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HOSTS_OPTIONS(5)	      File Formats Manual	      HOSTS_OPTIONS(5)

       hosts_options - host access control language extensions

       This  document  describes optional extensions to	the language described
       in the hosts_access(5) document.	The extensions are enabled at  program
       build  time.  For  example,  by editing the Makefile and	turning	on the
       PROCESS_OPTIONS compile-time option.

       The extensible language uses the	following format:

	  daemon_list :	client_list : option : option ...

       The first two fields are	described in the hosts_access(5) manual	 page.
       The  remainder of the rules is a	list of	zero or	more options.  Any ":"
       characters within options should	be protected with a backslash.

       An option is of the form	"keyword" or "keyword value". Options are pro-
       cessed  in the specified	order. Some options are	subjected to %<letter>
       substitutions. For the sake of  backwards  compatibility	 with  earlier
       versions, an "="	is permitted between keyword and value.


       severity	notice
	      Change the severity level	at which the event will	be logged. Fa-
	      cility names (such as mail) are optional,	and are	not  supported
	      on  systems  with	older syslog implementations. The severity op-
	      tion can be used to emphasize or to ignore specific events.


       deny   Grant (deny) service. These options must appear at the end of  a

       The allow and deny keywords make	it possible to keep all	access control
       rules within a single file, for example in the hosts.allow file.

       To permit access	from specific hosts only:

	  ALL: .friendly.domain: ALLOW

       To permit access	from all hosts except a	few trouble makers:

	  ALL: .bad.domain: DENY

       Notice the leading dot on the domain name patterns.

       spawn shell_command
	      Execute, in a child process, the specified shell command,	 after
	      performing  the  %<letter> expansions described in the hosts_ac-
	      cess(5) manual page.  The	command	is executed with stdin,	stdout
	      and  stderr  connected to	the null device, so that it won't mess
	      up the conversation with the client host.	Example:

		 spawn (/some/where/safe_finger	-l @%h | /usr/ucb/mail root) &

	      executes,	in a  background  child	 process,  the	shell  command
	      "safe_finger  -l @%h | mail root"	after replacing	%h by the name
	      or address of the	remote host.

	      The example uses the "safe_finger" command instead of the	 regu-
	      lar "finger" command, to limit possible damage from data sent by
	      the finger server. The "safe_finger" command is part of the dae-
	      mon  wrapper  package; it	is a wrapper around the	regular	finger
	      command that filters the data sent by the	remote host.

       twist shell_command
	      Replace the current process by  an  instance  of	the  specified
	      shell  command,  after  performing  the %<letter>	expansions de-
	      scribed in the hosts_access(5) manual page.  Stdin,  stdout  and
	      stderr are connected to the client process. This option must ap-
	      pear at the end of a rule.

	      To send a	customized bounce message to  the  client  instead  of
	      running the real ftp daemon:

		 in.ftpd : ... : twist /bin/echo 421 Some bounce message

	      For an alternative way to	talk to	client processes, see the ban-
	      ners option below.

	      To run /some/other/in.telnetd without polluting its command-line
	      array or its process environment:

		 in.telnetd : ... : twist PATH=/some/other; exec in.telnetd

	      Warning:	in case	of UDP services, do not	twist to commands that
	      use the standard I/O or the read(2)/write(2) routines to	commu-
	      nicate  with  the	 client	process; UDP requires other I/O	primi-

	      Causes the server	to periodically	send a message to the  client.
	      The connection is	considered broken when the client does not re-
	      spond. The keepalive option can be useful	when  users  turn  off
	      their  machine  while  it	 is  still connected to	a server.  The
	      keepalive	option is not useful for datagram (UDP)	services.

       linger number_of_seconds
	      Specifies	how long the kernel will try to	deliver	not-yet	deliv-
	      ered data	after the server process closes	a connection.

       rfc931 [	timeout_in_seconds ]
	      Look  up	the client user	name with the RFC 931 (TAP, IDENT, RFC
	      1413) protocol.  This option is silently ignored in case of ser-
	      vices  based on transports other than TCP.  It requires that the
	      client system runs an RFC	931 (IDENT, etc.)  -compliant  daemon,
	      and  may	cause noticeable delays	with connections from non-UNIX
	      clients.	The timeout period is optional.	If no timeout is spec-
	      ified a compile-time defined default value is taken.

       banners /some/directory
	      Look  for	 a file	in `/some/directory' with the same name	as the
	      daemon process (for example in.telnetd for the telnet  service),
	      and  copy	its contents to	the client. Newline characters are re-
	      placed by	carriage-return	newline, and %<letter>	sequences  are
	      expanded (see the	hosts_access(5)	manual page).

	      The  tcp	wrappers  source  code	distribution provides a	sample
	      makefile (Banners.Makefile) for convenient banner	maintenance.

	      Warning: banners are  supported  for  connection-oriented	 (TCP)
	      network services only.

       nice [ number ]
	      Change  the  nice	 value of the process (default 10).  Specify a
	      positive value to	spend more CPU resources on other processes.

       setenv name value
	      Place a (name, value) pair into  the  process  environment.  The
	      value  is	 subjected  to	%<letter>  expansions  and may contain
	      whitespace (but leading and trailing blanks are stripped off).

	      Warning: many network daemons  reset  their  environment	before
	      spawning a login or shell	process.

       umask 022
	      Like the umask command that is built into	the shell. An umask of
	      022 prevents the creation	of files with group  and  world	 write
	      permission.  The umask argument should be	an octal number.

       user nobody

       user nobody.kmem
	      Assume  the privileges of	the "nobody" userid (or	user "nobody",
	      group "kmem"). The first form is useful with  inetd  implementa-
	      tions that run all services with root privilege. The second form
	      is useful	for services that need special group privileges	only.

       When a syntax error is found in an access control rule,	the  error  is
       reported	 to  the  syslog  daemon; further options will be ignored, and
       service is denied.

       hosts_access(5),	the default access control language

       Wietse Venema (
       Department of Mathematics and Computing Science
       Eindhoven University of Technology
       Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513,
       5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands



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