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LOGIN.CONF(5)		    BSD	File Formats Manual		 LOGIN.CONF(5)

     login.conf	-- login class capability database

     /etc/login.conf, ~/.login_conf

     login.conf	contains various attributes and	capabilities of	login classes.
     A login class (an optional	annotation against each	record in the user ac-
     count database, /etc/master.passwd) determines session accounting,	re-
     source limits and user environment	settings.  It is used by various pro-
     grams in the system to set	up a user's login environment and to enforce
     policy, accounting	and administrative restrictions.  It also provides the
     means by which users are able to be authenticated to the system and the
     types of authentication available.	 Attributes in addition	to the ones
     described here are	available with third-party packages.

     A special record "default"	in the system user class capability database
     /etc/login.conf is	used automatically for any non-root user without a
     valid login class in /etc/master.passwd.  A user with a uid of 0 without
     a valid login class will use the record "root" if it exists, or "default"
     if	not.

     In	FreeBSD, users may individually	create a file called .login_conf in
     their home	directory using	the same format, consisting of a single	entry
     with a record id of "me".	If present, this file is used by login(1) to
     set user-defined environment settings which override those	specified in
     the system	login capabilities database.  Only a subset of login capabili-
     ties may be overridden, typically those which do not involve authentica-
     tion, resource limits and accounting.

     Records in	a class	capabilities database consist of a number of colon-
     separated fields.	The first entry	for each record	gives one or more
     names that	a record is to be known	by, each separated by a	'|' character.
     The first name is the most	common abbreviation.  The last name given
     should be a long name that	is more	descriptive of the capability entry,
     and all others are	synonyms.  All names but the last should be in lower
     case and contain no blanks; the last name may contain upper case charac-
     ters and blanks for readability.

     Note that since a colon (`:') is used to separate capability entries, a
     `\c' escape sequence must be used to embed	a literal colon	in the value
     or	name of	a capability.

     The default /etc/login.conf shipped with FreeBSD is an out	of the box
     configuration.  Whenever changes to this, or the user's ~/.login_conf,
     file are made, the	modifications will not be picked up until cap_mkdb(1)
     is	used to	compile	the file into a	database.  This	database file will
     have a .db	extension and is accessed through cgetent(3).  See getcap(3)
     for a more	in-depth description of	the format of a	capability database.

     Fields within each	record in the database follow the getcap(3) conven-
     tions for boolean,	type string `='	and type numeric `#', although type
     numeric is	deprecated in favour of	the string format and either form is
     accepted for a numeric datum.  Values fall	into the following categories:

     bool     If the name is present, then the boolean value is	true; other-
	      wise, it is false

     file     Path name	to a data file

     program  Path name	to an executable file

     list     A	list of	values (or pairs of values) separated by commas	or

     path     A	space or comma separated list of path names, following the
	      usual csh	conventions (leading tilde with	and without username
	      being expanded to	home directories etc.)

     number   A	numeric	value, either decimal (default), hexadecimal (with
	      leading 0x), or octal (with a leading 0).	 With a	numeric	type,
	      only one numeric value is	allowed.  Numeric types	may also be
	      specified	in string format (i.e.,	the capability tag being de-
	      limited from the value by	'=' instead of '#').  Whichever	method
	      is used, then all	records	in the database	must use the same
	      method to	allow values to	be correctly overridden	in interpo-
	      lated records.

     size     A	number which expresses a size.	The default interpretation of
	      a	value is the number of bytes, but a suffix may specify alter-
	      nate units:
		    b	  explicitly selects 512-byte blocks
		    k	  selects kilobytes (1024 bytes)
		    m	  specifies a multiplier of 1 megabyte (1048576
		    g	  specifies units of gigabytes,	and
		    t	  represents terabytes.
	      A	size value is a	numeric	quantity and case of the suffix	is not
	      significant.  Concatenated values	are added together.

     time     A	period of time,	by default in seconds.	A prefix may specify a
	      different	unit:
		    y	  indicates the	number of 365 day years,
		    w	  indicates the	number of weeks,
		    d	  the number of	days,
		    h	  the number of	hours,
		    m	  the number of	minutes, and
		    s	  the number of	seconds.
	      Concatenated values are added together.  For example, 2 hours
	      and 40 minutes may be written either as 9600s, 160m or 2h40m.

     The usual convention to interpolate capability entries using the special
     tc=value notation may be used.

     Name	     Type      Notes	 Description
     coredumpsize    size		 Maximum coredump size limit.
     cputime	     time		 CPU usage limit.
     datasize	     size		 Maximum data size limit.
     filesize	     size		 Maximum file size limit.
     maxproc	     number		 Maximum number	of processes.
     memorylocked    size		 Maximum locked	in core	memory size
     memoryuse	     size		 Maximum of core memory	use size
     openfiles	     number		 Maximum number	of open	files per
     sbsize	     size		 Maximum permitted socketbuffer	size.
     vmemoryuse	     size		 Maximum permitted total VM usage per
     stacksize	     size		 Maximum stack size limit.

     These resource limit entries actually specify both	the maximum and	cur-
     rent limits (see getrlimit(2)).  The current (soft) limit is the one nor-
     mally used, although the user is permitted	to increase the	current	limit
     to	the maximum (hard) limit.  The maximum and current limits may be spec-
     ified individually	by appending a -max or -cur to the capability name.

     Name	      Type	Notes		 Description
     charset	      string			 Set $MM_CHARSET environment
						 variable to the specified
     cpumask	      string			 List of cpus to bind the user
						 to. The syntax	is the same as
						 for the -l argument of
						 cpuset(1) or the word
						 `default'.  If	set to
						 `default' no action is	taken.
     hushlogin	      bool	false		 Same as having	a ~/.hushlogin
     ignorenologin    bool	false		 Login not prevented by
     ftp-chroot	      bool	false		 Limit FTP access with
						 chroot(2) to the HOME direc-
						 tory of the user.  See
						 ftpd(8) for details.
     label	      string			 Default MAC policy; see
     lang	      string			 Set $LANG environment
						 variable to the specified
     manpath	      path			 Default search	path for
     nocheckmail      bool	false		 Display mail status at	login.
     nologin	      file			 If the	file exists it will be
						 displayed and the login ses-
						 sion will be terminated.
     path	      path	/bin /usr/bin	 Default search	path.
     priority	      number			 Initial priority (nice)
     requirehome      bool	false		 Require a valid home
						 directory to login.
     setenv	      list			 A comma-separated list	of
						 environment variables and
						 values	to which they are to
						 be set.
     shell	      prog			 Session shell to execute
						 rather	than the shell speci-
						 fied in the passwd file.  The
						 SHELL environment variable
						 will contain the shell	speci-
						 fied in the password file.
     term	      string			 Default terminal type if not
						 able to determine from	other
     timezone	      string			 Default value of $TZ
						 environment variable.
     umask	      number	022		 Initial umask.	Should always
						 have a	leading	0 to ensure
						 octal interpretation.
     welcome	      file	/etc/motd	 File containing welcome

     Name	      Type	Notes	  Description
     copyright	      file		  File containing additional copyright
     host.allow	      list		  List of remote host wildcards	from
					  which	users in the class may access.
     host.deny	      list		  List of remote host wildcards	from
					  which	users in the class may not ac-
     login_prompt     string		  The login prompt given by login(1)
     login-backoff    number	3	  The number of	login attempts allowed
					  before the backoff delay is inserted
					  after	each subsequent	attempt.  The
					  backoff delay	is the number of tries
					  above	login-backoff multiplied by 5
     login-retries    number	10	  The number of	login attempts allowed
					  before the login fails.
     passwd_format    string	md5	  The encryption format	that new or
					  changed passwords will use.  Valid
					  values include "des",	"md5" and
					  "blf".  NIS clients using a
					  non-FreeBSD NIS server should	proba-
					  bly use "des".
     passwd_prompt    string		  The password prompt presented	by
     times.allow      list		  List of time periods during which
					  logins are allowed.
     times.deny	      list		  List of time periods during which
					  logins are disallowed.
     ttys.allow	      list		  List of ttys and ttygroups which
					  users	in the class may use for ac-
     ttys.deny	      list		  List of ttys and ttygroups which
					  users	in the class may not use for
     warnexpire	      time		  Advance notice for pending account
     warnpassword     time		  Advance notice for pending password

     These fields are intended to be used by passwd(1) and other programs in
     the login authentication system.

     Capabilities that set environment variables are scanned for both `~' and
     `$' characters, which are substituted for a user's	home directory and
     name respectively.	 To pass these characters literally into the environ-
     ment variable, escape the character by preceding it with a	backslash '\'.

     The host.allow and	host.deny entries are comma separated lists used for
     checking remote access to the system, and consist of a list of hostnames
     and/or IP addresses against which remote network logins are checked.
     Items in these lists may contain wildcards	in the form used by shell pro-
     grams for wildcard	matching (See fnmatch(3) for details on	the implemen-
     tation).  The check on hosts is made against both the remote system's In-
     ternet address and	hostname (if available).  If both lists	are empty or
     not specified, then logins	from any remote	host are allowed.  If
     low contains one or more hosts, then only remote systems matching any of
     the items in that list are	allowed	to log in.  If host.deny contains one
     or	more hosts, then a login from any matching hosts will be disallowed.

     The times.allow and times.deny entries consist of a comma-separated list
     of	time periods during which the users in a class are allowed to be
     logged in.	 These are expressed as	one or more day	codes followed by a
     start and end times expressed in 24 hour format, separated	by a hyphen or
     dash.  For	example, MoThSa0200-1300 translates to Monday, Thursday	and
     Saturday between the hours	of 2 am	and 1 p.m..  If	both of	these time
     lists are empty, users in the class are allowed access at any time.  If
     times.allow is specified, then logins are only allowed during the periods
     given.  If	times.deny is specified, then logins are denied	during the pe-
     riods given, regardless of	whether	one of the periods specified in
     times.allow applies.

     Note that login(1)	enforces only that the actual login falls within peri-
     ods allowed by these entries.  Further enforcement	over the life of a
     session requires a	separate daemon	to monitor transitions from an allowed
     period to a non-allowed one.

     The ttys.allow and	ttys.deny entries contain a comma-separated list of
     tty devices (without the /dev/ prefix) that a user	in a class may use to
     access the	system,	and/or a list of ttygroups (See	getttyent(3) and
     ttys(5) for information on	ttygroups).  If	neither	entry exists, then the
     choice of login device used by the	user is	unrestricted.  If only
     ttys.allow	is specified, then the user is restricted only to ttys in the
     given group or device list.  If only ttys.deny is specified, then the
     user is prevented from using the specified	devices	or devices in the
     group.  If	both lists are given and are non-empty,	the user is restricted
     to	those devices allowed by ttys.allow that are not available by

     The minpasswordlen	and minpasswordcase facilities for enforcing restric-
     tions on password quality,	which used to be supported by login.conf, have
     been superseded by	the pam_passwdqc(8) PAM	module.

     The following capabilities	are reserved for the purposes indicated	and
     may be supported by third-party software.	They are not implemented in
     the base system.

     Name	       Type	 Notes	   Description
     accounted	       bool	 false	   Enable session time accounting for
					   all users in	this class.
     auth	       list	 passwd	   Allowed authentication styles. The
					   first item is the default style.
     auth-type	       list		   Allowed authentication styles for
					   the authentication type.
     autodelete	       time		   Time	after expiry when account is
     bootfull	       bool	 false	   Enable 'boot	only if	ttygroup is
					   full' strategy when terminating
     daytime	       time		   Maximum login time per day.
     expireperiod      time		   Time	for expiry allocation.
     graceexpire       time		   Grace days for expired account.
     gracetime	       time		   Additional grace login time
     host.accounted    list		   List	of remote host wildcards from
					   which login sessions	will be	ac-
     host.exempt       list		   List	of remote host wildcards from
					   which login session accounting is
     idletime	       time		   Maximum idle	time before logout.
     minpasswordlen    number	 6	   The minimum length a	local password
					   may be.
     mixpasswordcase   bool	 true	   Whether passwd(1) will warn the
					   user	if an all lower	case password
					   is entered.
     monthtime	       time		   Maximum login time per month.
     passwordtime      time		   Used	by passwd(1) to	set next pass-
					   word	expiry date.
     refreshtime       time		   New time allowed on account
     refreshperiod     str		   How often account time is
     sessiontime       time		   Maximum login time per session.
     sessionlimit      number		   Maximum number of concurrent	login
					   sessions on ttys in any group.
     ttys.accounted    list		   List	of ttys	and ttygroups for
					   which login accounting is active.
     ttys.exempt       list		   List	of ttys	and ttygroups for
					   which login accounting is exempt.
     warntime	       time		   Advance notice for pending out-of-
     weektime	       time		   Maximum login time per week.

     The ttys.accounted	and ttys.exempt	fields operate in a similar manner to
     ttys.allow	and ttys.deny as explained above.  Similarly with the
     host.accounted and	host.exempt lists.

     cap_mkdb(1), login(1), chroot(2), getcap(3), getttyent(3),	login_cap(3),
     login_class(3), pam(3), passwd(5),	ttys(5), ftpd(8), pam_passwdqc(8)

BSD				October	9, 2006				   BSD


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