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STAT(2)			  FreeBSD System Calls Manual		       STAT(2)

     stat, lstat, fstat, fstatat -- get	file status

     Standard C	Library	(libc, -lc)

     #include <sys/stat.h>

     stat(const	char * restrict	path, struct stat * restrict sb);

     lstat(const char *	restrict path, struct stat * restrict sb);

     fstat(int fd, struct stat *sb);

     fstatat(int fd, const char	*path, struct stat *sb,	int flag);

     The stat()	system call obtains information	about the file pointed to by
     path.  Read, write	or execute permission of the named file	is not re-
     quired, but all directories listed	in the path name leading to the	file
     must be searchable.

     The lstat() system	call is	like stat() except when	the named file is a
     symbolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the	link,
     while stat() returns information about the	file the link references.

     The fstat() system	call obtains the same information about	an open	file
     known by the file descriptor fd.

     The fstatat() system call is equivalent to	stat() and lstat() except when
     the path specifies	a relative path.  For fstatat()	and relative path, the
     status is retrieved from a	file relative to the directory associated with
     the file descriptor fd instead of the current working directory.

     The values	for the	flag are constructed by	a bitwise-inclusive OR of
     flags from	this list, defined in <fcntl.h>:

	     If	path names a symbolic link, the	status of the symbolic link is

	     Only walk paths below the starting	directory.  See	the descrip-
	     tion of the O_RESOLVE_BENEATH flag	in the open(2) manual page.

	     If	the path argument is an	empty string, operate on the file or
	     directory referenced by the descriptor fd.	 If fd is equal	to
	     AT_FDCWD, operate on the current working directory.

     If	fstatat() is passed the	special	value AT_FDCWD in the fd parameter,
     the current working directory is used and the behavior is identical to a
     call to stat() or lstat() respectively, depending on whether or not the
     AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW bit is	set in flag.

     When fstatat() is called with an absolute path, it	ignores	the fd argu-

     The sb argument is	a pointer to a stat structure as defined by
     <sys/stat.h> and into which information is	placed concerning the file.

     The fields	of struct stat related to the file system are:

     st_dev    Numeric ID of the device	containing the file.

     st_ino    The file's inode	number.

     st_nlink  Number of hard links to the file.

     st_flags  Flags enabled for the file.  See	chflags(2) for the list	of
	       flags and their description.

     The st_dev	and st_ino fields together identify the	file uniquely within
     the system.

     The time-related fields of	struct stat are:

     st_atim	  Time when file data was last accessed.  Changed implicitly
		  by syscalls such as read(2) and readv(2), and	explicitly by

     st_mtim	  Time when file data was last modified.  Changed implicitly
		  by syscalls such as truncate(2), write(2), and writev(2),
		  and explicitly by utimes(2).	Also, any syscall which	modi-
		  fies directory content changes the st_mtim for the affected
		  directory.  For instance, creat(2), mkdir(2),	rename(2),
		  link(2), and unlink(2).

     st_ctim	  Time when file status	was last changed (inode	data modifica-
		  tion).  Changed implicitly by	any syscall that affects file
		  metadata, including st_mtim, such as chflags(2), chmod(2),
		  chown(2), truncate(2), utimes(2), and	write(2).  Also, any
		  syscall which	modifies directory content changes the st_ctim
		  for the affected directory.  For instance, creat(2),
		  mkdir(2), rename(2), link(2),	and unlink(2).

     st_birthtim  Time when the	inode was created.

     These time-related	macros are defined for compatibility:

     #define st_atime		     st_atim.tv_sec
     #define st_mtime		     st_mtim.tv_sec
     #define st_ctime		     st_ctim.tv_sec
     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
     #define st_birthtime	     st_birthtim.tv_sec

     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
     #define st_atimespec	     st_atim
     #define st_mtimespec	     st_mtim
     #define st_ctimespec	     st_ctim
     #define st_birthtimespec	     st_birthtim

     Size-related fields of the	struct stat are:

     st_size	 File size in bytes.

     st_blksize	 Optimal I/O block size	for the	file.

     st_blocks	 Actual	number of blocks allocated for the file	in 512-byte
		 units.	 As short symbolic links are stored in the inode, this
		 number	may be zero.

     The access-related	fields of struct stat are:

     st_uid   User ID of the file's owner.

     st_gid   Group ID of the file.

     st_mode  Status of	the file (see below).

     The status	information word st_mode has these bits:

     #define S_IFMT   0170000  /* type of file mask */
     #define S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named	pipe (fifo) */
     #define S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
     #define S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
     #define S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block	special	*/
     #define S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
     #define S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link	*/
     #define S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket */
     #define S_IFWHT  0160000  /* whiteout */
     #define S_ISUID  0004000  /* set user id on execution */
     #define S_ISGID  0002000  /* set group id on execution */
     #define S_ISVTX  0001000  /* save swapped text even after use */
     #define S_IRWXU  0000700  /* RWX mask for owner */
     #define S_IRUSR  0000400  /* read permission, owner */
     #define S_IWUSR  0000200  /* write	permission, owner */
     #define S_IXUSR  0000100  /* execute/search permission, owner */
     #define S_IRWXG  0000070  /* RWX mask for group */
     #define S_IRGRP  0000040  /* read permission, group */
     #define S_IWGRP  0000020  /* write	permission, group */
     #define S_IXGRP  0000010  /* execute/search permission, group */
     #define S_IRWXO  0000007  /* RWX mask for other */
     #define S_IROTH  0000004  /* read permission, other */
     #define S_IWOTH  0000002  /* write	permission, other */
     #define S_IXOTH  0000001  /* execute/search permission, other */

     For a list	of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2) and chmod(2).
     These macros are available	to test	whether	a st_mode value	passed in the
     m argument	corresponds to a file of the specified type:

     S_ISBLK(m)	  Test for a block special file.

     S_ISCHR(m)	  Test for a character special file.

     S_ISDIR(m)	  Test for a directory.

     S_ISFIFO(m)  Test for a pipe or FIFO special file.

     S_ISLNK(m)	  Test for a symbolic link.

     S_ISREG(m)	  Test for a regular file.

     S_ISSOCK(m)  Test for a socket.

     S_ISWHT(m)	  Test for a whiteout.

     The macros	evaluate to a non-zero value if	the test is true or to the
     value 0 if	the test is false.

     Upon successful completion, the value 0 is	returned; otherwise the
     value -1 is returned and the global variable errno	is set to indicate the

     Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev,
     st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize and st_blocks	fields.

     The stat()	and lstat() system calls will fail if:

     [EACCES]		Search permission is denied for	a component of the
			path prefix.

     [EFAULT]		The sb or path argument	points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]		An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
			the file system.

     [EINTEGRITY]	Corrupted data was detected while reading from the
			file system.

     [ELOOP]		Too many symbolic links	were encountered in translat-
			ing the	pathname.

     [ENAMETOOLONG]	A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters, or
			an entire path name exceeded 1023 characters.

     [ENOENT]		The named file does not	exist.

     [ENOTDIR]		A component of the path	prefix is not a	directory.

     [EOVERFLOW]	The file size in bytes cannot be represented correctly
			in the structure pointed to by sb.

     The fstat() system	call will fail if:

     [EBADF]		The fd argument	is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]		The sb argument	points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]		An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
			the file system.

     [EINTEGRITY]	Corrupted data was detected while reading from the
			file system.

     [EOVERFLOW]	The file size in bytes cannot be represented correctly
			in the structure pointed to by sb.

     In	addition to the	errors returned	by the lstat(),	the fstatat() may fail

     [EBADF]		The path argument does not specify an absolute path
			and the	fd argument is neither AT_FDCWD	nor a valid
			file descriptor	open for searching.

     [EINVAL]		The value of the flag argument is not valid.

     [ENOTDIR]		The path argument is not an absolute path and fd is
			neither	AT_FDCWD nor a file descriptor associated with
			a directory.

     [ENOTCAPABLE]	path is	an absolute path, or contained a ".." compo-
			nent leading to	a directory outside of the directory
			hierarchy specified by fd, and the process is in capa-
			bility mode or the AT_RESOLVE_BENEATH flag was speci-

     access(2),	chmod(2), chown(2), fhstat(2), statfs(2), utimes(2),
     sticky(7),	symlink(7)

     The stat()	and fstat() system calls are expected to conform to ISO/IEC
     9945-1:1990 ("POSIX.1").  The fstatat() system call follows The Open
     Group Extended API	Set 2 specification.

     The stat()	and fstat() system calls appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.  The
     lstat() system call appeared in 4.2BSD.  The fstatat() system call	ap-
     peared in FreeBSD 8.0.

     Applying fstat() to a socket returns a zeroed buffer, except for the
     blocksize field, and a unique device and inode number.

FreeBSD	13.0			March 30, 2021			  FreeBSD 13.0


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