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HIER(7)		   FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	       HIER(7)

     hier -- layout of file systems

     A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

     /		root directory of the file system

     /bin/	user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user

     /boot/	programs and configuration files used during operating system

		defaults/  default bootstrapping configuration files; see
		dtb/	   Compiled flattened device tree (FDT)	files; see
			   fdt(4) and dtc(1)
		efi/	   Mount point for EFI System Partition	(ESP) on UEFI
		firmware/  loadable kernel modules containing binary firmware
			   for hardware	that needs firmware downloaded to it
			   to function
		kernel/	   pure	kernel executable (the operating system	loaded
			   into	memory at boot time) and kernel	modules
		modules/   third-party loadable	kernel modules,	such as	the
			   ones	installed from ports(7)
		overlays/  Compiled flattened device tree (FDT)	overlays; see
			   fdt(4) and dtc(1)
		zfs/	   zfs(8) zpool	cache files

     /cdrom/	default	mount point for	CD-ROM drives

     /compat/	normally a link	to /usr/compat.	 If not, then the /usr/compat
		comments apply

     /dev/	device special files managed by	devfs(5)

		fd/	   file	descriptor files; see fd(4)

     /etc/	system configuration files and scripts

		defaults/  default system configuration	files; see rc(8)
			   bluetooth configuration files
		localtime  local timezone information; see ctime(3)
		mail/	   Sendmail control files
		mtree/	   mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
		pam.d/	   configuration files for the Pluggable Authentica-
			   tion	Modules	(PAM) library
		periodic/  scripts that	are run	daily, weekly, and monthly,
			   via cron(8);	see periodic(8)
		rc.d/	   system and daemon startup/control scripts; see
		security/  OpenBSM audit configuration files; see audit(8)
		ppp/	   ppp configuration files; see	ppp(8)
		ssh/	   OpenSSH configuration files;	see ssh(1)
		ssl/	   OpenSSL configuration files

     /lib/	critical system	libraries needed for binaries in /bin and

		casper/	   service-specific libcasper(3) Capsicum support li-
		geom/	   class-specific libraries for	the geom(8) utility
			   vendor-specific libraries to	extend the
			   nvmecontrol(8) utility

     /libexec/	critical system	utilities needed for binaries in /bin and

     /media/	contains subdirectories	to be used as mount points for remov-
		able media such	as CDs,	USB drives, and	floppy disks

     /mnt/	empty directory	commonly used by system	administrators as a
		temporary mount	point

     /net/	automounted NFS	shares;	see auto_master(5)

     /proc/	process	file system; see procfs(5)

     /rescue/	statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see

     /root/	root's HOME directory

     /sbin/	system programs	and administration utilities fundamental to
		both single-user and multi-user	environments

     /tmp/	temporary files	that are not guaranteed	to persist across sys-
		tem reboots

     /usr/	contains the majority of user utilities	and applications

		bin/	   common utilities, programming tools,	and applica-
		compat/	   files needed	to support binary compatibility	with
			   other operating systems; see	linux(4)
		include/   standard C include files

			   arpa/       C include files for Internet service
			   bsnmp/      C include files for the SNMP daemon
			   c++/	       C++ include files
			   cam/	       C include files for the Common Access
				       Methods Layer
				       scsi/	   SCSI	device on top of CAM
			   dev/	       C include files for programming various
				       FreeBSD devices
				       ic/	   various header files	de-
						   scribing driver- and	bus-
						   independent hardware	cir-
				       ofw/	   Open	Firmware support
				       pbio/	   8255	PPI cards; see pbio(4)
				       ppbus/	   parallel port bus; see
				       usb/	   USB subsystem
				       fdescfs/	   per-process file descrip-
						   tors	file system
				       msdosfs/	   MS-DOS file system
				       nfs/	   C include files for NFS
						   (Network File System) ver-
						   sion	2, 3 and 4
				       nullfs/	   loopback file system
				       procfs/	   process file	system
				       smbfs/	   SMB/CIFS file system
				       udf/	   UDF file system
				       unionfs	   union file system
			   geom/       GEOM framework
				       concat/	   CONCAT GEOM class
				       gate/	   GATE	GEOM class
				       mirror/	   MIRROR GEOM class
				       nop/	   NOP GEOM class
				       raid3/	   RAID3 GEOM class
				       stripe/	   STRIPE GEOM class
			   libmilter/  C include files for libmilter, the
				       sendmail(8) mail	filter API
			   machine/    machine-specific	C include files
			   net/	       miscellaneous network C include files
				       altq/	   C include files for alter-
						   nate	packet queueing; see
			   net80211/   C include files for 802.11 wireless
				       networking; see net80211(4)
			   netinet/    C include files for Internet standard
				       protocols; see inet(4)
			   netinet6/   C include files for Internet protocol
				       version 6; see inet6(4)
			   netipsec/   kernel key-management service; see
			   netsmb/     SMB/CIFS	requester
			   nfs/	       C include files for NFS (Network	File
				       System) version 2 and 3 (legacy)
			   openssl/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit)
			   protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service
			   rpc/	       remote procedure	calls; see rpc(3)
			   rpcsvc/     definition of RPC service structures;
				       see rpc(3)
			   security/   PAM; see	pam(8)
			   sys/	       system C	include	files (kernel data
			   ufs/	       C include files for UFS (The U-word
				       File System)
				       ffs/	   Fast	file system
				       ufs/	   UFS file system
			   vm/	       virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

		lib/	   shared and archive ar(1)-type libraries

			   aout/       a.out archive libraries
			   compat/     shared libraries	for compatibility
				       aout/	   a.out backward compatibil-
						   ity libraries
			   debug/      standalone debug	data for the kernel
				       and base	system libraries and binaries
			   dtrace/     DTrace library scripts
			   engines/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) dy-
				       namically loadable engines

		libdata/   miscellaneous utility data files

			   gcc/	       gcc(1) configuration data
			   ldscripts/  linker scripts; see ld(1)

		libexec/   system daemons & system utilities (executed by
			   other programs)

			   aout/       utilities to manipulate a.out executa-
			   elf/	       utilities to manipulate ELF executables
			   lpr/	       utilities and filters for LP print sys-
				       tem; see	lpr(1)
			   sendmail/   the sendmail(8) binary; see
			   sm.bin/     restricted shell	for sendmail(8); see

		local/	   local executables, libraries, etc.  Also used as
			   the default destination for the ports(7) framework.
			   Within local/, the general layout sketched out by
			   hier	for /usr should	be used.  Exceptions are the
			   ports documentation (in share/doc/_port_/), and
			   /usr/local/etc (mimics /etc).
		obj/	   architecture-specific target	tree produced by
			   building the	/usr/src tree
		ports/	   FreeBSD ports collection; see ports(7)
		sbin/	   system daemons & system utilities (executed by
		share/	   architecture-independent files

			   calendar/   a variety of pre-fab calendar files;
				       see calendar(1)
			   dict/       word lists; see look(1)
				       freebsd	   FreeBSD-specific terms,
						   proper names, and jargon
				       web2	   words from Webster's	2nd
			   doc/	       miscellaneous documentation; source for
				       most of the printed BSD manuals (avail-
				       able from the USENIX association)
				       FAQ/	   Frequently Asked Questions
				       IPv6/	   implementation notes	for
				       es/	   Spanish translations	of
						   documents in	/usr/share/doc
				       handbook/   FreeBSD Handbook
				       ja/	   Japanese translations of
						   documents in	/usr/share/doc
				       legal/	   License files for vendor
						   supplied firmware files
				       ncurses/	   HTML	documents pertaining
						   to ncurses; see ncurses(3)
				       ntp/	   HTML	documents pertaining
						   to the Network Time Proto-
				       ru/	   Russian translations	of
						   documents in	/usr/share/doc
				       tutorials/  FreeBSD tutorials
				       zh/	   Chinese translations	of
						   documents in	/usr/share/doc
			   examples/   various examples	for users and program-
			   firmware/   firmware	images loaded by userland pro-
			   games/      ASCII text files	used by	various	games
			   keys/       known trusted and revoked keys
				       pkg/	   fingerprints	for pkg(7) and
			   locale/     localization files; see setlocale(3)
			   man/	       manual pages
			   misc/       miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text
				       fonts/	   ???
				       termcap	   terminal characteristics
						   database; see termcap(5)
			   mk/	       templates for make; see make(1)
			   nls/	       national	language support files
			   security/   data files for security policies	such
				       as mac_lomac(4)
			   sendmail/   sendmail(8) configuration files
			   skel/       example . (dot) files for new accounts
			   snmp/       MIBs, example files and tree defini-
				       tions for the SNMP daemon
				       defs/	   tree	definition files for
						   use with gensnmptree(1)
				       mibs/	   MIB files
			   syscons/    files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
				       fonts/	   console fonts; see
						   vidcontrol(1) and
				       keymaps/	   console keyboard maps; see
						   kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
				       scrnmaps/   console screen maps
			   tabset/     tab description files for a variety of
				       terminals; used in the termcap file;
				       see termcap(5)
			   vi/	       localization support and	utilities for
			   vt/	       files used by vt; see vt(4)
				       fonts/	   console fonts; see
						   vidcontrol(1) and
				       keymaps/	   console keyboard maps; see
						   kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
			   zoneinfo/   timezone	configuration information; see

		src/	   FreeBSD source code;	see development(7)

			   bin/	       source code for files in	/bin
			   cddl/       utilities covered by the	Common Devel-
				       opment and Distribution License
			   contrib/    source code for contributed software
			   crypto/     source code for contributed cryptogra-
				       phy software
			   etc/	       source code for files in	/etc
			   gnu/	       utilities covered by the	GNU General
				       Public License
			   include/    source code for files in	/usr/include
			   kerberos5/  build infrastructure for	Kerberos ver-
				       sion 5
			   lib/	       source code for files in	/lib and
			   libexec/    source code for files in	/usr/libexec
			   release/    files required to produce a FreeBSD re-
			   rescue/     source code for files in	/rescue
			   sbin/       source code for files in	/sbin
			   secure/     build directory for files in
			   share/      source for files	in /usr/share
			   stand/      boot loader source code
			   sys/	       kernel source code
				       amd64/	   AMD64 architecture support
				       arm/	   ARM architecture support
				       arm64/	   ARMv8 architecture support
				       cam/	   cam(4) and ctl(4)
				       cddl/	   CDDL-licensed optional
						   sources, including ZFS and
				       ddb/	   ddb(4)
				       fs/	   most	filesystems
				       dev/	   device drivers
				       geom/	   geom(4)
				       i386/	   i386	(32 bit) architecture
				       kern/	   main	part of	the kernel
				       mips/	   MIPS	architecture support
				       net80211/   net80211(4)
				       netgraph/   netgraph(4)
				       netinet/	   inet(4)
				       netinet6/   inet6(4)
				       netipsec/   ipsec(4)
				       netpfil/	   ipfw(4) and pf(4)
				       powerpc/	   PowerPC/POWER architecture
				       riscv/	   RISC-V architecture support
				       security/   audit(4) and	mac(4)
				       sparc64/	   SPARC64 architecture	sup-
				       sys/	   kernel headers
				       ufs/	   Unix	File System
				       x86/	   code	shared by AMD64	and
						   i386	architectures
			   targets/    support for experimental	DIRDEPS_BUILD
			   tests/      source code for files in	/usr/tests
			   tools/      tools used for maintenance and testing
				       of FreeBSD
			   usr.bin/    source code for files in	/usr/bin
			   usr.sbin/   source code for files in	/usr/sbin

		tests/	   The FreeBSD test suite; see tests(7)

     /var/	multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

		account/   system accounting files

			   acct	       execution accounting file; see acct(5)

		at/	   timed command scheduling files; see at(1)

			   jobs/       directory containing job	files
			   spool/      directory containing output spool files

		backups/   miscellaneous backup	files
		cache/	   miscellaneous cached	files

			   pkg/	       cached packages for pkg(8)

		crash/	   default directory to	store kernel crash dumps; see
			   crash(8) and	savecore(8)
		cron/	   files used by cron; see cron(8)

			   tabs/       crontab files; see crontab(5)

		db/	   miscellaneous automatically generated system-spe-
			   cific database files
		empty/	   empty directory for use by programs that need a
			   specifically	empty directory.  Used for instance by
			   sshd(8) for privilege separation
		games/	   miscellaneous game status and score files
		heimdal/   Kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
		log/	   miscellaneous system	log files

				       last login log; see getutxent(3)
			   utx.log     login/logout log; see getutxent(3)

		mail/	   user	mailbox	files
		msgs/	   system messages database; see msgs(1)
		preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an acciden-
			   tal death of	an editor; see ex(1)
		quotas/	   file	system quota information files
		run/	   system information files describing various info
			   about system	since it was booted

			   ppp/	       writable	by the "network" group for
				       command connection sockets; see ppp(8)  database	of current users; see

		rwho/	   rwho	data files; see	rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
		spool/	   miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling di-

				       undelivered submission mail queue; see
			   ftp/	       commonly	~ftp; the anonymous ftp	root
			   mqueue/     undelivered mail	queue; see sendmail(8)
			   output/     line printer spooling directories

		tmp/	   temporary files that	are kept between system	re-

				       the directory where recovery files are

		yp/	   the NIS maps; see yp(8)

     This manual page documents	the default FreeBSD file system	layout,	but
     the actual	hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system adminis-
     trator's discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include a cus-
     tomized version of	this document.

     apropos(1), find(1), grep(1), ls(1), whereis(1), which(1)

     A hier manual page	appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD	13.0		       December	11, 2021		  FreeBSD 13.0


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