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LS(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			 LS(1)

     ls	-- list	directory contents

     ls	[-ABCFGHLPRTWZabcdfghiklmnopqrstuwx1] [file ...]

     For each operand that names a file	of a type other	than directory,	ls
     displays its name as well as any requested, associated information.  For
     each operand that names a file of type directory, ls displays the names
     of	files contained	within that directory, as well as any requested, asso-
     ciated information.

     If	no operands are	given, the contents of the current directory are dis-
     played.  If more than one operand is given, non-directory operands	are
     displayed first; directory	and non-directory operands are sorted sepa-
     rately and	in lexicographical order.

     The following options are available:

     -A	     List all entries except for . and ...  Always set for the super-

     -B	     Force printing of non-printable characters	(as defined by
	     ctype(3) and current locale settings) in file names as \xxx,
	     where xxx is the numeric value of the character in	octal.

     -C	     Force multi-column	output;	this is	the default when output	is to
	     a terminal.

     -F	     Display a slash (`/') immediately after each pathname that	is a
	     directory,	an asterisk (`*') after	each that is executable, an at
	     sign (`@')	after each symbolic link, an equals sign (`=') after
	     each socket, a percent sign (`%') after each whiteout, and	a ver-
	     tical bar (`|') after each	that is	a FIFO.

     -G	     Enable colorized output.  This option is equivalent to defining
	     CLICOLOR in the environment.  (See	below.)

     -H	     Symbolic links on the command line	are followed.  This option is
	     assumed if	none of	the -F,	-d, or -l options are specified.

     -L	     If	argument is a symbolic link, list the file or directory	the
	     link references rather than the link itself.  This	option cancels
	     the -P option.

     -P	     If	argument is a symbolic link, list the link itself rather than
	     the object	the link references.  This option cancels the -H and
	     -L	options.

     -R	     Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

     -T	     When used with the	-l (lowercase letter "ell") option, display
	     complete time information for the file, including month, day,
	     hour, minute, second, and year.

     -W	     Display whiteouts when scanning directories.

     -Z	     Display each file's MAC label; see	maclabel(7).

     -a	     Include directory entries whose names begin with a	dot (.).

     -b	     As	-B, but	use C escape codes whenever possible.

     -c	     Use time when file	status was last	changed	for sorting or print-

     -d	     Directories are listed as plain files (not	searched recursively).

     -f	     Output is not sorted.

     -g	     This option is deprecated and is only available for compatibility
	     with 4.3BSD; it was used to display the group name	in the long
	     (-l) format output.

     -h	     When used with the	-l option, use unit suffixes: Byte, Kilobyte,
	     Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte and Petabyte in order	to reduce the
	     number of digits to four or fewer using base 2 for	sizes.

     -i	     For each file, print the file's file serial number	(inode num-

     -k	     If	the -s option is specified, print the file size	allocation in
	     kilobytes,	not blocks.  This option overrides the environment
	     variable BLOCKSIZE.  Note that -k is mutually exclusive to	-h and
	     later -k will nullify earlier -h.

     -l	     (The lowercase letter "ell".)  List in long format.  (See below.)
	     If	the output is to a terminal, a total sum for all the file
	     sizes is output on	a line before the long listing.

     -m	     Stream output format; list	files across the page, separated by

     -n	     Display user and group IDs	numerically rather than	converting to
	     a user or group name in a long (-l) output.

     -o	     Include the file flags in a long (-l) output.

     -p	     Write a slash (`/') after each filename if	that file is a direc-

     -q	     Force printing of non-graphic characters in file names as the
	     character `?'; this is the	default	when output is to a terminal.

     -r	     Reverse the order of the sort to get reverse lexicographical or-
	     der or the	oldest entries first.

     -s	     Display the number	of file	system blocks actually used by each
	     file, in units of 512 bytes, where	partial	units are rounded up
	     to	the next integer value.	 If the	output is to a terminal, a to-
	     tal sum for all the file sizes is output on a line	before the
	     listing.  The environment variable	BLOCKSIZE overrides the	unit
	     size of 512 bytes.

     -t	     Sort by time modified (most recently modified first) before sort-
	     ing the operands by lexicographical order.

     -u	     Use time of last access, instead of last modification of the file
	     for sorting (-t) or printing (-l).

     -w	     Force raw printing	of non-printable characters.  This is the de-
	     fault when	output is not to a terminal.

     -x	     The same as -C, except that the multi-column output is produced
	     with entries sorted across, rather	than down, the columns.

     -1	     (The numeric digit	"one".)	 Force output to be one	entry per
	     line.  This is the	default	when output is not to a	terminal.

     The -1, -C, -x, and -l options all	override each other; the last one
     specified determines the format used.

     The -c and	-u options override each other;	the last one specified deter-
     mines the file time used.

     The -B, -b, -w, and -q options all	override each other; the last one
     specified determines the format used for non-printable characters.

     The -H, -L	and -P options all override each other (either partially or
     fully); they are applied in the order specified.

     By	default, ls lists one entry per	line to	standard output; the excep-
     tions are to terminals or when the	-C or -x options are specified.

     File information is displayed with	one or more <blank>s separating	the
     information associated with the -i, -s, and -l options.

   The Long Format
     If	the -l option is given,	the following information is displayed for
     each file:	file mode, number of links, owner name,	group name, MAC	label,
     number of bytes in	the file, abbreviated month, day-of-month file was
     last modified, hour file last modified, minute file last modified,	and
     the pathname.  In addition, for each directory whose contents are dis-
     played, the total number of 512-byte blocks used by the files in the di-
     rectory is	displayed on a line by itself immediately before the informa-
     tion for the files	in the directory.

     If	the modification time of the file is more than 6 months	in the past or
     future, then the year of the last modification is displayed in place of
     the hour and minute fields.

     If	the owner or group names are not a known user or group name, or	the -n
     option is given, the numeric ID's are displayed.

     If	the file is a character	special	or block special file, the major and
     minor device numbers for the file are displayed in	the size field.	 If
     the file is a symbolic link the pathname of the linked-to file is pre-
     ceded by "->".

     The file mode printed under the -l	option consists	of the entry type and
     the permissions.  The entry type character	describes the type of file, as

	   b	 Block special file.
	   c	 Character special file.
	   d	 Directory.
	   l	 Symbolic link.
	   s	 Socket	link.
	   p	 FIFO.
	   -	 Regular file.

     The next three fields are three characters	each: owner permissions, group
     permissions, and other permissions.  Each field has three character posi-

	   1.	If r, the file is readable; if -, it is	not readable.

	   2.	If w, the file is writable; if -, it is	not writable.

	   3.	The first of the following that	applies:

		      S	    If in the owner permissions, the file is not exe-
			    cutable and	set-user-ID mode is set.  If in	the
			    group permissions, the file	is not executable and
			    set-group-ID mode is set.

		      s	    If in the owner permissions, the file is exe-
			    cutable and	set-user-ID mode is set.  If in	the
			    group permissions, the file	is executable and set-
			    group-ID mode is set.

		      x	    The	file is	executable or the directory is search-

		      -	    The	file is	neither	readable, writable, exe-
			    cutable, nor set-user-ID nor set-group-ID mode,
			    nor	sticky.	 (See below.)

		These next two apply only to the third character in the	last
		group (other permissions).

		      T	    The	sticky bit is set (mode	1000), but not execute
			    or search permission.  (See	chmod(1) or

		      t	    The	sticky bit is set (mode	1000), and is search-
			    able or executable.	 (See chmod(1) or sticky(8).)

     The next field contains a plus (`+') character if the file	has an ACL, or
     a space (`	') if it does not.  The	ls utility does	not show the actual
     ACL; use getfacl(1) to do this.

     The following is how to do	an ls listing sorted by	size (and shows	why ls
     does not need a separate option for this):

	   ls -l | sort	-n +4

     Additionally, the -r flag to sort(1) may be used to get the results
     sorted from largest to smallest (a	reverse	sort).

     The ls utility exits 0 on success,	and >0 if an error occurs.

     The following environment variables affect	the execution of ls:

     BLOCKSIZE	     If	the environment	variable BLOCKSIZE is set, the block
		     counts (see -s) will be displayed in units	of that	size

     CLICOLOR	     Use ANSI color sequences to distinguish file types.  See
		     LSCOLORS below.  In addition to the file types mentioned
		     in	the -F option some extra attributes (setuid bit	set,
		     etc.) are also displayed.	The colorization is dependent
		     on	a terminal type	with the proper	termcap(5) capabili-
		     ties.  The	default	"cons25" console has the proper	capa-
		     bilities, but to display the colors in an xterm(1), for
		     example, the TERM variable	must be	set to "xterm-color".
		     Other terminal types may require similar adjustments.
		     Colorization is silently disabled if the output isn't di-
		     rected to a terminal unless the CLICOLOR_FORCE variable
		     is	defined.

     CLICOLOR_FORCE  Color sequences are normally disabled if the output isn't
		     directed to a terminal.  This can be overridden by	set-
		     ting this flag.  The TERM variable	still needs to refer-
		     ence a color capable terminal however otherwise it	is not
		     possible to determine which color sequences to use.

     COLUMNS	     If	this variable contains a string	representing a decimal
		     integer, it is used as the	column position	width for dis-
		     playing multiple-text-column output.  The ls utility cal-
		     culates how many pathname text columns to display based
		     on	the width provided.  (See -C and -x.)

     LANG	     The locale	to use when determining	the order of day and
		     month in the long -l format output.  See environ(7) for
		     more information.

     LSCOLORS	     The value of this variable	describes what color to	use
		     for which attribute when colors are enabled with
		     CLICOLOR.	This string is a concatenation of pairs	of the
		     format fb,	where f	is the foreground color	and b is the
		     background	color.

		     The color designators are as follows:

			   a	 black
			   b	 red
			   c	 green
			   d	 brown
			   e	 blue
			   f	 magenta
			   g	 cyan
			   h	 light grey
			   A	 bold black, usually shows up as dark grey
			   B	 bold red
			   C	 bold green
			   D	 bold brown, usually shows up as yellow
			   E	 bold blue
			   F	 bold magenta
			   G	 bold cyan
			   H	 bold light grey; looks	like bright white
			   x	 default foreground or background

		     Note that the above are standard ANSI colors.  The	actual
		     display may differ	depending on the color capabilities of
		     the terminal in use.

		     The order of the attributes are as	follows:

			   1.	directory
			   2.	symbolic link
			   3.	socket
			   4.	pipe
			   5.	executable
			   6.	block special
			   7.	character special
			   8.	executable with	setuid bit set
			   9.	executable with	setgid bit set
			   10.	directory writable to others, with sticky bit
			   11.	directory writable to others, without sticky

		     The default is "exfxcxdxbxegedabagacad", i.e. blue	fore-
		     ground and	default	background for regular directories,
		     black foreground and red background for setuid executa-
		     bles, etc.

     LS_COLWIDTHS    If	this variable is set, it is considered to be a colon-
		     delimited list of minimum column widths.  Unreasonable
		     and insufficient widths are ignored (thus zero signifies
		     a dynamically sized column).  Not all columns have
		     changeable	widths.	 The fields are, in order: inode,
		     block count, number of links, user	name, group name,
		     flags, file size, file name.

     TERM	     The CLICOLOR functionality	depends	on a terminal type
		     with color	capabilities.

     TZ		     The timezone to use when displaying dates.	 See
		     environ(7)	for more information.

     The group field is	now automatically included in the long listing for
     files in order to be compatible with the IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2")

     chflags(1), chmod(1), getfacl(1), sort(1),	xterm(1), termcap(5),
     maclabel(7), symlink(7), getfmac(8), sticky(8)

     With the exception	of options -g, -n and -o, the ls utility conforms to
     IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 ("POSIX.1").

     The ACL support is	compatible with	IEEE Std 1003.2c ("POSIX.2c") Draft 17

     An	ls command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

     To	maintain backward compatibility, the relationships between the many
     options are quite complex.

BSD				 May 19, 2002				   BSD


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