Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages


home | help
LAST(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual		       LAST(1)

     last -- indicate last logins of users and ttys

     last [-swy] [-d [[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS]] [-f file]	[-h host] [-n maxrec]
	  [-t tty] [user ...]

     The last utility will either list the sessions of specified users,	ttys,
     and hosts,	in reverse time	order, or list the users logged	in at a	speci-
     fied date and time.  Each line of output contains the user	name, the tty
     from which	the session was	conducted, any hostname, the start and stop
     times for the session, and	the duration of	the session.  If the session
     is	still continuing or was	cut short by a crash or	shutdown, last will so

     The following options are available:

     -d	date	 Specify the snapshot date and time.  All users	logged in at
		 the snapshot date and time will be reported.  This may	be
		 used with the -f option to derive the results from stored
		 wtmp files.  When this	argument is provided, all other	op-
		 tions except for -f and -n are	ignored.  The argument should
		 be in the form	[[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS]	where each pair	of
		 letters represents the	following:

		       CC      The first two digits of the year	(the century).
		       YY      The second two digits of	the year.  If YY is
			       specified, but CC is not, a value for YY	be-
			       tween 69	and 99 results in a CC value of	19.
			       Otherwise, a CC value of	20 is used.
		       MM      Month of	the year, from 1 to 12.
		       DD      Day of the month, from 1	to 31.
		       hh      Hour of the day,	from 0 to 23.
		       mm      Minute of the hour, from	0 to 59.
		       SS      Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.

		 If the	CC and YY letter pairs are not specified, the values
		 default to the	current	year.  If the SS letter	pair is	not
		 specified, the	value defaults to 0.

     -f	file	 Read the file file instead of the default, /var/log/wtmp.

     -h	host	 Host names may	be names or internet numbers.

     -n	maxrec	 Limit the report to maxrec lines.

     -s		 Report	the duration of	the login session in seconds, instead
		 of the	default	days, hours and	minutes.

     -t	tty	 Specify the tty.  Tty names may be given fully	or abbrevi-
		 ated, for example, "last -t 03" is equivalent to "last	-t

     -w		 Widen the duration field to show seconds, as well as the de-
		 fault days, hours and minutes.

     -y		 Report	the year in the	session	start time.

     If	multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified,
     the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
     "last root	-t console" would list all of "root's" sessions	as well	as all
     sessions on the console terminal.	If no users, hostnames or terminals
     are specified, last prints	a record of all	logins and logouts.

     The pseudo-user reboot logs in at reboots of the system, thus "last
     reboot" will give an indication of	mean time between reboot.

     If	last is	interrupted, it	indicates to what date the search has pro-
     gressed.  If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates	how far	the
     search has	progressed and then continues.

     /var/log/wtmp  login data base

     lastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)

     A last utility appeared in	3.0BSD.

     If	a login	shell should terminate abnormally for some reason, it is
     likely that a logout record will not be written to	the wtmp file.	In
     this case,	last will indicate the logout time as "shutdown".

BSD				 July 27, 2003				   BSD


Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:

home | help