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MAKE(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		       MAKE(1)

     make -- maintain program dependencies

     make [-BeikNnqrSstWwX] [-C	directory] [-D variable] [-d flags]
	  [-f makefile]	[-I directory] [-J private] [-j	max_jobs]
	  [-m directory] [-T file] [-V variable] [-v variable]
	  [variable=value] [target ...]

     make is a program designed	to simplify the	maintenance of other programs.
     Its input is a list of specifications as to the files upon	which programs
     and other files depend.  If no -f makefile	makefile option	is given, make
     will try to open `makefile' then `Makefile' in order to find the specifi-
     cations.  If the file `.depend' exists, it	is read	(see mkdep(1)).

     This manual page is intended as a reference document only.	 For a more
     thorough description of make and makefiles, please	refer to PMake - A

     make will prepend the contents of the MAKEFLAGS environment variable to
     the command line arguments	before parsing them.

     The options are as	follows:

     -B	     Try to be backwards compatible by executing a single shell	per
	     command and by executing the commands to make the sources of a
	     dependency	line in	sequence.

     -C	directory
	     Change to directory before	reading	the makefiles or doing any-
	     thing else.  If multiple -C options are specified,	each is	inter-
	     preted relative to	the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to
	     -C	/etc.

     -D	variable
	     Define variable to	be 1, in the global scope.

     -d	[-]flags
	     Turn on debugging,	and specify which portions of make are to
	     print debugging information.  Unless the flags are	preceded by
	     `-' they are added	to the MAKEFLAGS environment variable and will
	     be	processed by any child make processes.	By default, debugging
	     information is printed to standard	error, but this	can be changed
	     using the F debugging flag.  The debugging	output is always un-
	     buffered; in addition, if debugging is enabled but	debugging out-
	     put is not	directed to standard output, then the standard output
	     is	line buffered.	Flags is one or	more of	the following:

	     A	     Print all possible	debugging information; equivalent to
		     specifying	all of the debugging flags.

	     a	     Print debugging information about archive searching and

	     C	     Print debugging information about current working direc-

	     c	     Print debugging information about conditional evaluation.

	     d	     Print debugging information about directory searching and

	     e	     Print debugging information about failed commands and

		     Specify where debugging output is written.	 This must be
		     the last flag, because it consumes	the remainder of the
		     argument.	If the character immediately after the `F'
		     flag is `+', then the file	will be	opened in append mode;
		     otherwise the file	will be	overwritten.  If the file name
		     is	`stdout' or `stderr' then debugging output will	be
		     written to	the standard output or standard	error output
		     file descriptors respectively (and	the `+'	option has no
		     effect).  Otherwise, the output will be written to	the
		     named file.  If the file name ends	`.%d' then the `%d' is
		     replaced by the pid.

	     f	     Print debugging information about loop evaluation.

	     g1	     Print the input graph before making anything.

	     g2	     Print the input graph after making	everything, or before
		     exiting on	error.

	     g3	     Print the input graph before exiting on error.

	     h	     Print debugging information about hash table operations.

	     j	     Print debugging information about running multiple

	     L	     Turn on lint checks.  This	will throw errors for variable
		     assignments that do not parse correctly, at the time of
		     assignment	so the file and	line number are	available.

	     l	     Print commands in Makefiles regardless of whether or not
		     they are prefixed by `@' or other "quiet" flags.  Also
		     known as "loud" behavior.

	     M	     Print debugging information about "meta" mode decisions
		     about targets.

	     m	     Print debugging information about making targets, includ-
		     ing modification dates.

	     n	     Don't delete the temporary	command	scripts	created	when
		     running commands.	These temporary	scripts	are created in
		     the directory referred to by the TMPDIR environment vari-
		     able, or in /tmp if TMPDIR	is unset or set	to the empty
		     string.  The temporary scripts are	created	by mkstemp(3),
		     and have names of the form	makeXXXXXX.  NOTE: This	can
		     create many files in TMPDIR or /tmp, so use with care.

	     p	     Print debugging information about makefile	parsing.

	     s	     Print debugging information about suffix-transformation

	     t	     Print debugging information about target list mainte-

	     V	     Force the -V option to print raw values of	variables,
		     overriding	the default behavior set via

	     v	     Print debugging information about variable	assignment.

	     x	     Run shell commands	with -x	so the actual commands are
		     printed as	they are executed.

     -e	     Specify that environment variables	override macro assignments
	     within makefiles.

     -f	makefile
	     Specify a makefile	to read	instead	of the default `makefile'.  If
	     makefile is `-', standard input is	read.  Multiple	makefiles may
	     be	specified, and are read	in the order specified.

     -I	directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for	makefiles and included
	     makefiles.	 The system makefile directory (or directories,	see
	     the -m option) is automatically included as part of this list.

     -i	     Ignore non-zero exit of shell commands in the makefile.  Equiva-
	     lent to specifying	`-' before each	command	line in	the makefile.

     -J	private
	     This option should	not be specified by the	user.

	     When the j	option is in use in a recursive	build, this option is
	     passed by a make to child makes to	allow all the make processes
	     in	the build to cooperate to avoid	overloading the	system.

     -j	max_jobs
	     Specify the maximum number	of jobs	that make may have running at
	     any one time.  The	value is saved in .MAKE.JOBS.  Turns compati-
	     bility mode off, unless the B flag	is also	specified.  When com-
	     patibility	mode is	off, all commands associated with a target are
	     executed in a single shell	invocation as opposed to the tradi-
	     tional one	shell invocation per line.  This can break traditional
	     scripts which change directories on each command invocation and
	     then expect to start with a fresh environment on the next line.
	     It	is more	efficient to correct the scripts rather	than turn
	     backwards compatibility on.

     -k	     Continue processing after errors are encountered, but only	on
	     those targets that	do not depend on the target whose creation
	     caused the	error.

     -m	directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for and makefiles
	     included via the <file>-style include statement.  The -m option
	     can be used multiple times	to form	a search path.	This path will
	     override the default system include path: /usr/share/mk.  Fur-
	     thermore the system include path will be appended to the search
	     path used for "file"-style	include	statements (see	the -I op-

	     If	a file or directory name in the	-m argument (or	the
	     MAKESYSPATH environment variable) starts with the string ".../"
	     then make will search for the specified file or directory named
	     in	the remaining part of the argument string.  The	search starts
	     with the current directory	of the Makefile	and then works upward
	     towards the root of the file system.  If the search is success-
	     ful, then the resulting directory replaces	the ".../" specifica-
	     tion in the -m argument.  If used,	this feature allows make to
	     easily search in the current source tree for customized
	     files (e.g., by using ".../mk/" as an argument).

     -n	     Display the commands that would have been executed, but do	not
	     actually execute them unless the target depends on	the .MAKE spe-
	     cial source (see below) or	the command is prefixed	with `+'.

     -N	     Display the commands which	would have been	executed, but do not
	     actually execute any of them; useful for debugging	top-level
	     makefiles without descending into subdirectories.

     -q	     Do	not execute any	commands, but exit 0 if	the specified targets
	     are up-to-date and	1, otherwise.

     -r	     Do	not use	the built-in rules specified in	the system makefile.

     -S	     Stop processing if	an error is encountered.  This is the default
	     behavior and the opposite of -k.

     -s	     Do	not echo any commands as they are executed.  Equivalent	to
	     specifying	`@' before each	command	line in	the makefile.

     -T	tracefile
	     When used with the	-j flag, append	a trace	record to tracefile
	     for each job started and completed.

     -t	     Rather than re-building a target as specified in the makefile,
	     create it or update its modification time to make it appear up-

     -V	variable
	     Print the value of	variable.  Do not build	any targets.  Multiple
	     instances of this option may be specified;	the variables will be
	     printed one per line, with	a blank	line for each null or unde-
	     fined variable.  The value	printed	is extracted from the global
	     scope after all makefiles have been read.	By default, the	raw
	     variable contents (which may include additional unexpanded	vari-
	     able references) are shown.  If variable contains a `$' then the
	     value will	be recursively expanded	to its complete	resultant text
	     before printing.  The expanded value will also be printed if
	     .MAKE.EXPAND_VARIABLES is set to true and the -dV option has not
	     been used to override it.	Note that loop-local and target-local
	     variables,	as well	as values taken	temporarily by global vari-
	     ables during makefile processing, are not accessible via this op-
	     tion.  The	-dv debug mode can be used to see these	at the cost of
	     generating	substantial extraneous output.

     -v	variable
	     Like -V but the variable is always	expanded to its	complete

     -W	     Treat any warnings	during makefile	parsing	as errors.

     -w	     Print entering and	leaving	directory messages, pre	and post pro-

     -X	     Don't export variables passed on the command line to the environ-
	     ment individually.	 Variables passed on the command line are
	     still exported via	the MAKEFLAGS environment variable.  This op-
	     tion may be useful	on systems which have a	small limit on the
	     size of command arguments.

	     Set the value of the variable variable to value.  Normally, all
	     values passed on the command line are also	exported to sub-makes
	     in	the environment.  The -X flag disables this behavior.  Vari-
	     able assignments should follow options for	POSIX compatibility
	     but no ordering is	enforced.

     There are seven different types of	lines in a makefile: file dependency
     specifications, shell commands, variable assignments, include statements,
     conditional directives, for loops,	and comments.

     In	general, lines may be continued	from one line to the next by ending
     them with a backslash (`\').  The trailing	newline	character and initial
     whitespace	on the following line are compressed into a single space.

     Dependency	lines consist of one or	more targets, an operator, and zero or
     more sources.  This creates a relationship	where the targets "depend" on
     the sources and are customarily created from them.	 A target is consid-
     ered out-of-date if it does not exist, or if its modification time	is
     less than that of any of its sources.  An out-of-date target will be re-
     created, but not until all	sources	have been examined and themselves re-
     created as	needed.	 Three operators may be	used:

     :	   Many	dependency lines may name this target but only one may have
	   attached shell commands.  All sources named in all dependency lines
	   are considered together, and	if needed the attached shell commands
	   are run to create or	re-create the target.  If make is interrupted,
	   the target is removed.

     !	   The same, but the target is always re-created whether or not	it is
	   out of date.

     ::	   Any dependency line may have	attached shell commands, but each one
	   is handled independently: its sources are considered	and the	at-
	   tached shell	commands are run if the	target is out of date with re-
	   spect to (only) those sources.  Thus, different groups of the at-
	   tached shell	commands may be	run depending on the circumstances.
	   Furthermore,	unlike :, for dependency lines with no sources,	the
	   attached shell commands are always run.  Also unlike	:, the target
	   will	not be removed if make is interrupted.
     All dependency lines mentioning a particular target must use the same op-

     Targets and sources may contain the shell wildcard	values `?', `*', `[]',
     and `{}'.	The values `?',	`*', and `[]' may only be used as part of the
     final component of	the target or source, and must be used to describe ex-
     isting files.  The	value `{}' need	not necessarily	be used	to describe
     existing files.  Expansion	is in directory	order, not alphabetically as
     done in the shell.

     Each target may have associated with it one or more lines of shell	com-
     mands, normally used to create the	target.	 Each of the lines in this
     script must be preceded by	a tab.	(For historical	reasons, spaces	are
     not accepted.)  While targets can appear in many dependency lines if de-
     sired, by default only one	of these rules may be followed by a creation
     script.  If the `::' operator is used, however, all rules may include
     scripts and the scripts are executed in the order found.

     Each line is treated as a separate	shell command, unless the end of line
     is	escaped	with a backslash (`\') in which	case that line and the next
     are combined.  If the first characters of the command are any combination
     of	`@', `+', or `-', the command is treated specially.  A `@' causes the
     command not to be echoed before it	is executed.  A	`+' causes the command
     to	be executed even when -n is given.  This is similar to the effect of
     the .MAKE special source, except that the effect can be limited to	a sin-
     gle line of a script.  A `-' in compatibility mode	causes any non-zero
     exit status of the	command	line to	be ignored.

     When make is run in jobs mode with	-j max_jobs, the entire	script for the
     target is fed to a	single instance	of the shell.  In compatibility	(non-
     jobs) mode, each command is run in	a separate process.  If	the command
     contains any shell	meta characters	(`#=|^(){};&<>*?[]:$`\\n') it will be
     passed to the shell; otherwise make will attempt direct execution.	 If a
     line starts with `-' and the shell	has ErrCtl enabled then	failure	of the
     command line will be ignored as in	compatibility mode.  Otherwise `-' af-
     fects the entire job; the script will stop	at the first command line that
     fails, but	the target will	not be deemed to have failed.

     Makefiles should be written so that the mode of make operation does not
     change their behavior.  For example, any command which needs to use "cd"
     or	"chdir"	without	potentially changing the directory for subsequent com-
     mands should be put in parentheses	so it executes in a subshell.  To
     force the use of one shell, escape	the line breaks	so as to make the
     whole script one command.	For example:

		   @echo Building $@ in	`pwd`
		   @(cd	${.CURDIR} && ${MAKE} $@)
		   @echo Back in `pwd`

		   @echo Building $@ in	`pwd`; \
		   (cd ${.CURDIR} && ${MAKE} $@); \
		   echo	Back in	`pwd`

     Since make	will chdir(2) to `.OBJDIR' before executing any	targets, each
     child process starts with that as its current working directory.

     Variables in make are much	like variables in the shell, and, by tradi-
     tion, consist of all upper-case letters.

   Variable assignment modifiers
     The five operators	that can be used to assign values to variables are as

     =	     Assign the	value to the variable.	Any previous value is overrid-

     +=	     Append the	value to the current value of the variable.

     ?=	     Assign the	value to the variable if it is not already defined.

     :=	     Assign with expansion, i.e. expand	the value before assigning it
	     to	the variable.  Normally, expansion is not done until the vari-
	     able is referenced.  NOTE:	References to undefined	variables are
	     not expanded.  This can cause problems when variable modifiers
	     are used.

     !=	     Expand the	value and pass it to the shell for execution and as-
	     sign the result to	the variable.  Any newlines in the result are
	     replaced with spaces.

     Any white-space before the	assigned value is removed; if the value	is be-
     ing appended, a single space is inserted between the previous contents of
     the variable and the appended value.

     Variables are expanded by surrounding the variable	name with either curly
     braces (`{}') or parentheses (`()') and preceding it with a dollar	sign
     (`$').  If	the variable name contains only	a single letter, the surround-
     ing braces	or parentheses are not required.  This shorter form is not

     If	the variable name contains a dollar, then the name itself is expanded
     first.  This allows almost	arbitrary variable names, however names	con-
     taining dollar, braces, parentheses, or whitespace	are really best

     If	the result of expanding	a variable contains a dollar sign (`$')	the
     string is expanded	again.

     Variable substitution occurs at three distinct times, depending on	where
     the variable is being used.

     1.	  Variables in dependency lines	are expanded as	the line is read.

     2.	  Variables in shell commands are expanded when	the shell command is

     3.	  ".for" loop index variables are expanded on each loop	iteration.
	  Note that other variables are	not expanded inside loops so the fol-
	  lowing example code:

		.for i in 1 2 3
		a+=	${i}
		j=	${i}
		b+=	${j}

			@echo ${a}
			@echo ${b}

	  will print:

		1 2 3
		3 3 3

	  Because while	${a} contains "1 2 3" after the	loop is	executed, ${b}
	  contains "${j} ${j} ${j}" which expands to "3	3 3" since after the
	  loop completes ${j} contains "3".

   Variable classes
     The four different	classes	of variables (in order of increasing prece-
     dence) are:

     Environment variables
	     Variables defined as part of make's environment.

     Global variables
	     Variables defined in the makefile or in included makefiles.

     Command line variables
	     Variables defined as part of the command line.

     Local variables
	     Variables that are	defined	specific to a certain target.

     Local variables can be set	on a dependency	line, if
     .MAKE.TARGET_LOCAL_VARIABLES, is not set to `false'.  The rest of the
     line (which will already have had Global variables	expanded), is the
     variable value.  For example:

	   COMPILER_WRAPPERS+= ccache distcc icecc


     Only the targets `${OBJS}'	will be	impacted by that filter	(in "meta"
     mode) and simply enabling/disabling any of	the wrappers will not render
     all of those targets out-of-date.

     NOTE: target local	variable assignments behave differently	in that;

	   +=	   Only	appends	to a previous local assignment for the same
		   target and variable.

	   :=	   Is redundant	with respect to	Global variables, which	have
		   already been	expanded.

     The seven built-in	local variables	are as follows:

	   .ALLSRC   The list of all sources for this target; also known as

	   .ARCHIVE  The name of the archive file; also	known as `!'.

	   .IMPSRC   In	suffix-transformation rules, the name/path of the
		     source from which the target is to	be transformed (the
		     "implied" source);	also known as `_'.  It is not defined
		     in	explicit rules.

	   .MEMBER   The name of the archive member; also known	as `%'.

	   .OODATE   The list of sources for this target that were deemed out-
		     of-date; also known as `?'.

	   .PREFIX   The file prefix of	the target, containing only the	file
		     portion, no suffix	or preceding directory components;
		     also known	as `*'.	 The suffix must be one	of the known
		     suffixes declared with .SUFFIXES or it will not be	recog-

	   .TARGET   The name of the target; also known	as `@'.	 For compati-
		     bility with other makes this is an	alias for .ARCHIVE in
		     archive member rules.

     The shorter forms (`_', `!', `_', `%', `?', `*', and `@') are permitted
     for backward compatibility	with historical	makefiles and legacy POSIX
     make and are not recommended.

     Variants of these variables with the punctuation followed immediately by
     `D' or `F', e.g.  `$(@D)',	are legacy forms equivalent to using the `:H'
     and `:T' modifiers.  These	forms are accepted for compatibility with AT&T
     System V UNIX makefiles and POSIX but are not recommended.

     Four of the local variables may be	used in	sources	on dependency lines
     because they expand to the	proper value for each target on	the line.
     These variables are `.TARGET', `.PREFIX', `.ARCHIVE', and `.MEMBER'.

   Additional built-in variables
     In	addition, make sets or knows about the following variables:

     $		     A single dollar sign `$', i.e.  `$$' expands to a single
		     dollar sign.

     .ALLTARGETS     The list of all targets encountered in the	Makefile.  If
		     evaluated during Makefile parsing,	lists only those tar-
		     gets encountered thus far.

     .CURDIR	     A path to the directory where make	was executed.  Refer
		     to	the description	of `PWD' for more details.

		     The directory of the file this Makefile was included

		     The filename of the file this Makefile was	included from.

     MAKE	     The name that make	was executed with (argv[0]).  For com-
		     patibility	make also sets .MAKE with the same value.  The
		     preferred variable	to use is the environment variable
		     MAKE because it is	more compatible	with other versions of
		     make and cannot be	confused with the special target with
		     the same name.

		     Tells make	whether	to pass	the descriptors	of the job to-
		     ken queue even if the target is not tagged	with .MAKE The
		     default is	`yes' for backwards compatability with
		     FreeBSD 9.0 and earlier.

		     Names the makefile	(default `.depend') from which gener-
		     ated dependencies are read.

		     A boolean that controls the default behavior of the -V
		     option.  If true, variable	values printed with -V are
		     fully expanded; if	false, the raw variable	contents
		     (which may	include	additional unexpanded variable refer-
		     ences) are	shown.

     .MAKE.EXPORTED  The list of variables exported by make.

     .MAKE.JOBS	     The argument to the -j option.

		     If	make is	run with j then	output for each	target is pre-
		     fixed with	a token	`--- target ---' the first part	of
		     which can be controlled via .MAKE.JOB.PREFIX.  If
		     .MAKE.JOB.PREFIX is empty,	no token is printed.
		     For example:
		     would produce tokens like `---make[1234] target ---' mak-
		     ing it easier to track the	degree of parallelism being

		     If	set to `false',	apparent variable assignments in de-
		     pendency lines are	treated	as normal sources.

     MAKEFLAGS	     The environment variable `MAKEFLAGS' may contain anything
		     that may be specified on make's command line.  Anything
		     specified on make's command line is appended to the
		     `MAKEFLAGS' variable which	is then	entered	into the envi-
		     ronment for all programs which make executes.

     .MAKE.LEVEL     The recursion depth of make.  The initial instance	of
		     make will be 0, and an incremented	value is put into the
		     environment to be seen by the next	generation.  This al-
		     lows tests	like: .if ${.MAKE.LEVEL} == 0 to protect
		     things which should only be evaluated in the initial in-
		     stance of make.

		     The ordered list of makefile names	(default `makefile',
		     `Makefile') that make will	look for.

		     The list of makefiles read	by make, which is useful for
		     tracking dependencies.  Each makefile is recorded only
		     once, regardless of the number of times read.

     .MAKE.MODE	     Processed after reading all makefiles.  Can affect	the
		     mode that make runs in.  It can contain a number of key-

		     compat		  Like -B, puts	make into "compat"

		     meta		  Puts make into "meta"	mode, where
					  meta files are created for each tar-
					  get to capture the command run, the
					  output generated and if filemon(4)
					  is available,	the system calls which
					  are of interest to make.  The	cap-
					  tured	output can be very useful when
					  diagnosing errors.

		     curdirOk= bf	  Normally make	will not create	.meta
					  files	in `.CURDIR'.  This can	be
					  overridden by	setting	bf to a	value
					  which	represents True.

		     missing-meta= bf	  If bf	is True, then a	missing	.meta
					  file makes the target	out-of-date.

		     missing-filemon= bf  If bf	is True, then missing filemon
					  data makes the target	out-of-date.

		     nofilemon		  Do not use filemon(4).

		     env		  For debugging, it can	be useful to
					  include the environment in the .meta

		     verbose		  If in	"meta" mode, print a clue
					  about	the target being built.	 This
					  is useful if the build is otherwise
					  running silently.  The message
					  printed the value of:

		     ignore-cmd		  Some makefiles have commands which
					  are simply not stable.  This keyword
					  causes them to be ignored for	deter-
					  mining whether a target is out of
					  date in "meta" mode.	See also

		     silent= bf		  If bf	is True, when a	.meta file is
					  created, mark	the target .SILENT.

		     In	"meta" mode, provides a	list of	prefixes which match
		     the directories controlled	by make.  If a file that was
		     generated outside of .OBJDIR but within said bailiwick is
		     missing, the current target is considered out-of-date.

		     In	"meta" mode, it	can (very rarely!) be useful to	filter
		     command lines before comparison.  This variable can be
		     set to a set of modifiers that will be applied to each
		     line of the old and new command that differ, if the fil-
		     tered commands still differ, the target is	considered

		     In	"meta" mode, this variable contains a list of all the
		     meta files	updated.  If not empty,	it can be used to
		     trigger processing	of .MAKE.META.FILES.

		     In	"meta" mode, this variable contains a list of all the
		     meta files	used (updated or not).	This list can be used
		     to	process	the meta files to extract dependency informa-

		     Provides a	list of	path prefixes that should be ignored;
		     because the contents are expected to change over time.
		     The default list includes:	`/dev /etc /proc /tmp /var/run

		     Provides a	list of	patterns to match against pathnames.
		     Ignore any	that match.

		     Provides a	list of	variable modifiers to apply to each
		     pathname.	Ignore if the expansion	is an empty string.

		     Defines the message printed for each meta file updated in
		     "meta verbose" mode.  The default value is:
			   Building ${.TARGET:H:tA}/${.TARGET:T}

     .MAKEOVERRIDES  This variable is used to record the names of variables
		     assigned to on the	command	line, so that they may be ex-
		     ported as part of `MAKEFLAGS'.  This behavior can be dis-
		     abled by assigning	an empty value to `.MAKEOVERRIDES'
		     within a makefile.	 Extra variables can be	exported from
		     a makefile	by appending their names to `.MAKEOVERRIDES'.
		     `MAKEFLAGS' is re-exported	whenever `.MAKEOVERRIDES' is

		     If	make was built with filemon(4) support,	this is	set to
		     the path of the device node.  This	allows makefiles to
		     test for this support.

     .MAKE.PID	     The process-id of make.

     .MAKE.PPID	     The parent	process-id of make.

		     value should be a boolean that controls whether `$$' are
		     preserved when doing `:=' assignments.  The default is
		     false, for	backwards compatibility.  Set to true for com-
		     patability	with other makes.  If set to false, `$$' be-
		     comes `$' per normal evaluation rules.

     .MAKE.UID	     The user-id running make.

     .MAKE.GID	     The group-id running make.

		     When make stops due to an error, it sets `.ERROR_TARGET'
		     to	the name of the	target that failed, `.ERROR_CMD' to
		     the commands of the failed	target,	and in "meta" mode, it
		     also sets `.ERROR_CWD' to the getcwd(3), and
		     `.ERROR_META_FILE'	to the path of the meta	file (if any)
		     describing	the failed target.  It then prints its name
		     and the value of `.CURDIR'	as well	as the value of	any
		     variables named in	`MAKE_PRINT_VAR_ON_ERROR'.

     .newline	     This variable is simply assigned a	newline	character as
		     its value.	 This allows expansions	using the :@ modifier
		     to	put a newline between iterations of the	loop rather
		     than a space.  For	example, the printing of
		     `MAKE_PRINT_VAR_ON_ERROR' could be	done as

     .OBJDIR	     A path to the directory where the targets are built.  Its
		     value is determined by trying to chdir(2) to the follow-
		     ing directories in	order and using	the first match:


			  (Only	if `MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX' is set in	the environ-
			  ment or on the command line.)

		     2.	  ${MAKEOBJDIR}

			  (Only	if `MAKEOBJDIR'	is set in the environment or
			  on the command line.)

		     3.	  ${.CURDIR}/obj.${MACHINE}

		     4.	  ${.CURDIR}/obj

		     5.	  /usr/obj/${.CURDIR}

		     6.	  ${.CURDIR}

		     Variable expansion	is performed on	the value before it's
		     used, so expressions such as
		     may be used.  This	is especially useful with

		     `.OBJDIR' may be modified in the makefile via the special
		     target `.OBJDIR'.	In all cases, make will	chdir(2) to
		     the specified directory if	it exists, and set `.OBJDIR'
		     and `PWD' to that directory before	executing any targets.

		     Except in the case	of an explicit `.OBJDIR' target, make
		     will check	that the specified directory is	writable and
		     ignore it if not.	This check can be skipped by setting
		     the environment variable `MAKE_OBJDIR_CHECK_WRITABLE' to

     .PARSEDIR	     A path to the directory of	the current `Makefile' being

     .PARSEFILE	     The basename of the current `Makefile' being parsed.
		     This variable and `.PARSEDIR' are both set	only while the
		     `Makefiles' are being parsed.  If you want	to retain
		     their current values, assign them to a variable using as-
		     signment with expansion: (`:=').

     .PATH	     A variable	that represents	the list of directories	that
		     make will search for files.  The search list should be
		     updated using the target `.PATH' rather than the vari-

     PWD	     Alternate path to the current directory.  make normally
		     sets `.CURDIR' to the canonical path given	by getcwd(3).
		     However, if the environment variable `PWD'	is set and
		     gives a path to the current directory, then make sets
		     `.CURDIR' to the value of `PWD' instead.  This behavior
		     is	disabled if `MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX' is set or `MAKEOBJDIR'
		     contains a	variable transform.  `PWD' is set to the value
		     of	`.OBJDIR' for all programs which make executes.

     .SHELL	     The pathname of the shell used to run target scripts.  It
		     is	read-only.

     .SUFFIXES	     The list of known suffixes.  It is	read-only.

     .TARGETS	     The list of targets explicitly specified on the command
		     line, if any.

     VPATH	     Colon-separated (":") lists of directories	that make will
		     search for	files.	The variable is	supported for compati-
		     bility with old make programs only, use `.PATH' instead.

   Variable modifiers
     Variable expansion	may be modified	to select or modify each word of the
     variable (where a "word" is white-space delimited sequence	of charac-
     ters).  The general format	of a variable expansion	is as follows:


     Each modifier begins with a colon,	which may be escaped with a backslash

     A set of modifiers	can be specified via a variable, as follows:


     In	this case the first modifier in	the modifier_variable does not start
     with a colon, since that must appear in the referencing variable.	If any
     of	the modifiers in the modifier_variable contain a dollar	sign (`$'),
     these must	be doubled to avoid early expansion.

     The supported modifiers are:

     :E	  Replaces each	word in	the variable with its suffix.

     :H	  Replaces each	word in	the variable with everything but the last com-

	  Selects only those words that	match pattern.	The standard shell
	  wildcard characters (`*', `?', and `[]') may be used.	 The wildcard
	  characters may be escaped with a backslash (`\').  As	a consequence
	  of the way values are	split into words, matched, and then joined, a
	  construct like
	  will normalize the inter-word	spacing, removing all leading and
	  trailing space, and converting multiple consecutive spaces to	single

	  This is identical to `:M', but selects all words which do not	match

     :O	  Orders every word in variable	alphabetically.

     :On  Orders every word in variable	numerically.  A	number followed	by one
	  of `k', `M' or `G' is	multiplied by the appropriate factor (1024
	  (k), 1048576 (M), or 1073741824 (G)).	 Both upper- and lower-case
	  letters are accepted.

     :Or  Orders every word in variable	in reverse alphabetical	order.

	  Orders every word in variable	in reverse numerical order.

     :Ox  Shuffles the words in	variable.  The results will be different each
	  time you are referring to the	modified variable; use the assignment
	  with expansion (`:=')	to prevent such	behavior.  For example,

		LIST=			uno due	tre quattro

			@echo "${RANDOM_LIST}"
			@echo "${RANDOM_LIST}"
			@echo "${STATIC_RANDOM_LIST}"
			@echo "${STATIC_RANDOM_LIST}"
	  may produce output similar to:

		quattro	due tre	uno
		tre due	quattro	uno
		due uno	quattro	tre
		due uno	quattro	tre

     :Q	  Quotes every shell meta-character in the variable, so	that it	can be
	  passed safely	to the shell.

     :q	  Quotes every shell meta-character in the variable, and also doubles
	  `$' characters so that it can	be passed safely through recursive in-
	  vocations of make.  This is equivalent to: `:S/\$/&&/g:Q'.

     :R	  Replaces each	word in	the variable with everything but its suffix.

	  The value is an integer sequence representing	the words of the orig-
	  inal value, or the supplied count.

	  The value is a format	string for strftime(3),	using gmtime(3).  If a
	  utc value is not provided or is 0, the current time is used.

	  Computes a 32-bit hash of the	value and encode it as hex digits.

	  The value is a format	string for strftime(3),	using localtime(3).
	  If a utc value is not	provided or is 0, the current time is used.

     :tA  Attempts to convert variable to an absolute path using realpath(3),
	  if that fails, the value is unchanged.

     :tl  Converts variable to lower-case letters.

	  Words	in the variable	are normally separated by a space on expan-
	  sion.	 This modifier sets the	separator to the character c.  If c is
	  omitted, then	no separator is	used.  The common escapes (including
	  octal	numeric	codes) work as expected.

     :tu  Converts variable to upper-case letters.

     :tW  Causes the value to be treated as a single word (possibly containing
	  embedded white space).  See also `:[*]'.

     :tw  Causes the value to be treated as a sequence of words	delimited by
	  white	space.	See also `:[@]'.

	  Modifies the first occurrence	of old_string in each word of the
	  variable's value, replacing it with new_string.  If a	`g' is ap-
	  pended to the	last delimiter of the pattern, all occurrences in each
	  word are replaced.  If a `1' is appended to the last delimiter of
	  the pattern, only the	first occurrence is affected.  If a `W'	is ap-
	  pended to the	last delimiter of the pattern, then the	value is
	  treated as a single word (possibly containing	embedded white space).
	  If old_string	begins with a caret (`^'), old_string is anchored at
	  the beginning	of each	word.  If old_string ends with a dollar	sign
	  (`$'), it is anchored	at the end of each word.  Inside new_string,
	  an ampersand (`&') is	replaced by old_string (without	any `^'	or
	  `$').	 Any character may be used as a	delimiter for the parts	of the
	  modifier string.  The	anchoring, ampersand and delimiter characters
	  may be escaped with a	backslash (`\').

	  Variable expansion occurs in the normal fashion inside both
	  old_string and new_string with the single exception that a backslash
	  is used to prevent the expansion of a	dollar sign (`$'), not a pre-
	  ceding dollar	sign as	is usual.

	  The :C modifier is just like the :S modifier except that the old and
	  new strings, instead of being	simple strings,	are an extended	regu-
	  lar expression (see regex(3))	string pattern and an ed(1)-style
	  string replacement.  Normally, the first occurrence of the pattern
	  pattern in each word of the value is substituted with	replacement.
	  The `1' modifier causes the substitution to apply to at most one
	  word;	the `g'	modifier causes	the substitution to apply to as	many
	  instances of the search pattern pattern as occur in the word or
	  words	it is found in;	the `W'	modifier causes	the value to be
	  treated as a single word (possibly containing	embedded white space).

	  As for the :S	modifier, the pattern and replacement are subjected to
	  variable expansion before being parsed as regular expressions.

     :T	  Replaces each	word in	the variable with its last path	component.

     :u	  Removes adjacent duplicate words (like uniq(1)).

	  If the variable name (not its	value),	when parsed as a .if condi-
	  tional expression, evaluates to true,	return as its value the
	  true_string, otherwise return	the false_string.  Since the variable
	  name is used as the expression, :? must be the first modifier	after
	  the variable name itself - which will, of course, usually contain
	  variable expansions.	A common error is trying to use	expressions
	  which	actually tests defined(NUMBERS), to determine if any words
	  match	"42" you need to use something like:
		${"${NUMBERS:M42}" != "":?match:no}.

	  This is the AT&T System V UNIX style variable	substitution.  It must
	  be the last modifier specified.  If old_string or new_string do not
	  contain the pattern matching character % then	it is assumed that
	  they are anchored at the end of each word, so	only suffixes or en-
	  tire words may be replaced.  Otherwise % is the substring of
	  old_string to	be replaced in new_string.  If only old_string con-
	  tains	the pattern matching character %, and old_string matches, then
	  the result is	the new_string.	 If only the new_string	contains the
	  pattern matching character %,	then it	is not treated specially and
	  it is	printed	as a literal % on match.  If there is more than	one
	  pattern matching character (%) in either the new_string or
	  old_string, only the first instance is treated specially (as the
	  pattern character); all subsequent instances are treated as regular

	  Variable expansion occurs in the normal fashion inside both
	  old_string and new_string with the single exception that a backslash
	  is used to prevent the expansion of a	dollar sign (`$'), not a pre-
	  ceding dollar	sign as	is usual.

	  This is the loop expansion mechanism from the	OSF Development	Envi-
	  ronment (ODE)	make.  Unlike .for loops, expansion occurs at the time
	  of reference.	 Assigns temp to each word in the variable and evalu-
	  ates string.	The ODE	convention is that temp	should start and end
	  with a period.  For example.
		${LINKS:@.LINK.@${LN} ${TARGET}	${.LINK.}@}

	  However a single character variable is often more readable:

	  Saves	the current variable value in `$_' or the named	var for	later
	  reference.  Example usage:

		M_cmpv.units = 1 1000 1000000
		M_cmpv = S,., ,g:_:range:@i@+ $${_:[-$$i]} \
		\* $${M_cmpv.units:[$$i]}@:S,^,expr 0 ,1:sh

		.if ${VERSION:${M_cmpv}} < ${3.1.12:L:${M_cmpv}}

	  Here `$_' is used to save the	result of the `:S' modifier which is
	  later	referenced using the index values from `:range'.

	  If the variable is undefined,	newval is the value.  If the variable
	  is defined, the existing value is returned.  This is another ODE
	  make feature.	 It is handy for setting per-target CFLAGS for in-
	  If a value is	only required if the variable is undefined, use:

	  If the variable is defined, newval is	the value.

     :L	  The name of the variable is the value.

     :P	  The path of the node which has the same name as the variable is the
	  value.  If no	such node exists or its	path is	null, then the name of
	  the variable is used.	 In order for this modifier to work, the name
	  (node) must at least have appeared on	the rhs	of a dependency.

	  The output of	running	cmd is the value.

     :sh  If the variable is non-empty it is run as a command and the output
	  becomes the new value.

	  The variable is assigned the value str after substitution.  This
	  modifier and its variations are useful in obscure situations such as
	  wanting to set a variable when shell commands	are being parsed.
	  These	assignment modifiers always expand to nothing, so if appearing
	  in a rule line by themselves should be preceded with something to
	  keep make happy.

	  The `::' helps avoid false matches with the AT&T System V UNIX style
	  := modifier and since	substitution always occurs the ::= form	is
	  vaguely appropriate.

	  As for ::= but only if the variable does not already have a value.

	  Append str to	the variable.

	  Assign the output of cmd to the variable.

	  Selects one or more words from the value, or performs	other opera-
	  tions	related	to the way in which the	value is divided into words.

	  Ordinarily, a	value is treated as a sequence of words	delimited by
	  white	space.	Some modifiers suppress	this behavior, causing a value
	  to be	treated	as a single word (possibly containing embedded white
	  space).  An empty value, or a	value that consists entirely of	white-
	  space, is treated as a single	word.  For the purposes	of the `:[]'
	  modifier, the	words are indexed both forwards	using positive inte-
	  gers (where index 1 represents the first word), and backwards	using
	  negative integers (where index -1 represents the last	word).

	  The range is subjected to variable expansion,	and the	expanded re-
	  sult is then interpreted as follows:

	  index	 Selects a single word from the	value.

		 Selects all words from	start to end, inclusive.  For example,
		 `:[2..-1]' selects all	words from the second word to the last
		 word.	If start is greater than end, then the words are out-
		 put in	reverse	order.	For example, `:[-1..1]'	selects	all
		 the words from	last to	first.	If the list is already or-
		 dered,	then this effectively reverses the list, but it	is
		 more efficient	to use `:Or' instead of	`:O:[-1..1]'.

	  *	 Causes	subsequent modifiers to	treat the value	as a single
		 word (possibly	containing embedded white space).  Analogous
		 to the	effect of "$*" in Bourne shell.

	  0	 Means the same	as `:[*]'.

	  @	 Causes	subsequent modifiers to	treat the value	as a sequence
		 of words delimited by white space.  Analogous to the effect
		 of "$@" in Bourne shell.

	  #	 Returns the number of words in	the value.

     Makefile inclusion, conditional structures	and for	loops reminiscent of
     the C programming language	are provided in	make.  All such	structures are
     identified	by a line beginning with a single dot (`.') character.	Files
     are included with either .include <file> or .include "file".  Variables
     between the angle brackets	or double quotes are expanded to form the file
     name.  If angle brackets are used,	the included makefile is expected to
     be	in the system makefile directory.  If double quotes are	used, the in-
     cluding makefile's	directory and any directories specified	using the -I
     option are	searched before	the system makefile directory.	For compati-
     bility with other versions	of make	`include file ...' is also accepted.

     If	the include statement is written as .-include or as .sinclude then er-
     rors locating and/or opening include files	are ignored.

     If	the include statement is written as .dinclude not only are errors lo-
     cating and/or opening include files ignored, but stale dependencies
     within the	included file will be ignored just like	.MAKE.DEPENDFILE.

     Conditional expressions are also preceded by a single dot as the first
     character of a line.  The possible	conditionals are as follows:

     .error message
	     The message is printed along with the name	of the makefile	and
	     line number, then make will exit immediately.

     .export variable ...
	     Export the	specified global variable.  If no variable list	is
	     provided, all globals are exported	except for internal variables
	     (those that start with `.').  This	is not affected	by the -X
	     flag, so should be	used with caution.  For	compatibility with
	     other make	programs `export variable=value' is also accepted.

	     Appending a variable name to .MAKE.EXPORTED is equivalent to ex-
	     porting a variable.

     .export-env variable ...
	     The same as `.export', except that	the variable is	not appended
	     to	.MAKE.EXPORTED.	 This allows exporting a value to the environ-
	     ment which	is different from that used by make internally.

     .export-literal variable ...
	     The same as `.export-env',	except that variables in the value are
	     not expanded.

     .info message
	     The message is printed along with the name	of the makefile	and
	     line number.

     .undef variable ...
	     Un-define the specified global variables.	Only global variables
	     can be un-defined.

     .unexport variable	...
	     The opposite of `.export'.	 The specified global variable will be
	     removed from .MAKE.EXPORTED.  If no variable list is provided,
	     all globals are unexported, and .MAKE.EXPORTED deleted.

	     Unexport all globals previously exported and clear	the environ-
	     ment inherited from the parent.  This operation will cause	a mem-
	     ory leak of the original environment, so should be	used spar-
	     ingly.  Testing for .MAKE.LEVEL being 0, would make sense.	 Also
	     note that any variables which originated in the parent environ-
	     ment should be explicitly preserved if desired.  For example:

		   .if ${.MAKE.LEVEL} == 0
		   PATH	:= ${PATH}
		   .export PATH

	     Would result in an	environment containing only `PATH', which is
	     the minimal useful	environment.  Actually `.MAKE.LEVEL' will also
	     be	pushed into the	new environment.

     .warning message
	     The message prefixed by `warning:'	is printed along with the name
	     of	the makefile and line number.

     .if [!]expression [operator expression ...]
	     Test the value of an expression.

     .ifdef [!]variable	[operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifmake [!]target [operator target	...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .ifnmake [!] target [operator target ...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .else   Reverse the sense of the last conditional.

     .elif [!] expression [operator expression ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.if'.

     .elifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.ifdef'.

     .elifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.ifndef'.

     .elifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.ifmake'.

     .elifnmake	[!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.ifnmake'.

     .endif  End the body of the conditional.

     The operator may be any one of the	following:

     ||	    Logical OR.

     &&	    Logical AND; of higher precedence than "||".

     As	in C, make will	only evaluate a	conditional as far as is necessary to
     determine its value.  Parentheses may be used to change the order of
     evaluation.  The boolean operator `!' may be used to logically negate an
     entire conditional.  It is	of higher precedence than `&&'.

     The value of expression may be any	of the following:

     defined  Takes a variable name as an argument and evaluates to true if
	      the variable has been defined.

     make     Takes a target name as an	argument and evaluates to true if the
	      target was specified as part of make's command line or was de-
	      clared the default target	(either	implicitly or explicitly, see
	      .MAIN) before the	line containing	the conditional.

     empty    Takes a variable,	with possible modifiers, and evaluates to true
	      if the expansion of the variable would result in an empty

     exists   Takes a file name	as an argument and evaluates to	true if	the
	      file exists.  The	file is	searched for on	the system search path
	      (see .PATH).

     target   Takes a target name as an	argument and evaluates to true if the
	      target has been defined.

	      Takes a target name as an	argument and evaluates to true if the
	      target has been defined and has commands associated with it.

     Expression	may also be an arithmetic or string comparison.	 Variable ex-
     pansion is	performed on both sides	of the comparison, after which the nu-
     merical values are	compared.  A value is interpreted as hexadecimal if it
     is	preceded by 0x,	otherwise it is	decimal; octal numbers are not sup-
     ported.  The standard C relational	operators are all supported.  If after
     variable expansion, either	the left or right hand side of a `==' or `!='
     operator is not a numerical value,	then string comparison is performed
     between the expanded variables.  If no relational operator	is given, it
     is	assumed	that the expanded variable is being compared against 0,	or an
     empty string in the case of a string comparison.

     When make is evaluating one of these conditional expressions, and it en-
     counters a	(white-space separated)	word it	doesn't	recognize, either the
     "make" or "defined" expression is applied to it, depending	on the form of
     the conditional.  If the form is `.ifdef',	`.ifndef', or `.if' the
     "defined" expression is applied.  Similarly, if the form is `.ifmake' or
     `.ifnmake', the "make" expression is applied.

     If	the conditional	evaluates to true the parsing of the makefile contin-
     ues as before.  If	it evaluates to	false, the following lines are
     skipped.  In both cases this continues until a `.else' or `.endif'	is

     For loops are typically used to apply a set of rules to a list of files.
     The syntax	of a for loop is:

     .for variable [variable ...] in expression

     After the for expression is evaluated, it is split	into words.  On	each
     iteration of the loop, one	word is	taken and assigned to each variable,
     in	order, and these variables are substituted into	the make-lines inside
     the body of the for loop.	The number of words must come out even;	that
     is, if there are three iteration variables, the number of words provided
     must be a multiple	of three.

     Comments begin with a hash	(`#') character, anywhere but in a shell com-
     mand line,	and continue to	the end	of an unescaped	new line.

     .EXEC     Target is never out of date, but	always execute commands	any-

     .IGNORE   Ignore any errors from the commands associated with this	tar-
	       get, exactly as if they all were	preceded by a dash (`-').

     .MADE     Mark all	sources	of this	target as being	up-to-date.

     .MAKE     Execute the commands associated with this target	even if	the -n
	       or -t options were specified.  Normally used to mark recursive

     .META     Create a	meta file for the target, even if it is	flagged	as
	       .PHONY, .MAKE, or .SPECIAL.  Usage in conjunction with .MAKE is
	       the most	likely case.  In "meta"	mode, the target is out-of-
	       date if the meta	file is	missing.

     .NOMETA   Do not create a meta file for the target.  Meta files are also
	       not created for .PHONY, .MAKE, or .SPECIAL targets.

	       Ignore differences in commands when deciding if target is out
	       of date.	 This is useful	if the command contains	a value	which
	       always changes.	If the number of commands change, though, the
	       target will still be out	of date.  The same effect applies to
	       any command line	that uses the variable .OODATE,	which can be
	       used for	that purpose even when not otherwise needed or de-

			     @echo this	will be	compared
			     @echo this	will not ${.OODATE:M.NOMETA_CMP}
			     @echo this	will also be compared

	       The :M pattern suppresses any expansion of the unwanted vari-

     .NOPATH   Do not search for the target in the directories specified by

     .NOTMAIN  Normally	make selects the first target it encounters as the de-
	       fault target to be built	if no target was specified.  This
	       source prevents this target from	being selected.

	       If a target is marked with this attribute and make can't	figure
	       out how to create it, it	will ignore this fact and assume the
	       file isn't needed or already exists.

     .PHONY    The target does not correspond to an actual file; it is always
	       considered to be	out of date, and will not be created with the
	       -t option.  Suffix-transformation rules are not applied to
	       .PHONY targets.

	       When make is interrupted, it normally removes any partially
	       made targets.  This source prevents the target from being re-

	       Synonym for .MAKE.

     .SILENT   Do not echo any of the commands associated with this target,
	       exactly as if they all were preceded by an at sign (`@').

     .USE      Turn the	target into make's version of a	macro.	When the tar-
	       get is used as a	source for another target, the other target
	       acquires	the commands, sources, and attributes (except for
	       .USE) of	the source.  If	the target already has commands, the
	       .USE target's commands are appended to them.

	       Exactly like .USE, but prepend the .USEBEFORE target commands
	       to the target.

     .WAIT     If .WAIT	appears	in a dependency	line, the sources that precede
	       it are made before the sources that succeed it in the line.
	       Since the dependents of files are not made until	the file it-
	       self could be made, this	also stops the dependents being	built
	       unless they are needed for another branch of the	dependency
	       tree.  So given:

	       x: a .WAIT b
		       echo x
		       echo a
	       b: b1
		       echo b
		       echo b1

	       the output is always `a', `b1', `b', `x'.
	       The ordering imposed by .WAIT is	only relevant for parallel

     Special targets may not be	included with other targets, i.e. they must be
     the only target specified.

     .BEGIN   Any command lines	attached to this target	are executed before
	      anything else is done.

	      This is sort of a	.USE rule for any target (that was used	only
	      as a source) that	make can't figure out any other	way to create.
	      Only the shell script is used.  The .IMPSRC variable of a	target
	      that inherits .DEFAULT's commands	is set to the target's own

	      If this target is	present	in the makefile, it globally causes
	      make to delete targets whose commands fail.  (By default,	only
	      targets whose commands are interrupted during execution are
	      deleted.	This is	the historical behavior.)  This	setting	can be
	      used to help prevent half-finished or malformed targets from be-
	      ing left around and corrupting future rebuilds.

     .END     Any command lines	attached to this target	are executed after ev-
	      erything else is done.

     .ERROR   Any command lines	attached to this target	are executed when an-
	      other target fails.  The .ERROR_TARGET variable is set to	the
	      target that failed.  See also MAKE_PRINT_VAR_ON_ERROR.

     .IGNORE  Mark each	of the sources with the	.IGNORE	attribute.  If no
	      sources are specified, this is the equivalent of specifying the
	      -i option.

	      If make is interrupted, the commands for this target will	be ex-

     .MAIN    If no target is specified	when make is invoked, this target will
	      be built.

	      This target provides a way to specify flags for make when	the
	      makefile is used.	 The flags are as if typed to the shell,
	      though the -f option will	have no	effect.

     .NOPATH  Apply the	.NOPATH	attribute to any specified sources.

	      Disable parallel mode.

	      Synonym for .NOTPARALLEL,	for compatibility with other pmake

     .OBJDIR  The source is a new value	for `.OBJDIR'.	If it exists, make
	      will chdir(2) to it and update the value of `.OBJDIR'.

     .ORDER   The named	targets	are made in sequence.  This ordering does not
	      add targets to the list of targets to be made.  Since the	depen-
	      dents of a target	do not get built until the target itself could
	      be built,	unless `a' is built by another part of the dependency
	      graph, the following is a	dependency loop:

	      .ORDER: b	a
	      b: a

	      The ordering imposed by .ORDER is	only relevant for parallel

     .PATH    The sources are directories which	are to be searched for files
	      not found	in the current directory.  If no sources are speci-
	      fied, any	previously specified directories are deleted.  If the
	      source is	the special .DOTLAST target, then the current working
	      directory	is searched last.

	      Like .PATH but applies only to files with	a particular suffix.
	      The suffix must have been	previously declared with .SUFFIXES.

     .PHONY   Apply the	.PHONY attribute to any	specified sources.

	      Apply the	.PRECIOUS attribute to any specified sources.  If no
	      sources are specified, the .PRECIOUS attribute is	applied	to ev-
	      ery target in the	file.

     .SHELL   Sets the shell that make will use	to execute commands.  The
	      sources are a set	of field=value pairs.

	      name	  This is the minimal specification, used to select
			  one of the built-in shell specs; sh, ksh, and	csh.

	      path	  Specifies the	path to	the shell.

	      hasErrCtl	  Indicates whether the	shell supports exit on error.

	      check	  The command to turn on error checking.

	      ignore	  The command to disable error checking.

	      echo	  The command to turn on echoing of commands executed.

	      quiet	  The command to turn off echoing of commands exe-

	      filter	  The output to	filter after issuing the quiet com-
			  mand.	 It is typically identical to quiet.

	      errFlag	  The flag to pass the shell to	enable error checking.

	      echoFlag	  The flag to pass the shell to	enable command echo-

	      newline	  The string literal to	pass the shell that results in
			  a single newline character when used outside of any
			  quoting characters.

	      .SHELL: name=ksh path=/bin/ksh hasErrCtl=true \
		      check="set -e" ignore="set +e" \
		      echo="set	-v" quiet="set +v" filter="set +v" \
		      echoFlag=v errFlag=e newline="'\n'"

     .SILENT  Apply the	.SILENT	attribute to any specified sources.  If	no
	      sources are specified, the .SILENT attribute is applied to every
	      command in the file.

     .STALE   This target gets run when	a dependency file contains stale en-
	      tries, having .ALLSRC set	to the name of that dependency file.

	      Each source specifies a suffix to	make.  If no sources are spec-
	      ified, any previously specified suffixes are deleted.  It	allows
	      the creation of suffix-transformation rules.


	      .SUFFIXES: .o
		      cc -o ${.TARGET} -c ${.IMPSRC}

     make uses the following environment variables, if they exist: MACHINE,
     PWD, and TMPDIR.

     MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX and MAKEOBJDIR may only be set in	the environment	or on
     the command line to make and not as makefile variables; see the descrip-
     tion of `.OBJDIR' for more	details.

     .depend	    list of dependencies
     Makefile	    list of dependencies
     makefile	    list of dependencies	    system makefile
     /usr/share/mk  system makefile directory

     The basic make syntax is compatible between different versions of make;
     however the special variables, variable modifiers and conditionals	are

   Older versions
     An	incomplete list	of changes in older versions of	make:

     The way that .for loop variables are substituted changed after NetBSD 5.0
     so	that they still	appear to be variable expansions.  In particular this
     stops them	being treated as syntax, and removes some obscure problems us-
     ing them in .if statements.

     The way that parallel makes are scheduled changed in NetBSD 4.0 so	that
     .ORDER and	.WAIT apply recursively	to the dependent nodes.	 The algo-
     rithms used may change again in the future.

   Other make dialects
     Other make	dialects (GNU make, SVR4 make, POSIX make, etc.) do not	sup-
     port most of the features of make as described in this manual.  Most no-

	   o   The .WAIT and .ORDER declarations and most functionality	per-
	       taining to parallelization.  (GNU make supports parallelization
	       but lacks these features	needed to control it effectively.)

	   o   Directives, including for loops and conditionals	and most of
	       the forms of include files.  (GNU make has its own incompatible
	       and less	powerful syntax	for conditionals.)

	   o   All built-in variables that begin with a	dot.

	   o   Most of the special sources and targets that begin with a dot,
	       with the	notable	exception of .PHONY, .PRECIOUS,	and .SUFFIXES.

	   o   Variable	modifiers, except for the
	       string substitution, which does not portably support globbing
	       with `%'	and historically only works on declared	suffixes.

	   o   The $> variable even in its short form; most makes support this
	       functionality but its name varies.

     Some features are somewhat	more portable, such as assignment with +=, ?=,
     and !=.  The .PATH	functionality is based on an older feature VPATH found
     in	GNU make and many versions of SVR4 make; however, historically its be-
     havior is too ill-defined (and too	buggy) to rely upon.

     The $@ and	$< variables are more or less universally portable, as is the
     $(MAKE) variable.	Basic use of suffix rules (for files only in the cur-
     rent directory, not trying	to chain transformations together, etc.) is
     also reasonably portable.

     mkdep(1), style.Makefile(5)

     A make command appeared in	Version	7 AT&T UNIX.  This make	implementation
     is	based on Adam De Boor's	pmake program which was	written	for Sprite at
     Berkeley.	It was designed	to be a	parallel distributed make running jobs
     on	different machines using a daemon called "customs".

     Historically the target/dependency	"FRC" has been used to FoRCe rebuild-
     ing (since	the target/dependency does not exist...	unless someone creates
     an	"FRC" file).

     The make syntax is	difficult to parse without actually acting on the
     data.  For	instance, finding the end of a variable's use should involve
     scanning each of the modifiers, using the correct terminator for each
     field.  In	many places make just counts {}	and () in order	to find	the
     end of a variable expansion.

     There is no way of	escaping a space character in a	filename.

FreeBSD	13.0		       January 28, 2022			  FreeBSD 13.0


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