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       growisofs - combined mkisofs frontend/DVD recording program.

       growisofs   [-dry-run]	[-dvd-compat]  [-overburn]  [-speed=1]	-[Z|M]
       /dev/dvd	_mkisofs-options_

       growisofs was originally	designed as a frontend to mkisofs  to  facili-
       tate appending of data to ISO9660 volumes residing on random-access me-
       dia such	as DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, plain files, hard disk partitions. In  the
       course  of development general purpose DVD recording support was	imple-
       mented, and as of now growisofs supports	not only random-access	media,
       but  even  mastering  of	 multisession  DVD  media  such	 as  DVD+R and
       DVD-R/-RW, as well as Blu-ray  Disc.  In	 addition  growisofs  supports
       first-/single-session  recording	 of arbitrary pre-mastered image (for-
       matted as UDF, ISO9660 or any other file	system,	if formatted  at  all)
       to all supported	DVD media types.

       -Z /dev/dvd
	      Burn  an	initial	session	to the selected	device.	A special form
	      of this option is	recognized to support burning of  pre-mastered
	      images. See EXAMPLES section for further details.

       -M /dev/dvd
	      Merge a new session to an	existing one.

	      Print version information	and invoke mkisofs, also with -version

	      Provide maximum  media  compatibility  with  DVD-ROM/-Video.  In
	      write-once  DVD+R	 or DVD-R context this results in unappendable
	      recording	(closed	disk). In DVD+RW context it instructs the log-
	      ical unit	to explicitly burn [otherwise optional]	lead-out.

	      At  dry-run  growisofs  performs all the steps till, but not in-
	      cluding the first	write operation. Most notably check for	"over-
	      burn"  condition is performed, which implies that	mkisofs	is in-
	      voked and	terminated prematurely.

	      Normally single layer DVD	media can accommodate up  to  approxi-
	      mately 4.700.000.000 bytes (in marketing speech 4.7GB). In other
	      words a DVD can contain about 4.377 GiB or 4482 MiB.  Same  kind
	      of   arithmetics	 applies   to	Blu-ray	  Disc	 capacity   of bytes. Anyway, growisofs won't start without this
	      option, if "overburn" condition appears to be unavoidable.

	      An  option  to  control recording	velocity. Most commonly	you'll
	      use -speed=1 with	"no-name"  media,  if  default	speed  setting
	      messes  up  the  media.  Keep in mind that N essentially denotes
	      speed closest to N*1385KBps in DVD or N*4496KBps in Blu-ray Disc
	      case  among  those  offered by unit for currently	mounted	media.
	      The list can be found  in	 dvd+rw-mediainfo  output.  Note  that
	      Blu-ray Disc recordings are commonly performed at	~1/2 of	adver-
	      tised speed, because of defect management	being in effect.

	      More options can be found	in the manpage for mkisofs.

       There  are  several  undocumented   options   commonly	denoted	  with
       -use-the-force-luke prefix. Some	of them	serve debugging	purposes. Some
       require certain knowledge about recording process or even OS kernel in-
       ternals	and  as	being such can induce confusing	behaviour. Some	are to
       be used in very specific	situations better recognized by	front-ends  or
       automated  scripts. Rationale behind leaving these options undocumented
       is that those few users who would actually need to  use	them  directly
       can  as	well  consult  the source code or obtain specific instructions

       When using growisofs you	may not	use the	-o option for an output	 file.
       growisofs dumps the image directly to the media;

       You  don't  have	to specify the -C option to create a higher level ses-
       sion on a multisession disk, growisofs will construct one for you;

       Otherwise everything that applies to [multisession] mastering with  mk-
       isofs  applies  to growisofs as well.  growisofs	needs at least mkisofs
       version 1.14, version  2.0  is  required	 for  multisession  write-once

       Actual  device  names vary from one operating system to another.	We use
       /dev/dvd	as a collective	name or	as symbolic link to the	actual	device
       if  you	wish.  Under  Linux  it	will most likely be an ide-scsi	device
       such as "/dev/scd0." Under NetBSD/OpenBSD it has	to be a	character SCSI
       CD-ROM  device  such as "/dev/rcd0c." Under Solaris it also has to be a
       character  SCSI/ATAPI  CD-ROM  device,  e.g.   "/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2"  or
       "/vol/dev/aliases/cdrom0." And likewise in HP-UX, IRIX and Mac OS X...

       To  master and burn an ISO9660 volume with Joliet and Rock-Ridge	exten-
       sions on	a DVD or Blu-ray Disc:

	    growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -R -J	/some/files

       To append more data to same media:

	    growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J	/more/files

       Make sure to use	the same options for both initial burning and when ap-
       pending data.

       To finalize the multisession DVD	maintaining maximum compatibility:

	    growisofs -M /dev/dvd=/dev/zero

       To use growisofs	to write a pre-mastered	ISO-image to a DVD:

	    growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/dvd=image.iso

       where  image.iso	represents an arbitrary	object in the filesystem, such
       as file,	named pipe or device entry. Nothing is growing here  and  com-
       mand name is not	intuitive in this context.

       If  executed under sudo(8) growisofs refuses to start. This is done for
       the following reason. Naturally growisofs has to	access the data	set to
       be recorded to optical media, either indirectly by letting mkisofs gen-
       erate ISO9660 layout on-the-fly or directly if a	pre-mastered image  is
       to  be  recorded.  Being	 executed under	sudo(8), growisofs effectively
       grants sudoers read access to any file in the file system.  The	situa-
       tion  is	intensified by the fact	that growisofs parses MKISOFS environ-
       ment variable in	order to determine alternative path  to	 mkisofs  exe-
       cutable	image. This means that being executed under sudo(8), growisofs
       effectively grants sudoers right	to execute  program  of	 their	choice
       with  elevated  privileges.  If you for any reason still	find the above
       acceptable and are willing to take the consequences, then consider run-
       ning following wrapper script under sudo(8) in place for	real growisofs

	    unset SUDO_COMMAND
	    export MKISOFS=/path/to/trusted/mkisofs
	    exec growisofs "$@"

       But note	that the recommended alternative to the	above "workaround"  is
       actually	 to install growisofs set-root-uid, in which case it will drop
       privileges prior	accessing data or executing mkisofs in order  to  pre-
       clude unauthorized access to the	data.

       If the media already carries isofs and growisofs	is invoked with	-Z op-
       tion non-interactively, e.g. through cron, it shall fail	 with  "FATAL:
       /dev/dvd	 already carries isofs!" Note that only	ISO9660	is recognized,
       you can perfectly zap e.g. an UDF filesystem non-interactively.	Recom-
       mendation  is to	prepare	media for unattended usage by re-formatting or
       nullifying first	64KB in	advance.

       "Overburn" protection in	pre-mastered image  context  works  only  with
       plain  files  and ISO9660 formatted volumes. E.g. [given	that /dev/root
       is an ext2 formatted file system	larger than 4.7GB]  /dev/dvd=/dev/root
       is bound	to produce corrupted recording.

       Note that DVD+RW	re-formatting procedure	does not substitute for	blank-
       ing. If you want	to nullify the media, e.g. for privacy reasons,	do  it
       explicitly with 'growisofs -Z /dev/dvd=/dev/zero'.

       Playback	 of  re-writable  DVD  media, both DVD+RW and DVD-RW, might be
       limited in legacy DVD-ROM/-Video	units. In most cases this  is  due  to
       lower reflectivity of such media.

       Even  though growisofs supports it, playback of multisession write-once
       DVD might be limited to the first session for two reasons:

       o      not all DVD-ROM players are capable of multi-border DVD-R	 play-
	      back,  even less are aware of DVD+R multisessioning, burner unit
	      therefore	might be the only one in your vicinity capable of  ac-
	      cessing files written at different occasions;

       o      OS might fail to mount multisession DVD for various reasons;

       The  above  is  not  applicable to DVD+RW, DVD-RW Restricted Overwrite,
       DVD-RAM or Blu-ray Disc,	as volumes are grown within a single session.

       When growisofs "runs into" blank	Blu-ray	Disc media, BD-RE or BD-R,  it
       gets pre-formatted with minimal spare area size of 256MB.

       Most   up-to-date   information	 on   dvd+rw-tools   is	 available  at

       The manpage for mkisofs.

       Andy Polyakov <> stands for programming and on-line

       This  manpage  is  currently  maintained	 by Huub Reuver	<h_reuver@man->.

       growisofs is distributed	under GNU GPL.

growisofs 7.1			  1 Mar	2008			 GROWISOFS(1m)


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