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INDENT(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		     INDENT(1)

     indent -- indent and format C program source

     indent [input-file	[output-file]] [-bad | -nbad] [-bap | -nbap]
	    [-bbb | -nbbb] [-bc	| -nbc]	[-bl] [-br] [-cn] [-cdn]
	    [-cdb | -ncdb] [-ce	| -nce]	[-cin] [-clin] [-dn] [-din]
	    [-fbs | -nfbs] [-fc1 | -nfc1] [-fcb	| -nfcb] [-in] [-ip | -nip]
	    [-ln] [-lcn] [-ldin] [-lp |	-nlp] [-npro] [-pcs | -npcs]
	    [-psl | -npsl] [-sc	| -nsc]	[-sob |	-nsob] [-st] [-troff]
	    [-ut | -nut] [-v | -nv]

     The indent	utility	is a C program formatter.  It reformats	the C program
     in	the input-file according to the	switches.  The switches	which can be
     specified are described below.  They may appear before or after the file

     NOTE: If you only specify an input-file, the formatting is	done `in-
     place', that is, the formatted file is written back into input-file and a
     backup copy of input-file is written in the current directory.  If
     input-file	is named `/blah/blah/file', the	backup file is named file.BAK.

     If	output-file is specified, indent checks	to make	sure it	is different
     from input-file.

     The options listed	below control the formatting style imposed by indent.

     -bad, -nbad     If	-bad is	specified, a blank line	is forced after	every
		     block of declarations.  Default: -nbad.

     -bap, -nbap     If	-bap is	specified, a blank line	is forced after	every
		     procedure body.  Default: -nbap.

     -bbb, -nbbb     If	-bbb is	specified, a blank line	is forced before every
		     block comment.  Default: -nbbb.

     -bc, -nbc	     If	-bc is specified, then a newline is forced after each
		     comma in a	declaration.  -nbc turns off this option.  De-
		     fault: -nbc.

     -br, -bl	     Specifying	-bl lines-up compound statements like this:

			   if (...)

		     Specifying	-br (the default) makes	them look like this:

			   if (...) {

     -cn	     The column	in which comments on code start.  The default
		     is	33.

     -cdn	     The column	in which comments on declarations start.  The
		     default is	for these comments to start in the same	column
		     as	those on code.

     -cdb, -ncdb     Enables (disables)	the placement of comment delimiters on
		     blank lines.  With	this option enabled, comments look
		     like this:

				    * this is a	comment

		     Rather than like this:

				   /* this is a	comment	*/

		     This only affects block comments, not comments to the
		     right of code.  The default is -cdb.

     -ce, -nce	     Enables (disables)	forcing	of `else's to cuddle up	to the
		     immediately preceding `}'.	 The default is	-ce.

     -cin	     Sets the continuation indent to be	n.  Continuation lines
		     will be indented that far from the	beginning of the first
		     line of the statement.  Parenthesized expressions have
		     extra indentation added to	indicate the nesting, unless
		     -lp is in effect or the contination indent	is exactly
		     half of the main indent.  -ci defaults to the same	value
		     as	-i.

     -clin	     Causes case labels	to be indented n tab stops to the
		     right of the containing switch statement.	-cli0.5	causes
		     case labels to be indented	half a tab stop.  The default
		     is	-cli0.

     -dn	     Controls the placement of comments	which are not to the
		     right of code.  For example, -d1 means that such comments
		     are placed	one indentation	level to the left of code.
		     Specifying	the default -d0	lines-up these comments	with
		     the code.	See the	section	on comment indentation below.

     -din	     Specifies the indentation,	in character positions,	of
		     global variable names and all struct/union	member names
		     relative to the beginning of their	type declaration.  The
		     default is	-di16.

     -dj, -ndj	     -dj left justifies	declarations.  -ndj indents declara-
		     tions the same as code.  The default is -ndj.

     -ei, -nei	     Enables (disables)	special	else-if	processing.  If	it's
		     enabled, an if following an else will have	the same in-
		     dentation as the preceding	if statement.  The default is

     -fbs, -nfbs     Enables (disables)	splitting the function declaration and
		     opening brace across two lines.  The default is -fbs.

     -fc1, -nfc1     Enables (disables)	the formatting of comments that	start
		     in	column 1.  Often, comments whose leading `/' is	in
		     column 1 have been	carefully hand formatted by the	pro-
		     grammer.  In such cases, -nfc1 should be used.  The de-
		     fault is -fc1.

     -fcb, -nfcb     Enables (disables)	the formatting of block	comments (ones
		     that begin	with `/*\n').  Often, block comments have been
		     not so carefully hand formatted by	the programmer,	but
		     reformatting that would just change the line breaks is
		     not wanted.  In such cases, -nfcb should be used.	Block
		     comments are then handled like box	comments.  The default
		     is	-fcb.

     -in	     The number	of spaces for one indentation level.  The de-
		     fault is 8.

     -ip, -nip	     Enables (disables)	the indentation	of parameter declara-
		     tions from	the left margin.  The default is -ip.

     -ln	     Maximum length of an output line.	The default is 78.

     -ldin	     Specifies the indentation,	in character positions,	of lo-
		     cal variable names	relative to the	beginning of their
		     type declaration.	The default is for local variable
		     names to be indented by the same amount as	global ones.

     -lp, -nlp	     Lines-up code surrounded by parenthesis in	continuation
		     lines.  If	a line has a left paren	which is not closed on
		     that line,	then continuation lines	will be	lined up to
		     start at the character position just after	the left
		     paren.  For example, here is how a	piece of continued
		     code looks	with -nlp in effect:

			   p1 =	first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),
			     third_procedure(p4, p5));

		     With -lp in effect	(the default) the code looks somewhat

			   p1 =	first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),
						third_procedure(p4, p5));

		     Inserting two more	newlines we get:

			   p1 =	first_procedure(second_procedure(p2,

     -npro	     Causes the	profile	files, `./' and
		     `~/', to be ignored.

     -pcs, -npcs     If	true (-pcs) all	procedure calls	will have a space in-
		     serted between the	name and the `('.  The default is

     -psl, -npsl     If	true (-psl) the	names of procedures being defined are
		     placed in column 1	- their	types, if any, will be left on
		     the previous lines.  The default is -psl.

     -sc, -nsc	     Enables (disables)	the placement of asterisks (`*'s) at
		     the left edge of all comments.  The default is -sc.

     -sob, -nsob     If	-sob is	specified, indent will swallow optional	blank
		     lines.  You can use this to get rid of blank lines	after
		     declarations.  Default: -nsob.

     -st	     Causes indent to take its input from stdin	and put	its
		     output to stdout.

     -Ttypename	     Adds typename to the list of type keywords.  Names	accu-
		     mulate: -T	can be specified more than once.  You need to
		     specify all the typenames that appear in your program
		     that are defined by typedef - nothing will	be harmed if
		     you miss a	few, but the program won't be formatted	as
		     nicely as it should.  This	sounds like a painful thing to
		     have to do, but it's really a symptom of a	problem	in C:
		     typedef causes a syntactic	change in the language and
		     indent can't find all instances of	typedef.

     -troff	     Causes indent to format the program for processing	by
		     troff(1).	It will	produce	a fancy	listing	in much	the
		     same spirit as vgrind(1).	If the output file is not
		     specified,	the default is standard	output,	rather than
		     formatting	in place.

     -ut, -nut	     Enables (disables)	the use	of tab characters in the out-
		     put.  Tabs	are assumed to be aligned on columns divisble
		     by	8.  The	default	is -ut.

     -v, -nv	     -v	turns on `verbose' mode; -nv turns it off.  When in
		     verbose mode, indent reports when it splits one line of
		     input into	two or more lines of output, and gives some
		     size statistics at	completion.  The default is -nv.

     You may set up your own `profile' of defaults to indent by	creating a
     file called in	your login directory and/or the	current	direc-
     tory and including	whatever switches you like.  A `' in	the
     current directory takes precedence	over the one in	your login directory.
     If	indent is run and a profile file exists, then it is read to set	up the
     program's defaults.  Switches on the command line,	though,	always over-
     ride profile switches.  The switches should be separated by spaces, tabs
     or	newlines.

     `Box' comments.  The indent utility assumes that any comment with a dash
     or	star immediately after the start of comment (that is, `/*-' or `/**')
     is	a comment surrounded by	a box of stars.	 Each line of such a comment
     is	left unchanged,	except that its	indentation may	be adjusted to account
     for the change in indentation of the first	line of	the comment.

     Straight text.  All other comments	are treated as straight	text.  The
     indent utility fits as many words (separated by blanks, tabs, or new-
     lines) on a line as possible.  Blank lines	break paragraphs.

   Comment indentation
     If	a comment is on	a line with code it is started in the `comment col-
     umn', which is set	by the -cn command line	parameter.  Otherwise, the
     comment is	started	at n indentation levels	less than where	code is	cur-
     rently being placed, where	n is specified by the -dn command line parame-
     ter.  If the code on a line extends past the comment column, the comment
     starts further to the right, and the right	margin may be automatically
     extended in extreme cases.

   Preprocessor	lines
     In	general, indent	leaves preprocessor lines alone.  The only reformat-
     ting that it will do is to	straighten up trailing comments.  It leaves
     embedded comments alone.  Conditional compilation (#ifdef...#endif) is
     recognized	and indent attempts to correctly compensate for	the syntactic
     peculiarities introduced.

   C syntax
     The indent	utility	understands a substantial amount about the syntax of
     C,	but it has a `forgiving' parser.  It attempts to cope with the usual
     sorts of incomplete and misformed syntax.	In particular, the use of
     macros like:

	   #define forever for(;;)

     is	handled	properly.

     The indent	utility	uses the HOME environment variable.

     ./  profile file
     ~/  profile file

     The indent	command	appeared in 4.2BSD.

     The indent	utility	has even more switches than ls(1).

     A common mistake that often causes	grief is typing:

	   indent *.c

     to	the shell in an	attempt	to indent all the C programs in	a directory.
     This is probably a	bug, not a feature.

BSD				 June 29, 2004				   BSD


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