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KQUEUE(2)		    BSD	System Calls Manual		     KQUEUE(2)

     kqueue, kevent -- kernel event notification mechanism

     Standard C	Library	(libc, -lc)

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/event.h>
     #include <sys/time.h>


     kevent(int	kq, const struct kevent	*changelist, int nchanges,
	 struct	kevent *eventlist, int nevents,
	 const struct timespec *timeout);

     EV_SET(_kev, ident, filter, flags,	fflags,	data, udata);

     kqueue() provides a generic method	of notifying the user when an event
     happens or	a condition holds, based on the	results	of small pieces	of
     kernel code termed	filters.  A kevent is identified by the	(ident,	fil-
     ter) pair;	there may only be one unique kevent per	kqueue.

     The filter	is executed upon the initial registration of a kevent in order
     to	detect whether a preexisting condition is present, and is also exe-
     cuted whenever an event is	passed to the filter for evaluation.  If the
     filter determines that the	condition should be reported, then the kevent
     is	placed on the kqueue for the user to retrieve.

     The filter	is also	run when the user attempts to retrieve the kevent from
     the kqueue.  If the filter	indicates that the condition that triggered
     the event no longer holds,	the kevent is removed from the kqueue and is
     not returned.

     Multiple events which trigger the filter do not result in multiple
     kevents being placed on the kqueue; instead, the filter will aggregate
     the events	into a single struct kevent.  Calling close() on a file	de-
     scriptor will remove any kevents that reference the descriptor.

     kqueue() creates a	new kernel event queue and returns a descriptor.  The
     queue is not inherited by a child created with fork(2).  However, if
     rfork(2) is called	without	the RFFDG flag,	then the descriptor table is
     shared, which will	allow sharing of the kqueue between two	processes.

     kevent() is used to register events with the queue, and return any	pend-
     ing events	to the user.  changelist is a pointer to an array of kevent
     structures, as defined in <sys/event.h>.  All changes contained in	the
     changelist	are applied before any pending events are read from the	queue.
     nchanges gives the	size of	changelist.  eventlist is a pointer to an ar-
     ray of kevent structures.	nevents	determines the size of eventlist.  If
     timeout is	a non-NULL pointer, it specifies a maximum interval to wait
     for an event, which will be interpreted as	a struct timespec.  If timeout
     is	a NULL pointer,	kevent() waits indefinitely.  To effect	a poll,	the
     timeout argument should be	non-NULL, pointing to a	zero-valued timespec
     structure.	 The same array	may be used for	the changelist and eventlist.

     EV_SET() is a macro which is provided for ease of initializing a kevent

     The kevent	structure is defined as:

     struct kevent {
	     uintptr_t ident;	     /*	identifier for this event */
	     short     filter;	     /*	filter for event */
	     u_short   flags;	     /*	action flags for kqueue	*/
	     u_int     fflags;	     /*	filter flag value */
	     intptr_t  data;	     /*	filter data value */
	     void      *udata;	     /*	opaque user data identifier */

     The fields	of struct kevent are:

     ident	Value used to identify this event.  The	exact interpretation
		is determined by the attached filter, but often	is a file de-

     filter	Identifies the kernel filter used to process this event.  The
		pre-defined system filters are described below.

     flags	Actions	to perform on the event.

     fflags	Filter-specific	flags.

     data	Filter-specific	data value.

     udata	Opaque user-defined value passed through the kernel unchanged.

     The flags field can contain the following values:

     EV_ADD	    Adds the event to the kqueue.  Re-adding an	existing event
		    will modify	the parameters of the original event, and not
		    result in a	duplicate entry.  Adding an event automati-
		    cally enables it, unless overridden	by the EV_DISABLE

     EV_ENABLE	    Permit kevent() to return the event	if it is triggered.

     EV_DISABLE	    Disable the	event so kevent() will not return it.  The
		    filter itself is not disabled.

     EV_DELETE	    Removes the	event from the kqueue.	Events which are at-
		    tached to file descriptors are automatically deleted on
		    the	last close of the descriptor.

     EV_ONESHOT	    Causes the event to	return only the	first occurrence of
		    the	filter being triggered.	 After the user	retrieves the
		    event from the kqueue, it is deleted.

     EV_CLEAR	    After the event is retrieved by the	user, its state	is re-
		    set.  This is useful for filters which report state	tran-
		    sitions instead of the current state.  Note	that some fil-
		    ters may automatically set this flag internally.

     EV_EOF	    Filters may	set this flag to indicate filter-specific EOF

     EV_ERROR	    See	RETURN VALUES below.

     The predefined system filters are listed below.  Arguments	may be passed
     to	and from the filter via	the fflags and data fields in the kevent

     EVFILT_READ    Takes a descriptor as the identifier, and returns whenever
		    there is data available to read.  The behavior of the fil-
		    ter	is slightly different depending	on the descriptor

			Sockets	which have previously been passed to listen()
			return when there is an	incoming connection pending.
			data contains the size of the listen backlog.

			Other socket descriptors return	when there is data to
			be read, subject to the	SO_RCVLOWAT value of the
			socket buffer.	This may be overridden with a per-fil-
			ter low	water mark at the time the filter is added by
			setting	the NOTE_LOWAT flag in fflags, and specifying
			the new	low water mark in data.	 On return, data con-
			tains the number of bytes in the socket	buffer.

			If the read direction of the socket has	shutdown, then
			the filter also	sets EV_EOF in flags, and returns the
			socket error (if any) in fflags.  It is	possible for
			EOF to be returned (indicating the connection is gone)
			while there is still data pending in the socket	buf-

			Returns	when the file pointer is not at	the end	of
			file.  data contains the offset	from current position
			to end of file,	and may	be negative.

		    Fifos, Pipes
			Returns	when the there is data to read;	data contains
			the number of bytes available.

			When the last writer disconnects, the filter will set
			EV_EOF in flags.  This may be cleared by passing in
			EV_CLEAR, at which point the filter will resume	wait-
			ing for	data to	become available before	returning.

     EVFILT_WRITE   Takes a descriptor as the identifier, and returns whenever
		    it is possible to write to the descriptor.	For sockets,
		    pipes and fifos, data will contain the amount of space re-
		    maining in the write buffer.  The filter will set EV_EOF
		    when the reader disconnects, and for the fifo case,	this
		    may	be cleared by use of EV_CLEAR.	Note that this filter
		    is not supported for vnodes.

		    For	sockets, the low water mark and	socket error handling
		    is identical to the	EVFILT_READ case.

     EVFILT_AIO	    The	sigevent portion of the	AIO request is filled in, with
		    sigev_notify_kqueue	containing the descriptor of the
		    kqueue that	the event should be attached to, sigev_value
		    containing the udata value,	and sigev_notify set to
		    SIGEV_EVENT.  When the aio_* function is called, the event
		    will be registered with the	specified kqueue, and the
		    ident argument set to the struct aiocb returned by the
		    aio_* function.  The filter	returns	under the same condi-
		    tions as aio_error.

		    Alternatively, a kevent structure may be initialized, with
		    ident containing the descriptor of the kqueue, and the ad-
		    dress of the kevent	structure placed in the	aio_lio_opcode
		    field of the AIO request.  However,	this approach will not
		    work on architectures with 64-bit pointers,	and should be
		    considered depreciated.

     EVFILT_VNODE   Takes a file descriptor as the identifier and the events
		    to watch for in fflags, and	returns	when one or more of
		    the	requested events occurs	on the descriptor.  The	events
		    to monitor are:

		    NOTE_DELETE	   unlink() was	called on the file referenced
				   by the descriptor.

		    NOTE_WRITE	   A write occurred on the file	referenced by
				   the descriptor.

		    NOTE_EXTEND	   The file referenced by the descriptor was

		    NOTE_ATTRIB	   The file referenced by the descriptor had
				   its attributes changed.

		    NOTE_LINK	   The link count on the file changed.

		    NOTE_RENAME	   The file referenced by the descriptor was

		    NOTE_REVOKE	   Access to the file was revoked via
				   revoke(2) or	the underlying fileystem was

		    On return, fflags contains the events which	triggered the

     EVFILT_PROC    Takes the process ID to monitor as the identifier and the
		    events to watch for	in fflags, and returns when the
		    process performs one or more of the	requested events.  If
		    a process can normally see another process,	it can attach
		    an event to	it.  The events	to monitor are:

		    NOTE_EXIT	     The process has exited.

		    NOTE_FORK	     The process has called fork().

		    NOTE_EXEC	     The process has executed a	new process
				     via execve(2) or similar call.

		    NOTE_TRACK	     Follow a process across fork() calls.
				     The parent	process	will return with
				     NOTE_TRACK	set in the fflags field, while
				     the child process will return with
				     NOTE_CHILD	set in fflags and the parent
				     PID in data.

		    NOTE_TRACKERR    This flag is returned if the system was
				     unable to attach an event to the child
				     process, usually due to resource limita-

		    On return, fflags contains the events which	triggered the

     EVFILT_SIGNAL  Takes the signal number to monitor as the identifier and
		    returns when the given signal is delivered to the process.
		    This coexists with the signal() and	sigaction() facili-
		    ties, and has a lower precedence.  The filter will record
		    all	attempts to deliver a signal to	a process, even	if the
		    signal has been marked as SIG_IGN.	Event notification
		    happens after normal signal	delivery processing.  data re-
		    turns the number of	times the signal has occurred since
		    the	last call to kevent().	This filter automatically sets
		    the	EV_CLEAR flag internally.

     kqueue() creates a	new kernel event queue and returns a file descriptor.
     If	there was an error creating the	kernel event queue, a value of -1 is
     returned and errno	set.

     kevent() returns the number of events placed in the eventlist, up to the
     value given by nevents.  If an error occurs while processing an element
     of	the changelist and there is enough room	in the eventlist, then the
     event will	be placed in the eventlist with	EV_ERROR set in	flags and the
     system error in data.  Otherwise, -1 will be returned, and	errno will be
     set to indicate the error condition.  If the time limit expires, then
     kevent() returns 0.

     The kqueue() function fails if:

     [ENOMEM]		The kernel failed to allocate enough memory for	the
			kernel queue.

     [EMFILE]		The per-process	descriptor table is full.

     [ENFILE]		The system file	table is full.

     The kevent() function fails if:

     [EACCES]		The process does not have permission to	register a

     [EFAULT]		There was an error reading or writing the kevent

     [EBADF]		The specified descriptor is invalid.

     [EINTR]		A signal was delivered before the timeout expired and
			before any events were placed on the kqueue for	re-

     [EINVAL]		The specified time limit or filter is invalid.

     [ENOENT]		The event could	not be found to	be modified or

     [ENOMEM]		No memory was available	to register the	event.

     [ESRCH]		The specified process to attach	to does	not exist.

     aio_error(2), aio_read(2),	aio_return(2), poll(2),	read(2), select(2),
     sigaction(2), write(2), signal(3)

     The kqueue() and kevent() functions first appeared	in FreeBSD 4.1.

     The kqueue() system and this manual page were written by Jonathan Lemon

     It	is currently not possible to watch a vnode(9) that resides on anything
     but a UFS file system.

BSD				April 14, 2000				   BSD


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