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LOADER(8)               FreeBSD System Manager's Manual              LOADER(8)

     loader -- kernel bootstrapping final stage

     The program called loader is the final stage of FreeBSD's kernel boot-
     strapping process.  On IA32 (i386) architectures, it is a BTX client.  It
     is linked statically to libstand(3) and usually located in the directory

     It provides a scripting language that can be used to automate tasks, do
     pre-configuration or assist in recovery procedures.  This scripting lan-
     guage is roughly divided in two main components.  The smaller one is a
     set of commands designed for direct use by the casual user, called
     "builtin commands" for historical reasons.  The main drive behind these
     commands is user-friendliness.  The bigger component is an ANS Forth com-
     patible Forth interpreter based on FICL, by John Sadler.

     During initialization, loader will probe for a console and set the
     console variable, or set it to serial console (``comconsole'') if the
     previous boot stage used that.  If multiple consoles are selected, they
     will be listed separated by spaces.  Then, devices are probed, currdev
     and loaddev are set, and LINES is set to 24.  Next, FICL is initialized,
     the builtin words are added to its vocabulary, and /boot/boot.4th is pro-
     cessed if it exists.  No disk switching is possible while that file is
     being read.  The inner interpreter loader will use with FICL is then set
     to interpret, which is FICL's default.  After that, /boot/loader.rc is
     processed if available, and, failing that, /boot/boot.conf is read for
     historical reasons.  These files are processed through the include com-
     mand, which reads all of them into memory before processing them, making
     disk changes possible.

     At this point, if an autoboot has not been tried, and if autoboot_delay
     is not set to ``NO'' (not case sensitive), then an autoboot will be
     tried.  If the system gets past this point, prompt will be set and loader
     will engage interactive mode.  Please note that historically even when
     autoboot_delay is set to ``0'' user will be able to interrupt autoboot
     process by pressing some key on the console while kernel and modules are
     being loaded.  In some cases such behaviour may be undesirable, to pre-
     vent it set autoboot_delay to ``-1'', in this case loader will engage
     interactive mode only if autoboot has failed.

     In loader, builtin commands take parameters from the command line.
     Presently, the only way to call them from a script is by using evaluate
     on a string.  If an error condition occurs, an exception will be gener-
     ated, which can be intercepted using ANS Forth exception handling words.
     If not intercepted, an error message will be displayed and the inter-
     preter's state will be reset, emptying the stack and restoring interpret-
     ing mode.

     The builtin commands available are:

     autoboot [seconds [prompt]]
             Proceeds to bootstrap the system after a number of seconds, if
             not interrupted by the user.  Displays a countdown prompt warning
             the user the system is about to be booted, unless interrupted by
             a key press.  The kernel will be loaded first if necessary.
             Defaults to 10 seconds.

             Displays statistics about disk cache usage.  For debugging only.

     boot kernelname [...]
     boot -flag ...
             Immediately proceeds to bootstrap the system, loading the kernel
             if necessary.  Any flags or arguments are passed to the kernel,
             but they must precede the kernel name, if a kernel name is pro-

             WARNING: The behavior of this builtin is changed if loader.4th(8)
             is loaded.

     echo [-n] [<message>]
             Displays text on the screen.  A new line will be printed unless
             -n is specified.

     heap    Displays memory usage statistics.  For debugging purposes only.

     help [topic [subtopic]]
             Shows help messages read from /boot/  The special
             topic index will list the topics available.

     include file [file ...]
             Process script files.  Each file, in turn, is completely read
             into memory, and then each of its lines is passed to the command
             line interpreter.  If any error is returned by the interpreter,
             the include command aborts immediately, without reading any other
             files, and returns an error itself (see ERRORS).

     load [-t type] file ...
             Loads a kernel, kernel loadable module (kld), or file of opaque
             contents tagged as being of the type type.  Kernel and modules
             can be either in a.out or ELF format.  Any arguments passed after
             the name of the file to be loaded will be passed as arguments to
             that file.  Currently, argument passing does not work for the

     ls [-l] [path]
             Displays a listing of files in the directory path, or the root
             directory if path is not specified.  If -l is specified, file
             sizes will be shown too.

     lsdev [-v]
             Lists all of the devices from which it may be possible to load
             modules.  If -v is specified, more details are printed.

     lsmod [-v]
             Displays loaded modules.  If -v is specified, more details are

     more file [file ...]
             Display the files specified, with a pause at each LINES dis-

     pnpscan [-v]
             Scans for Plug-and-Play devices.  This is not functional at

     read [-t seconds] [-p prompt] [variable]
             Reads a line of input from the terminal, storing it in variable
             if specified.  A timeout can be specified with -t, though it will
             be canceled at the first key pressed.  A prompt may also be dis-
             played through the -p flag.

     reboot  Immediately reboots the system.

     set variable
     set variable=value
             Set loader's environment variables.

     show [variable]
             Displays the specified variable's value, or all variables and
             their values if variable is not specified.

     unload  Remove all modules from memory.

     unset variable
             Removes variable from the environment.

     ?       Lists available commands.

     The loader has actually two different kinds of `environment' variables.
     There are ANS Forth's environmental queries, and a separate space of
     environment variables used by builtins, which are not directly available
     to Forth words.  It is the latter type that this section covers.

     Environment variables can be set and unset through the set and unset
     builtins, and can have their values interactively examined through the
     use of the show builtin.  Their values can also be accessed as described

     Notice that these environment variables are not inherited by any shell
     after the system has been booted.

     A few variables are set automatically by loader.  Others can affect the
     behavior of either loader or the kernel at boot.  Some options may
     require a value, while others define behavior just by being set.  Both
     types of builtin variables are described below.

               Unset this to disable automatic loading of the ACPI module.
               See also hint.acpi.0.disabled in device.hints(5).

               Number of seconds autoboot will wait before booting.  If this
               variable is not defined, autoboot will default to 10 seconds.

               If set to ``NO'', no autoboot will be automatically attempted
               after processing /boot/loader.rc, though explicit autoboot's
               will be processed normally, defaulting to 10 seconds delay.

               If set to ``0'', no delay will be inserted, but user still will
               be able to interrupt autoboot process and escape into the
               interactive mode by pressing some key on the console while ker-
               nel and modules are being loaded.

               If set to ``-1'', no delay will be inserted and loader will
               engage interactive mode only if autoboot has failed for some

               Instructs the kernel to prompt the user for the name of the
               root device when the kernel is booted.

               Instructs the kernel to try to mount the root file system from

     boot_ddb  Instructs the kernel to start in the DDB debugger, rather than
               proceeding to initialize when booted.

               Instructs the kernel to mount the statically compiled-in root
               file system.

     boot_gdb  Selects gdb-remote mode for the kernel debugger by default.

               Enables multiple console support in the kernel early on boot.
               In a running system, console configuration can be manipulated
               by the conscontrol(8) utility.

               All console output is suppressed when console is muted.  In a
               running system, the state of console muting can be manipulated
               by the conscontrol(8) utility.

               During the device probe, pause after each line is printed.

               Force the use of a serial console even when an internal console
               is present.

               Prevents the kernel from initiating a multi-user startup;
               instead, a single-user mode will be entered when the kernel has
               finished device probing.

               Setting this variable causes extra debugging information to be
               printed by the kernel during the boot phase.

     bootfile  List of semicolon-separated search path for bootable kernels.
               The default is ``kernel''.

               Defines the speed of the serial console (i386 and amd64 only).
               If the previous boot stage indicated that a serial console is
               in use then this variable is initialized to the current speed
               of the console serial port.  Otherwise it is set to 9600 unless
               this was overridden using the BOOT_COMCONSOLE_SPEED variable
               when loader was compiled.  Changes to the comconsole_speed
               variable take effect immediately.

     console   Defines the current console or consoles.  Multiple consoles may
               be specified.  In that case, the first listed console will
               become the default console for userland output (e.g. from

     currdev   Selects the default device.  Syntax for devices is odd.

               Sets the list of binaries which the kernel will try to run as
               the initial process.  The first matching binary is used.  The
               default list is ``/sbin/init:/sbin/oinit:/sbin/init.bak:

               Has the value ``OK'' if the Forth's current state is interpret-

     LINES     Define the number of lines on the screen, to be used by the

               Sets the list of directories which will be searched for modules
               named in a load command or implicitly required by a dependency.
               The default value for this variable is

               Sets the number of IDE disks as a workaround for some problems
               in finding the root disk at boot.  This has been deprecated in
               favor of root_disk_unit.

     prompt    Value of loader's prompt.  Defaults to ``${interpret}''.  If
               variable prompt is unset, the default prompt is `>'.

               If the code which detects the disk unit number for the root
               disk is confused, e.g. by a mix of SCSI and IDE disks, or IDE
               disks with gaps in the sequence (e.g. no primary slave), the
               unit number can be forced by setting this variable.

     rootdev   By default the value of currdev is used to set the root file
               system when the kernel is booted.  This can be overridden by
               setting rootdev explicitly.

     Other variables are used to override kernel tunable parameters.  The fol-
     lowing tunables are available:

     hw.physmem    Limit the amount of physical memory the system will use.
                   By default the size is in bytes, but the k, K, m, M, g and
                   G suffixes are also accepted and indicate kilobytes,
                   megabytes and gigabytes respectively.  An invalid suffix
                   will result in the variable being ignored by the kernel.

     hw.pci.host_start_mem, hw.acpi.host_start_mem
                   When not otherwise constrained, this limits the memory
                   start address.  The default is 0x80000000 and should be set
                   to at least size of the memory and not conflict with other
                   resources.  Typically, only systems without PCI bridges
                   need to set this variable since PCI bridges typically con-
                   strain the memory starting address (and the variable is
                   only used when bridges do not constrain this address).

                   Enable PCI resources which are left off by some BIOSes or
                   are not enabled correctly by the device driver.  Tunable
                   value set to ON (1) by default, but this may cause problems
                   with some peripherals.

                   Set the size of a number of statically allocated system
                   tables; see tuning(7) for a description of how to select an
                   appropriate value for this tunable.  When set, this tunable
                   replaces the value declared in the kernel compile-time con-
                   figuration file.

                   Set the number of mbuf clusters to be allocated.  The value
                   cannot be set below the default determined when the kernel
                   was compiled.

                   Set the number of sendfile(2) buffers to be allocated.
                   Overrides NSFBUFS.  Not all architectures use such buffers;
                   see sendfile(2) for details.

                   Limits the amount of KVM to be used to hold swap meta
                   information, which directly governs the maximum amount of
                   swap the system can support.  This value is specified in
                   bytes of KVA space and defaults to around 70MBytes.  Care
                   should be taken to not reduce this value such that the
                   actual amount of configured swap exceeds 1/2 the kernel-
                   supported swap.  The default 70MB allows the kernel to sup-
                   port a maximum of (approximately) 14GB of configured swap.
                   Only mess around with this parameter if you need to greatly
                   extend the KVM reservation for other resources such as the
                   buffer cache or kern.ipc.nmbclusters.  Modifies

                   Limits the amount of KVM reserved for use by the buffer
                   cache, specified in bytes.  The default maximum is 200MB.
                   This parameter is used to prevent the buffer cache from
                   eating too much KVM in large-memory machine configurations.
                   Only mess around with this parameter if you need to greatly
                   extend the KVM reservation for other resources such as the
                   swap zone or kern.ipc.nmbclusters.  Note that the NBUF
                   parameter will override this limit.  Modifies

                   Disable the use of i686 MTRRs (x86 only).

                   Overrides the compile-time set value of TCBHASHSIZE or the
                   preset default of 512.  Must be a power of 2.

     vm.kmem_size  Sets the size of kernel memory (bytes).  This overrides the
                   value determined when the kernel was compiled.  Modifies

     When a builtin command is executed, the rest of the line is taken by it
     as arguments, and it is processed by a special parser which is not used
     for regular Forth commands.

     This special parser applies the following rules to the parsed text:

     1.   All backslash characters are preprocessed.

          +o   \b , \f , \r , \n and \t are processed as in C.

          +o   \s is converted to a space.

          +o   \v is converted to ASCII 11.

          +o   \z is just skipped.  Useful for things like ``\0xf\z\0xf''.

          +o   \0xN and \0xNN are replaced by the hex N or NN.

          +o   \NNN is replaced by the octal NNN ASCII character.

          +o   \" , \' and \$ will escape these characters, preventing them
              from receiving special treatment in Step 2, described below.

          +o   \\ will be replaced with a single \ .

          +o   In any other occurrence, backslash will just be removed.

     2.   Every string between non-escaped quotes or double-quotes will be
          treated as a single word for the purposes of the remaining steps.

     3.   Replace any $VARIABLE or ${VARIABLE} with the value of the environ-
          ment variable VARIABLE.

     4.   Space-delimited arguments are passed to the called builtin command.
          Spaces can also be escaped through the use of \\ .

     An exception to this parsing rule exists, and is described in BUILTINS

     All builtin words are state-smart, immediate words.  If interpreted, they
     behave exactly as described previously.  If they are compiled, though,
     they extract their arguments from the stack instead of the command line.

     If compiled, the builtin words expect to find, at execution time, the
     following parameters on the stack:
           addrN lenN ... addr2 len2 addr1 len1 N
     where addrX lenX are strings which will compose the command line that
     will be parsed into the builtin's arguments.  Internally, these strings
     are concatenated in from 1 to N, with a space put between each one.

     If no arguments are passed, a 0 must be passed, even if the builtin
     accepts no arguments.

     While this behavior has benefits, it has its trade-offs.  If the execu-
     tion token of a builtin is acquired (through ' or [']), and then passed
     to catch or execute, the builtin behavior will depend on the system state
     at the time catch or execute is processed!  This is particularly annoying
     for programs that want or need to handle exceptions.  In this case, the
     use of a proxy is recommended.  For example:
           : (boot) boot;

     FICL is a Forth interpreter written in C, in the form of a forth virtual
     machine library that can be called by C functions and vice versa.

     In loader, each line read interactively is then fed to FICL, which may
     call loader back to execute the builtin words.  The builtin include will
     also feed FICL, one line at a time.

     The words available to FICL can be classified into four groups.  The ANS
     Forth standard words, extra FICL words, extra FreeBSD words, and the
     builtin commands; the latter were already described.  The ANS Forth stan-
     dard words are listed in the STANDARDS section.  The words falling in the
     two other groups are described in the following subsections.







     compare        This is the STRING word set's compare.





     sliteral       This is the STRING word set's sliteral.








     $ (--)    Evaluates the remainder of the input buffer, after having
               printed it first.

     % (--)    Evaluates the remainder of the input buffer under a catch
               exception guard.

     .#        Works like .  but without outputting a trailing space.

     fclose (fd --)
               Closes a file.

     fkey (fd -- char)
               Reads a single character from a file.

     fload (fd --)
               Processes a file fd.

     fopen (addr len mode -- fd)
               Opens a file.  Returns a file descriptor, or -1 in case of
               failure.  The mode parameter selects whether the file is to be
               opened for read access, write access, or both.  The constants
               O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, and O_RDWR are defined in
               /boot/support.4th, indicating read only, write only, and read-
               write access, respectively.

     fread (fd addr len -- len')
               Tries to read len bytes from file fd into buffer addr.  Returns
               the actual number of bytes read, or -1 in case of error or end
               of file.

     heap? (-- cells)
               Return the space remaining in the dictionary heap, in cells.
               This is not related to the heap used by dynamic memory alloca-
               tion words.

     inb (port -- char)
               Reads a byte from a port.

     key (-- char)
               Reads a single character from the console.

     key? (-- flag)
               Returns true if there is a character available to be read from
               the console.

     ms (u --)
               Waits u microseconds.

     outb (port char --)
               Writes a byte to a port.

     seconds (-- u)
               Returns the number of seconds since midnight.

     tib> (-- addr len)
               Returns the remainder of the input buffer as a string on the

     trace! (flag --)
               Activates or deactivates tracing.  Does not work with catch.

             TRUE if the architecture is IA32.

             TRUE if the architecture is AXP.

             FreeBSD version at compile time.

             loader version.

     /boot/loader                loader itself.
     /boot/boot.4th              Additional FICL initialization.
     /boot/boot.conf             loader bootstrapping script.  Deprecated.
     /boot/loader.conf.local     loader configuration files, as described in
     /boot/loader.rc             loader bootstrapping script.
     /boot/           Loaded by help.  Contains the help messages.

     Boot in single user mode:

           boot -s

     Load the kernel, a splash screen, and then autoboot in five seconds.
     Notice that a kernel must be loaded before any other load command is

           load kernel
           load splash_bmp
           load -t splash_image_data /boot/chuckrulez.bmp
           autoboot 5

     Set the disk unit of the root device to 2, and then boot.  This would be
     needed in a system with two IDE disks, with the second IDE disk hardwired
     to wd2 instead of wd1.

           set root_disk_unit=2
           boot /kernel

     See also:

     /boot/loader.4th                 Extra builtin-like words.

     /boot/support.4th                loader.conf processing words.

     /usr/share/examples/bootforth/   Assorted examples.

     The following values are thrown by loader:

           100    Any type of error in the processing of a builtin.

           -1     Abort executed.

           -2     Abort" executed.

           -56    Quit executed.

           -256   Out of interpreting text.

           -257   Need more text to succeed -- will finish on next run.

           -258   Bye executed.

           -259   Unspecified error.

     libstand(3), loader.conf(5), tuning(7), boot(8), btxld(8)

     For the purposes of ANS Forth compliance, loader is an ANS Forth System
     with Environmental Restrictions, Providing .(, :noname, ?do, parse, pick,
     roll, refill, to, value, \, false, true, <>, 0<>, compile, , erase, nip,
     tuck and marker from the Core Extensions word set, Providing the Excep-
     tion Extensions word set, Providing the Locals Extensions word set, Pro-
     viding the Memory-Allocation Extensions word set, Providing .s, bye, for-
     get, see, words, [if], [else] and [then] from the Programming-Tools
     extension word set, Providing the Search-Order extensions word set.

     The loader first appeared in FreeBSD 3.1.

     The loader was written by Michael Smith <>.

     FICL was written by John Sadler <>.

     The expect and accept words will read from the input buffer instead of
     the console.  The latter will be fixed, but the former will not.

FreeBSD 6.2                    November 29, 2006                   FreeBSD 6.2


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