	u	252	udieresis
       y	y	253	yacute
       th	th	254	thorn
       y	y	255	ydieresis

   Named Characters
       The named character idiom is the	standard way to	specify	special	 char-
       acters in roff systems.	They can be embedded into the document text by
       using escape sequences.	groff(7) describes how these escape  sequences
       look.   The  character  names can consist of quite arbitrary characters
       from the	ASCII or Latin-1 code set, not only  alphanumeric  characters.
       Here some examples:

       \c     named  character	having	the name c, which consists of a	single
	      character	(length	1).

       \(ch   named character having the 2-character name ch.

	      named character having the name char_name	(having	length	1,  2,
	      3, ...).

       In  groff,  each	 8bit input character can also referred	to by the con-
       struct \n[charn]	where n	is the decimal code of the character, a	number
       between	0  and 255  without leading zeros.  They are mapped onto glyph
       entities	using the .trin	request.  Moreover, new	character names	can be
       created by the .char request; see groff(7).

       Output	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	name

       Dh	\[-D]	Eth		 Icelandic uppercase eth
       dh	\[Sd]	eth		 Icelandic lowercase eth
       Th	\[TP]	Thorn		 Icelandic uppercase thorn
       th	\[Tp]	thorn		 Icelandic lowercase thorn
       ss	\[ss]	germandbls	 German	sharp s

       ff	\[ff]	ff		 ff ligature
       fi	\[fi]	fi		 fi ligature
       fl	\[fl]	fl		 fl ligature
       ffi	\[Fi]	ffi		 ffi ligature
       ffl	\[Fl]	ffl		 ffl ligature
       AE	\[AE]	AE
       ae	\[ae]	ae
       OE	\[OE]	OE
       oe	\[oe]	oe
       IJ	\[IJ]	IJ		 Dutch IJ ligature
       ij	\[ij]	ij		 Dutch ij ligature
       i	\[.i]	dotlessi	 i without a dot (Turkish)
       j	\[.j]	dotlessj	 j without a dot

       Accented	Characters
       A	\['A]	Aacute
       E	\['E]	Eacute
       I	\['I]	Iacute
       O	\['O]	Oacute
       U	\['U]	Uacute
       Y	\['Y]	Yacute
       a	\['a]	aacute
       e	\['e]	eacute
       i	\['i]	iacute
       o	\['o]	oacute
       u	\['u]	uacute
       y	\['y]	yacute
       A	\[:A]	Adieresis	 A with	umlaut
       E	\[:E]	Edieresis
       I	\[:I]	Idieresis
       O	\[:O]	Odieresis
       U	\[:U]	Udieresis
       a	\[:a]	adieresis
       e	\[:e]	edieresis
       i	\[:i]	idieresis
       o	\[:o]	odieresis
       u	\[:u]	udieresis
       y	\[:y]	ydieresis
       A	\[^A]	Acircumflex
       E	\[^E]	Ecircumflex
       I	\[^I]	Icircumflex
       O	\[^O]	Ocircumflex
       U	\[^U]	Ucircumflex
       a	\[^a]	acircumflex
       e	\[^e]	ecircumflex
       i	\[^i]	icircumflex
       o	\[^o]	ocircumflex
       u	\[^u]	ucircumflex
       A	\[`A]	Agrave
       E	\[`E]	Egrave
       I	\[`I]	Igrave
       O	\[`O]	Ograve
       U	\[`U]	Ugrave
       a	\[`a]	agrave
       e	\[`e]	egrave
       i	\[`i]	igrave
       o	\[`o]	ograve
       u	\[`u]	ugrave
       A	\[~A]	Atilde
       N	\[~N]	Ntilde
       O	\[~O]	Otilde
       a	\[~a]	atilde
       n	\[~n]	ntilde
       o	\[~o]	otilde
       C	\[,C]	Ccedilla
       c	\[,c]	ccedilla
       L	\[/L]	Lslash		 Polish	L with a slash
       l	\[/l]	lslash		 Polish	l with a slash
       O	\[/O]	Oslash		 Scandinavic slashed O
       o	\[/o]	oslash		 Scandinavic slashed o
       A	\[oA]	Aring
       a	\[oa]	aring

       _	\[a"]	hungarumlaut	 Hungarian umlaut
		\[a-]	macron		 macron	or bar accent
       .	\[a.]	dotaccent	 dot accent
       ^	\[a^]	circumflex	 circumflex accent
       '	\[aa]	acute		 acute accent
       `	\[ga]	grave		 grave accent
       `	\[ab]	breve		 breve accent
       ,	\[ac]	cedilla		 cedilla accent
       "	\[ad]	dieresis	 umlaut	or dieresis
       v	\[ah]	caron		 havek accent
       o	\[ao]	ring		 ring or circle	accent
       ~	\[a~]	tilde		 tilde accent
       ,	\[ho]	ogonek		 hook or ogonek	accent
       ^	\[ha]	asciicircum	 ASCII circumflex, hat,	caret
       ~	\[ti]	asciitilde	 ASCII tilde, large tilde

       ,,	\[Bq]	quotedblbase	 low double comma quote
       ,	\[bq]	quotesinglbase	 low single comma quote
       "	\[lq]	quotedblleft
       "	\[rq]	quotedblright
       `	\[oq]	quoteleft	 single	open quote
       '	\[cq]	quoteright	 single	closing	quote (ASCII 39)
       '	\[aq]	quotesingle	 apostrophe quote
       "	\[dq]	quotedbl	 double	quote (ASCII 34)
       <<	\[Fo]	guillemotleft
       >>	\[Fc]	guillemotright
       <	\[fo]	guilsinglleft
       >	\[fc]	guilsinglright

       !	\[r!]	exclamdown
       ?	\[r?]	questiondown
       --	\[em]	emdash		 em dash
       -	\[en]	endash		 en dash
       -	\[hy]	hyphen

       [	\[lB]	bracketleft
       ]	\[rB]	bracketright
       {	\[lC]	braceleft
       }	\[rC]	braceright
       <	\[la]	angleleft	 left angle bracket
       >	\[ra]	angleright	 right angle bracket

       <-	\[<-]	arrowleft
       ->	\[->]	arrowright
       <->	\[<>]	arrowboth	 horizontal double-headed arrow
       v	\[da]	arrowdown
       ^	\[ua]	arrowup
       <=	\[lA]	arrowdblleft
       =>	\[rA]	arrowdblright
       <=>	\[hA]	arrowdblboth	 horizontal double-headed double arrow
       v	\[dA]	arrowdbldown
       ^	\[uA]	arrowdblup
       -	\[an]	arrowhorizex	 horizontal arrow extension

       |	\[or]	bar
       |	\[ba]	bar
       |	\[br]	br		 box rule with traditional troff metrics
       _	\[ru]	ru		 baseline rule
       _	\[ul]	ul		 underline with	traditional troff metrics
       |	\[bv]	bv		 bar vertical
       |	\[bb]	brokenbar
       /	\[sl]	slash
       \	\[rs]	backslash

       Text markers
       O	\[ci]	circle
       o	\[bu]	bullet
       <**>	\[dd]	daggerdbl	 double	dagger sign
       <*>	\[dg]	dagger
       <>	\[lz]	lozenge
       []	\[sq]	square
       <paragraph>     \[ps]		 paragraph
       <section>       \[sc]		 section
       <=	\[lh]	handleft
       =>	\[rh]	handright
       @	\[at]	at
       #	\[sh]	numbersign
       <cr>	\[CR]	carriagereturn	 carriage return symbol

       (C)	\[co]	copyright
       (R)	\[rg]	registered
       tm	\[tm]	trademark

       Currency	symbols
       $	\[Do]	dollar
       c	\[ct]	cent
       EUR	\[eu]			 official Euro symbol
       EUR	\[Eu]	Euro		 font-specific Euro glyph variant
       Y	\[Ye]	yen
       L	\[Po]	sterling	 British currency sign
       x	\[Cs]	currency	 Scandinavian currency sign
       f	\[Fn]	florin		 Dutch currency	sign

       <degree>	\[de]	degree
       <permille>      \[%0]		 perthousandper	thousand, per mille sign
       '	\[fm]	minute		 footmark, prime
       ''	\[sd]	second
       <micro>	\[mc]	mu		 micro sign
       a	\[Of]	ordfeminine
       o	\[Om]	ordmasculine

       Logical Symbols
       ^	\[AN]	logicaland
       v	\[OR]	logicalor
       ~	\[no]	logicalnot
       <there exists>  \[te]		 existentialthere exists, existential quantifier
       <for all>       \[fa]		 universalfor all, universal quantifier
       <such that>     \[st]		 suchthat
       <therefore>     \[3d]		 therefore
       <therefore>     \[tf]		 therefore

       Mathematical Symbols
       1/2	\[12]	onehalf
       1/4	\[14]	onequarter
       3/4	\[34]	threequarters
       ^1	\[S1]	onesuperior
       ^2	\[S2]	twosuperior
       ^3	\[S3]	threesuperior
       +	\[pl]	plusmath	 plus sign in special font
       -	\-	minus		 minus sign from current font
       -+	\[-+]	minusplus
       +-	\[+-]	plusminus
       +-	\[t+-]	plusminus	 text variant of `+-'
       .	\[pc]	periodcentered	 multiplication	dot
       .	\[md]	dotmath
       x	\[mu]	multiply
       x	\[tmu]	multiply	 text variant of `mu'
       x	\[c*]	circlemultiply	 multiply sign in a circle
       +	\[c+]	circleplus	 plus sign in a	circle
       /	\[di]	divide		 division sign
       /	\[tdi]	divide		 text variant of `di'
       /	\[f/]	fraction	 bar for fractions
       *	\[**]	asteriskmath
       <=	\[<=]	lessequal
       >=	\[>=]	greaterequal
       <<	\[<<]			 much less
       >>	\[>>]			 much greater
       !=	\[!=]	notequal
       =	\[eq]	equalmath	 equals	sign in	special	font
       ==	\[==]	equivalence
       =~	\[=~]	congruent
       ~	\[ap]	similar
       ~~	\[~~]	approxequal
       ~=	\[~=]	approxequal
       <proportional to>		 \[pt]proportional
       {}	\[es]	emptyset
       <element	of>    \[mo]		 element
       <not element of>	\[nm]		 notelement
       <not subset>    \[nb]		 notsubset
       <not superset>  \[nc]		 notpropersuperset
       !==	\[ne]	notequivalence
       <proper subset> \[sb]		 propersubset
       <proper superset>		 \[sp]propersuperset
       <subset or equal>		 \[ib]reflexsubset
       <superset or equal>		 \[ip]reflexsuperset
       <intersection>  \[ca]		 intersectionintersection, cap
       <union>	\[cu]	union		 union,	cup
       <angle>	\[/_]	angle
       <perpendicular> \[pp]		 perpendicular
       <integral>      \[is]		 integral
       <sum>	\[sum]	sum
       <product>       \[product]	 product
       <nabla>	\[gr]	gradient
       <_sqrt>	\[sr]	radical		 square	root
		\[rn]			 overline
       <infinity>      \[if]		 infinity
       <Aleph>	\[Ah]	aleph
       <Im>	\[Im]	Ifraktur	 Gothic	I, imaginary
       <Re>	\[Re]	Rfraktur	 Gothic	R, real
       p	\[wp]	weierstrass	 Weierstrass p
       <del>	\[pd]	partialdiff	 partial differentiation sign

       Greek characters
       A	\[*A]	Alpha
       B	\[*B]	Beta
       <Xi>	\[*C]	Xi
       <Delta>	\[*D]	Delta
       E	\[*E]	Epsilon
       <Phi>	\[*F]	Phi
       <Gamma>	\[*G]	Gamma
       <Theta>	\[*H]	Theta
       I	\[*I]	Iota
       K	\[*K]	Kappa
       <Lambda>	\[*L]	Lambda
       M	\[*M]	Mu
       N	\[*N]	Nu
       O	\[*O]	Omicron
       <Pi>	\[*P]	Pi
       <Psi>	\[*Q]	Psi
       P	\[*R]	Rho
       <Sigma>	\[*S]	Sigma
       T	\[*T]	Tau
       Y	\[*U]	Upsilon
       <Omega>	\[*W]	Omega
       X	\[*X]	Chi
       H	\[*Y]	Eta
       Z	\[*Z]	Zeta
       <alpha>	\[*a]	alpha
       <beta>	\[*b]	beta
       <xi>	\[*c]	xi
       <delta>	\[*d]	delta
       <epsilon>       \[*e]		 epsilon
       <phi>	\[*f]	phi
       <phi>	\[+f]	phi1		 variant phi
       <gamma>	\[*g]	gamma
       <theta>	\[*h]	theta
       <theta>	\[+h]	theta1		 variant theta
       <iota>	\[*i]	iota
       <kappa>	\[*k]	kappa
       <lambda>	\[*l]	lambda
       <mu>	\[*m]	mu
       <nu>	\[*n]	nu
       o	\[*o]	omicron
       <pi>	\[*p]	pi
       <pi>	\[+p]	omega1		 variant pi, looking like omega
       <psi>	\[*q]	psi
       <rho>	\[*r]	rho
       <sigma>	\[*s]	sigma
       <tau>	\[*t]	tau
       <upsilon>       \[*u]		 upsilon
       <omega>	\[*w]	omega
       <chi>	\[*x]	chi
       <eta>	\[*y]	eta
       <zeta>	\[*z]	zeta
       <sigma>	\[ts]	sigma1		 terminal sigma

       Card symbols
       C	\[CL]	club		 club suit
       S	\[SP]	spade		 spade suit
       H	\[HE]	heart		 heart suit
       D	\[DI]	diamond		 diamond suit

       Copyright (C) 1989-2000,	2001, 2002 Free	Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is	distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.	 You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft	site <>.

       This document is	part of	groff, the  GNU	 roff  distribution.   It  was
       written	by  James Clark	<> with additions	by Werner Lem-
       berg <> and Bernd Warken <>.

	      the GNU roff formatter.

	      a	short reference	of the groff formatting	language.

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G.	 Keizer,  K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter,	Volume 9, No. 2, Summer	1989

       The Unicode Standard <>

Groff Version 1.18.1	       01 December 2022			 GROFF_CHAR(7)


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