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GS(1)				  Ghostscript				 GS(1)

       gs  -  Ghostscript  (PostScript	and  PDF language interpreter and pre-

       gs [ options ] [	files ]	... (Unix, VMS)
       gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gswin32c	[ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gs386 [ options ] [ files ] ... (DOS for	PC)
       gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)

       The gs (gswin32,	gswin32c, gs386, gsos2)	command	 invokes  Ghostscript,
       an  interpreter	of Adobe Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document
       Format (PDF) languages.	gs reads "files" in sequence and executes them
       as Ghostscript programs.	 After doing this, it reads further input from
       the standard input stream (normally the	keyboard),  interpreting  each
       line  separately.   The interpreter quits gracefully when it encounters
       the "quit" command (either in a file or from the	keyboard), at  end-of-
       file, or	at an interrupt	signal (such as	Control-C at the keyboard).

       The  interpreter	recognizes several switches described below, which may
       appear anywhere in the command line and apply to	all files  thereafter.
       Invoking	 Ghostscript with the -h or -? switch produces a message which
       shows several useful switches, all  the	devices	 known	to  that  exe-
       cutable,	and the	search path for	fonts; on Unix it also shows the loca-
       tion of detailed	documentation.

       Ghostscript may be built	able to	use many different output devices.  To
       see  which  devices  your  executable can use, run "gs -h".  Unless you
       specify a particular device, Ghostscript	normally opens the  first  one
       of  those  and directs output to	it, so if the first one	in the list is
       the one you want	to use,	just issue the command


       You can also check the set of  available	 devices  from	within	Ghost-
       script: invoke Ghostscript and type

	    devicenames	==

       but  the	 first device on the resulting list may	not be the default de-
       vice you	determine with "gs -h".	 To specify "AbcXyz"  as  the  initial
       output device, include the switch


       For example, for	output to an Epson printer you might use the command

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson

       The  "-sDEVICE="	 switch	 must  precede	the first mention of a file to
       print, and only the switch's first use has any effect.	Alternatively,
       in Ghostscript you can type

	    (epson) selectdevice
	    (	run

       All  output  then  goes	to the printer until you select	another	device
       with the	"selectdevice" procedure in the	PostScript program stream, for

	    (vga) selectdevice
	    (x11) selectdevice

       Finally,	 you  can specify a default device in the environment variable
       GS_DEVICE.  The order of	precedence for these alternatives from highest
       to lowest (Ghostscript uses the device defined highest in the list) is:

	    (command line)
	    (first device in build list)

       Some printers can print at different resolutions	(densities).  To spec-
       ify the resolution on such a printer, use the "-r" switch:

	    gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>

       For example, on a 9-pin Epson-compatible	printer, you get  the  lowest-
       density (fastest) mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72

       and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.

       If  you	select a printer as the	output device, Ghostscript also	allows
       you to choose where Ghostscript sends the output	--  on	Unix  systems,
       usually	to  a temporary	file.  To send the output to a file "",
       use the switch

       You might want to print each page separately.  To  do  this,  send  the
       output to a series of files ",,	..." using the "-sOut-
       putFile=" switch	with "%d" in a filename	template:

       Each resulting file receives one	page of	output,	and the	files are num-
       bered in	sequence.  "%d"	is a printf format specification; you can also
       use a variant like "%02d".

       On Unix systems you can also send output	to a pipe.   For  example,  to
       pipe  output to the "lpr" command (which, on many Unix systems, directs
       it to a printer), use the switch


       You can also send output	to standard output for piping with the switch


       In this case you	must also use the -q switch,  to  prevent  Ghostscript
       from writing messages to	standard output.

       To select a specific paper size,	use the	command	line switch


       for instance


       At this time, the known paper sizes, defined in the initialization file
       "", are:

       PAPERSIZE    X inches   Y inches	  X cm	    Y cm
       a0	    33.0556    46.7778	  83.9611   118.816
       a1	    23.3889    33.0556	  59.4078   83.9611
       a2	    16.5278    23.3889	  41.9806   59.4078
       a3	    11.6944    16.5278	  29.7039   41.9806
       a4	    8.26389    11.6944	  20.9903   29.7039
       a5	    5.84722    8.26389	  14.8519   20.9903
       a6	    4.125      5.84722	  10.4775   14.8519
       a7	    2.91667    4.125	  7.40833   10.4775
       a8	    2.05556    2.91667	  5.22111   7.40833
       a9	    1.45833    2.05556	  3.70417   5.22111
       a10	    1.02778    1.45833	  2.61056   3.70417
       b0	    39.3889    55.6667	  100.048   141.393
       b1	    27.8333    39.3889	  70.6967   100.048
       b2	    19.6944    27.8333	  50.0239   70.6967
       b3	    13.9167    19.6944	  35.3483   50.0239
       b4	    9.84722    13.9167	  25.0119   35.3483
       b5	    6.95833    9.84722	  17.6742   25.0119
       archA	    9	       12	  22.86	    30.48
       archB	    12	       18	  30.48	    45.72
       archC	    18	       24	  45.72	    60.96
       archD	    24	       36	  60.96	    91.44
       archE	    36	       48	  91.44	    121.92
       flsa	    8.5	       13	  21.59	    33.02
       flse	    8.5	       13	  21.59	    33.02
       halfletter   5.5	       8.5	  13.97	    21.59
       note	    7.5	       10	  19.05	    25.4
       letter	    8.5	       11	  21.59	    27.94
       legal	    8.5	       14	  21.59	    35.56
       11x17	    11	       17	  27.94	    43.18
       ledger	    17	       11	  43.18	    27.94

       Note that the B paper sizes are ISO sizes: for information about	 using
       JIS B sizes, see	Use.htm.

       Ghostscript  can	do many	things other than print	or view	PostScript and
       PDF files.  For example,	if you want to know  the  bounding  box	 of  a
       PostScript  (or EPS) file, Ghostscript provides a special "device" that
       just prints out this information:

		 gs -sDEVICE=bbox

       For example, using one of the example  files  distributed  with	Ghost-

		 gs -sDEVICE=bbox

       prints out

		 %%BoundingBox:	0 25 583 732
		 %%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496	582.994503 731.809445

       When  looking for the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files related
       to fonts, or the	file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript  first	 tries
       to  open	the file with the name as given, using the current working di-
       rectory if no directory is specified.  If this fails, and the file name
       doesn't	specify	 an explicit directory or drive	(for instance, doesn't
       contain "/" on Unix systems or "\" on DOS systems),  Ghostscript	 tries
       directories in this order:

       1.  the	directories  specified	by the -I switches in the command line
	   (see	below),	if any;

       2.  the directories specified by	the GS_LIB  environment	 variable,  if

       3.  the directories specified by	the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the	Ghost-
	   script makefile when	the executable was built.  When	gs is built on
	   Unix,    GS_LIB_DEFAULT    is    usually   "/usr/local/share/ghost-
	   script/#.##:/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts" where "#.##"	repre-
	   sents the Ghostscript version number.

       Each  of	these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be	either
       a single	directory or a list of directories separated by	":".

       Ghostscript looks for the following resources under  the	 program  name

	      The border width in pixels (default = 1).

	      The name of the border color (default = black).

	      The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

	      The  number  of  x  pixels  per  inch  (default is computed from
	      WidthOfScreen and	WidthMMOfScreen).

	      The number of y  pixels  per  inch  (default  is	computed  from
	      HeightOfScreen and HeightMMOfScreen).

	      Determines  whether  backing store is to be used for saving dis-
	      play window (default = true).

       See the usage document for a more complete list of resources.   To  set
       these  resources	on Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in
       the following form:

		 Ghostscript*geometry:	612x792-0+0
		 Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
		 Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

       Then merge these	resources into the X server's resource database:

		 % xrdb	-merge ~/.Xresources

       -- filename arg1	...
	      Takes the	next argument as a file	name as	usual, but  takes  all
	      remaining	 arguments  (even  if  they have the syntactic form of
	      switches)	and defines the	name "ARGUMENTS"  in  "userdict"  (not
	      "systemdict")  as	 an array of those strings, before running the
	      file.  When Ghostscript finishes executing the  file,  it	 exits
	      back to the shell.

	      Define  a	 name  in "systemdict" with the	given definition.  The
	      token must be exactly one	token (as defined by the "token" oper-
	      ator) and	may contain no whitespace.

       -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

	      Define  a	 name  in  "systemdict"	 with a	given string as	value.
	      This is different	from -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent
	      to the program fragment
			/name 35 def
	      whereas -sname=35	is equivalent to
			/name (35) def

       -q     Quiet startup: suppress normal startup messages, and also	do the
	      equivalent of -dQUIET.

	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and  -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.
	      This  is	for  the benefit of devices (such as X11 windows) that
	      require (or allow) width and height to be	specified.

	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1	 and  -dDEVICEYRESOLU-
	      TION=number2.  This is for the benefit of	devices	such as	print-
	      ers that support multiple	X and Y	resolutions.  If only one num-
	      ber is given, it is used for both	X and Y	resolutions.

	      Adds  the	 designated  list  of  directories  at the head	of the
	      search path for library files.

       -      This is not really a switch, but indicates to  Ghostscript  that
	      standard	input is coming	from a file or a pipe and not interac-
	      tively from the command line.  Ghostscript reads	from  standard
	      input  until it reaches end-of-file, executing it	like any other
	      file, and	then continues with processing the command line.  When
	      the  command line	has been entirely processed, Ghostscript exits
	      rather than going	into its interactive mode.

       Note that the normal initialization file	 ""  makes  "system-
       dict"  read-only, so the	values of names	defined	with -D, -d, -S, or -s
       cannot be changed (although, of course, they can	be superseded by defi-
       nitions in "userdict" or	other dictionaries.)

	      Disables	the  "deletefile"  and	"renamefile" operators and the
	      ability to open files in any mode	other than read-only. This  is
	      desirable	 for  spoolers or any other environments where a mali-
	      cious or badly written PostScript	program	must be	prevented from
	      changing important files.

	      Causes  Ghostscript  to exit after processing all	files named on
	      the command line,	rather than prompting for  further  PostScript

	      Disables	the prompt and pause at	the end	of each	page. This may
	      be desirable in converting documents or for  applications	 where
	      another program is driving Ghostscript.

	      Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

	      Selects  an alternate output file	(or pipe) for the initial out-
	      put device, as described above.

	      Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This
	      may be useful when debugging.

	      Disables character caching. Useful only for debugging.

	      Disables the "bind" operator. Useful only	for debugging.

	      Disables	the  use  of fonts supplied by the underlying platform
	      (for instance X Windows).	This may be  needed  if	 the  platform
	      fonts look undesirably different from the	scalable fonts.

	      Causes  individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk
	      the first	time they are encountered. (Normally Ghostscript loads
	      all the character	outlines when it loads a font.)	This may allow
	      loading more fonts into RAM, at the expense of slower rendering.

	      Leaves "systemdict" writable. This  is  necessary	 when  running
	      special utility programs such as font2c and pcharstr, which must
	      bypass normal PostScript access protection.

       The locations of	many Ghostscript run-time files	are compiled into  the
       executable  when	 it  is	 built.	  On Unix these	are typically based in
       /usr/local, but this may	be different on	your system.  Under  DOS  they
       are  typically  based in	C:\GS, but may be elsewhere, especially	if you
       install Ghostscript with	GSview.	 Run "gs -h" to	find the  location  of
       Ghostscript  documentation  on your system, from	which you can get more

	      Startup files, utilities,	and basic font definitions

	      More font	definitions

	      Ghostscript demonstration	files

	      Diverse document files

	      String of	options	to be processed	before the  command  line  op-

	      Used to specify an output	device

	      Path names used to search	for fonts

       GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts

       TEMP   Where temporary files are	made

       The various Ghostscript document	files (above), especially Use.htm.

       See the Usenet news group comp.lang.postscript.

       This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 7.07.

       L.  Peter Deutsch <> is	the principal author of	Ghost-
       script.	Russell	J. Lang	<> is the author	of most	of the
       MS Windows code in Ghostscript.

7.07				  17 May 2003				 GS(1)


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