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HIER(7)		     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	       HIER(7)

     hier -- layout of file systems

     A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

     /	      root directory of	the file system

     /bin/    user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user

     /boot/   programs and configuration files used during operating system

	      defaults/	 default bootstrapping configuration files; see
	      kernel/	 pure kernel executable	(the operating system loaded
			 into memory at	boot time).
	      modules/	 third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)

     /cdrom/  default mount point for CD-ROM drives (created by	sysinstall(8))

	      normally a link to /usr/compat.  If not, then the	/usr/compat
	      comments apply (created by sysinstall(8))

     /dev/    block and	character device files

	      MAKEDEV  script for creating device files; see MAKEDEV(8)
	      fd/      file descriptor files; see fd(4)

     /dist/   mount point used by sysinstall(8)

     /etc/    system configuration files and scripts

	      defaults/	   default system configuration	files; see rc(8)
	      gnats/	   gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1)
	      isdn/	   isdn4bsd configuration files; see isdnd(8)
	      kerberosIV/  configuration files for kerberos version IV;	see
	      localtime	   local timezone information; see ctime(3)
	      mail/	   Sendmail control files
	      mtree/	   mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
	      namedb/	   named configuration files; see named(8)
	      pam.d/	   configuration files for the Pluggable Authentica-
			   tion	Modules	(PAM) library; see pam(8)
	      periodic/	   scripts that	are run	daily, weekly, and monthly,
			   via cron(8);	see periodic(8)
	      ppp/	   ppp configuration files; see	ppp(8)
	      ssl/	   OpenSSL configuration files

     /mnt/    empty directory commonly used by system administrators as	a tem-
	      porary mount point

     /proc/   process file system; see procfs(5), mount_procfs(8)

     /root/   root's HOME directory

     /sbin/   system programs and administration utilities fundamental to both
	      single-user and multi-user environments

     /stand/  programs used in a standalone environment

     /tmp/    temporary	files that are not guaranteed to persist across	system

     /usr/    contains the majority of user utilities and applications

	      bin/	common utilities, programming tools, and applications
	      compat/	files needed to	support	binary compatibility with
			other operating	systems, such as Linux (created	by
	      games/	useful and semi-frivolous programs
	      heimdal/	kerberos server	databases; see kdc(8)
	      include/	standard C include files

			arpa/	     C include files for Internet service pro-
			cam/	     C include files for the Common Access
				     Methods Layer
				     scsi/	  The SCSI device on top of
			dev/	     C include files for programming various
				     FreeBSD devices
				     ic/	  Various header files de-
						  scribing driver- and bus-in-
						  dependent hardware circuits
				     ofw/	  OpenFirmware support
				     ppbus/	  The parallel port bus; see
				     usb/	  The USB subsystem
				     wi/	  The wi(4) WaveLAN driver
				     fdescfs/	  per-process file descriptors
						  file system
				     fifofs/	  IEEE Std 1003.1 ("POSIX.1")
						  FIFOs	file system
				     msdosfs/	  MS-DOS file system
				     ntfs/	  NTFS file system
				     nullfs/	  loopback file	system
				     nwfs/	  NetWare file system
				     portalfs/	  portal file system
				     procfs/	  process file system
				     smbfs/	  SMB/CIFS file	system
				     umapfs/	  alternate uid/gid mappings
						  file system
				     unionfs	  union	file system
			g++/	     GNU C++ include files
				     std/	  GNU C++ libstdc++ include
			isc/	     ISC utility library libisc	include	files
				     cd9660/	  iso9660 file system
			kerberosIV/  C include files for kerberos authentica-
				     tion package; see kerberos(1)
			libmilter/   C include files for libmilter, the
				     sendmail(8) mail filter API
			machine/     machine-specific C	include	files
			net/	     misc network C include files
			netatalk/    Appletalk protocol
			netatm/	     ATM include files;	see atm(8)
			netinet/     C include files for Internet standard
				     protocols;	see inet(4)
			netinet6/    C include files for Internet protocol
				     version 6;	see inet6(4)
			netipx/	     IPX/SPX protocol stacks
			netkey/	     kernel key-management service
			netns/	     Xerox NS protocols
			netsmb/	     SMB/CIFS requester
			netnatm/     NATM include files; see natm(4)
			nfs/	     C include files for NFS (Network File
			objc/	     Objective C include files
			openssl/     OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit)	head-
			pccard/	     PC-CARD controllers
			posix4/	     POSIX real-time extensions	includes; see
			protocols/   C include files for Berkeley service pro-
			readline/    get a line	from a user, with editing; see
			rpc/	     remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
			rpcsvc/	     definition	of RPC service structures; see
			security/    PAM; see pam(8)
			sys/	     system C include files (kernel data
			ufs/	     C include files for UFS (The U-word File
				     ffs/	  Fast file system
				     ufs/	  UFS file system
			vm/	     virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

	      lib/	archive	libraries
			aout/	    a.out archive libraries
			compat/	    shared libraries for compatibility
				    aout/	a.out backward compatibility

	      libdata/	misc. utility data files
			doscmd/	    files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts,
				    etc.); see doscmd(1)
				    fonts/  fonts used by doscmd
			gcc/	    ???
			ldscripts/  linker scripts; see	ld(1)
			lint/	    various prebuilt lint libraries; see
			msdosfs/    Character set conversion tables
			stallion/   firmware images for	Stallion serial	con-
				    trollers; see stl(4)

	      libexec/	system daemons & system	utilities (executed by other
			aout/	    utilities to manipulate a.out executables
			elf/	    utilities to manipulate ELF	executables
			lpr/	    utilities and filters for LP print system;
				    see	lpr(1)
			sendmail/   the	sendmail(8) binary; see	mailwrapper(8)
			sm.bin/	    restricted shell for sendmail(8); see

	      local/	local executables, libraries, etc.  Also used as the
			default	destination for	the FreeBSD ports framework.
			Within local/, the general layout sketched out by
			hier(7)	for /usr should	be used.  Exceptions are the
			man directory (directly	under local/ rather than under
			local/share/), ports documentation (in
			share/doc/<port>/), and	/usr/local/etc (mimics /etc).
	      obj/	architecture-specific target tree produced by building
			the /usr/src tree
	      ports/	The FreeBSD ports collection (optional).
	      sbin/	system daemons & system	utilities (executed by users)
	      share/	architecture-independent files

			calendar/  a variety of	pre-fab	calendar files;	see
			dict/	   word	lists; see look(1)

				   freebsd     FreeBSD-specific	terms, proper
					       names, and jargon
				   words       common words
				   web2	       words from Webster's 2nd	Inter-
				   papers/     reference databases; see

			doc/	   miscellaneous documentation;	source for
				   most	of the printed BSD manuals (available
				   from	the USENIX association)
				   FAQ/	       Frequently Asked	Questions
				   IPv6/       implementation notes for	IPv6
				   bind/       documents pertaining to BIND
					       (the Berkeley Internet Name Do-
				   es/	       Spanish translations of docu-
					       ments in	/usr/share/doc
				   handbook/   FreeBSD Handbook
				   ja/	       Japanese	translations of	docu-
					       ments in	/usr/share/doc
				   ncurses/    HTML documents pertaining to
					       ncurses;	see ncurses(3X)
				   ntp/	       HTML documents pertaining to
					       the Network Time	Protocol
				   papers/     UNIX Papers
				   psd/	       UNIX Programmer's Supplementary
				   ru/	       Russian translations of docu-
					       ments in	/usr/share/doc
				   smm/	       UNIX System Manager's Manual
				   tutorials/  FreeBSD tutorials
				   usd/	       UNIX User's Supplementary Docu-
				   zh/	       Chinese translations of docu-
					       ments in	/usr/share/doc

			examples/  various examples for	users and programmers
			games/	   ASCII text files used by various games
				   device description file for device name
			info/	   GNU Info hypertext system
			isdn/	   ISDN
			locale/	   localization	files; see setlocale(3)
			man/	   manual pages
			me/	   macros for use with the me macro package;
				   see me(7)
			misc/	   misc	system-wide ASCII text files
				   fonts/      ???
				   pcvtfonts/  pcvt fonts; see pcvt(4)
				   termcap     terminal	characteristics	data-
					       base; see termcap(5)
			mk/	   templates for make; see make(1)
			nls/	   national language support files; see
			pcvt/	   pcvt	documentation and etc examples;	see
			sendmail/  sendmail(8) configuration files
			skel/	   example . (dot) files for new accounts
			syscons/   files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
				   fonts/	console	fonts; see
						vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
				   keymaps/	console	keyboard maps; see
						kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
				   scrnmaps/	console	screen maps
			tabset/	   tab description files for a variety of ter-
				   minals; used	in the termcap file; see
			tmac/	   text	processing macros; see nroff(1)	and
			vi/	   localization	support	and utilities for
			zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
	      src/	BSD, third-party, and/or local source files

			bin/	     source code for files in /bin
			contrib/     source code for contributed software
			crypto/	     source code for contributed cryptography
			etc/	     source code for files in /etc
			games/	     source code for files in /usr/games
			gnu/	     Utilities covered by the GNU General Pub-
				     lic License
			include/     source code for files in /usr/include
			kerberosIV/  source code for kerberos version IV
			lib/	     source code for files in /usr/lib
			libexec/     source code for files in /usr/libexec
			release/     files required to produce a FreeBSD re-
			sbin/	     source code for files in /sbin
			secure/	     build directory for files in
			share/	     source for	files in /usr/share
			sys/	     kernel source code
			tools/	     tools used	for maintenance	and testing of
			usr.bin/     source code for files in /usr/bin
			usr.sbin/    source code for files in /usr/sbin

	      X11R6/	X11R6 distribution executables,	libraries, etc (op-
			bin/	  X11R6	binaries (servers, utilities, local
			etc/	  X11R6	configuration files and	scripts.
			include/  X11R6	include	files.
			lib/	  X11R6	libraries.
			man/	  X11R6	manual pages.
			share/	  architecture-independent files.

     /var/    multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

	      account/	 system	accounting files

			 acct	     execution accounting file;	see acct(5)

	      at/	 timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
			 jobs/	    directory containing job files
			 spool/	    directory containing output	spool files

	      backups/	 misc. backup files
	      crash/	 default directory to store kernel crash dumps;	see
			 crash(8) and savecore(8)
	      cron/	 files used by cron; see cron(8)
			 tabs/	    crontab files; see crontab(5)

	      db/	 misc. automatically generated system-specific data-
			 base files
	      empty/	 empty directory used by sshd(8) for privilege separa-
	      games/	 misc. game status and score files
	      log/	 misc. system log files

			 wtmp	     login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

	      mail/	 user mailbox files
	      preserve/	 temporary home	of files preserved after an accidental
			 death of an editor; see ex(1)
	      msgs/	 system	messages database; see msgs(1)
	      quotas/	 file system quota information files
	      run/	 system	information files describing various info
			 about system since it was booted

			 named/	     writable by the "bind" user; see named(8)
			 ppp/	     writable by the "network" group for com-
				     mand connection sockets; see ppp(8)
			 utmp	     database of current users;	see utmp(5)

	      rwho/	 rwho data files; see rwhod(8),	rwho(1), and
	      spool/	 misc. printer and mail	system spooling	directories

				     undelivered submission mail queue;	see
			 ftp/	     commonly ~ftp; the	anonymous ftp root di-
			 mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
			 output/     line printer spooling directories

	      tmp/	 temporary files that are kept between system reboots
				     the directory where recovery files	are
	      yp/	 the NIS maps

     This manual page documents	the default FreeBSD file system	layout,	but
     the actual	hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system adminis-
     trator's discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include a cus-
     tomized version of	this document.

     apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1),	whereis(1),
     which(1), fsck(8)

     A hier manual page	appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD				 June 5, 1993				   BSD


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