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MAKE(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual		       MAKE(1)

     make -- maintain program dependencies

     make [-BPSXeiknqrstv] [-C directory] [-D variable]	[-d flags]
	  [-E variable]	[-f makefile] [-I directory] [-j max_jobs]
	  [-m directory] [-V variable] [variable=value]	[target	...]

     The make utility is a program designed to simplify	the maintenance	of
     other programs.  Its input	is a list of specifications describing depen-
     dency relationships between the generation	of files and programs.	The
     first of `makefile' and `Makefile'	that can be found in either the	cur-
     rent directory or a special object	directory (see `.OBJDIR') will be read
     for this list of specifications.  If the file `.depend' can be found, it
     is	also read (see mkdep(1)).

     This manual page is intended as a reference document only.	 For a more
     thorough introduction to make and makefiles, please refer to Make - A

     The options are as	follows:

     -B	     Try to be backwards compatible by executing a single shell	per
	     command and by executing the commands to make the sources of a
	     dependency	line in	sequence.  This	is turned on by	default	unless
	     -j	is used.

     -C	directory
	     Change to directory while running.

     -D	variable
	     Define variable to	be 1, in the global context.

     -d	flags
	     Turn on debugging,	and specify which portions of make are to
	     print debugging information.  Argument flags is one or more of
	     the following:

	     A	     Print all possible	debugging information; equivalent to
		     specifying	all of the debugging flags.

	     a	     Print debugging information about archive searching and

	     c	     Print debugging information about conditional evaluation.

	     d	     Print debugging information about directory searching and

	     f	     Print debugging information about the execution of	for
		     loops.  Currently a no-op.

	     g1	     Print the input graph before making anything.

	     g2	     Print the input graph after making	everything, or before
		     exiting on	error.

	     j	     Print debugging information about running multiple

	     l	     Print commands in Makefiles regardless of whether or not
		     they are prefixed by @ or other "quiet" flags.  Also
		     known as "loud" behavior.

	     m	     Print debugging information about making targets, includ-
		     ing modification dates.

	     s	     Print debugging information about suffix-transformation

	     t	     Print debugging information about target list mainte-

	     v	     Print debugging information about variable	assignment.

     -E	variable
	     Specify a variable	whose environment value	(if any) will override
	     macro assignments within makefiles.

     -e	     Specify that environment values override macro assignments	within
	     makefiles for all variables.

     -f	makefile
	     Specify a makefile	to read	instead	of the default `makefile' and
	     `Makefile'.  If makefile is `-', standard input is	read.  Multi-
	     ple makefiles may be specified, and are read in the order speci-

     -I	directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for	makefiles and included
	     makefiles.	 The system makefile directory (or directories,	see
	     the -m option) is automatically included as part of this list.

     -i	     Ignore non-zero exit of shell commands in the makefile.  Equiva-
	     lent to specifying	`-' before each	command	line in	the makefile.

     -j	max_jobs
	     Specify the maximum number	of jobs	that make may have running at
	     any one time.  Turns compatibility	mode off, unless the B flag is
	     also specified.

     -k	     Continue processing after errors are encountered, but only	on
	     those targets that	do not depend on the target whose creation
	     caused the	error.

     -m	directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for and makefiles
	     included via the <...> style.  Multiple directories can be	added
	     to	form a search path.  This path will override the default sys-
	     tem include path: /usr/share/mk.  Furthermore, the	system include
	     path will be appended to the search path used for "..."-style in-
	     clusions (see the -I option).

     -n	     Display the commands that would have been executed, but do	not
	     actually execute them.

     -P	     Collate the output	of a given job and display it only when	the
	     job finishes, instead of mixing the output	of parallel jobs to-
	     gether.  This option has no effect	unless -j is used too.

     -q	     Do	not execute any	commands, but exit 0 if	the specified targets
	     are up-to-date and	1, otherwise.

     -r	     Do	not use	the built-in rules specified in	the system makefile.

     -S	     Stop processing when an error is encountered.  Default behaviour.
	     This is needed to negate the -k option during recursive builds.

     -s	     Do	not echo any commands as they are executed.  Equivalent	to
	     specifying	`@' before each	command	line in	the makefile.

     -t	     Rather than re-building a target as specified in the makefile,
	     create it or update its modification time to make it appear up-

     -V	variable
	     Print make's idea of the value of variable, in the	global con-
	     text.  Do not build any targets.  Multiple	instances of this op-
	     tion may be specified; the	variables will be printed one per
	     line, with	a blank	line for each null or undefined	variable.

     -v	     Be	extra verbose.	For multi-job makes, this will cause file ban-
	     ners to be	generated.

     -X	     When using	the -V option to print the values of variables,	do not
	     recursively expand	the values.

	     Set the value of the variable variable to value.

     There are seven different types of	lines in a makefile: file dependency
     specifications, shell commands, variable assignments, include statements,
     conditional directives, for loops,	and comments.

     In	general, lines may be continued	from one line to the next by ending
     them with a backslash (`\').  The trailing	newline	character and initial
     whitespace	on the following line are compressed into a single space.

     Dependency	lines consist of one or	more targets, an operator, and zero or
     more sources.  This creates a relationship	where the targets "depend" on
     the sources and are usually created from them.  The exact relationship
     between the target	and the	source is determined by	the operator that sep-
     arates them.  The three operators are as follows:

     :	   A target is considered out-of-date if its modification time is less
	   than	those of any of	its sources.  Sources for a target accumulate
	   over	dependency lines when this operator is used.  The target is
	   removed if make is interrupted.

     !	   Targets are always re-created, but not until	all sources have been
	   examined and	re-created as necessary.  Sources for a	target accumu-
	   late	over dependency	lines when this	operator is used.  The target
	   is removed if make is interrupted.

     ::	   If no sources are specified,	the target is always re-created.  Oth-
	   erwise, a target is considered out-of-date if any of	its sources
	   has been modified more recently than	the target.  Sources for a
	   target do not accumulate over dependency lines when this operator
	   is used.  The target	will not be removed if make is interrupted.

     Targets and sources may contain the shell wildcard	expressions `?', `*',
     `[]' and `{}'.  The expressions `?', `*' and `[]' may only	be used	as
     part of the final component of the	target or source, and must be used to
     describe existing files.  The expression `{}' need	not necessarily	be
     used to describe existing files.  Expansion is in directory order,	not
     alphabetically as done in the shell.

     Each target may have associated with it a series of shell commands, nor-
     mally used	to create the target.  Each of the commands in this script
     must be preceded by a tab.	 While any target may appear on	a dependency
     line, only	one of these dependencies may be followed by a creation
     script, unless the	`::' operator is used.

     If	the first or first two characters of the command line are `@' and/or
     `-', the command is treated specially.  A `@' causes the command not to
     be	echoed before it is executed.  A `-' causes any	non-zero exit status
     of	the command line to be ignored.

     Variables in make are much	like variables in the shell, and, by tradi-
     tion, consist of all upper-case letters.  The five	operators that can be
     used to assign values to variables	are as follows:

     =	     Assign the	value to the variable.	Any previous value is overrid-

     +=	     Append the	value to the current value of the variable.

     ?=	     Assign the	value to the variable if it is not already defined.

     :=	     Assign with expansion, i.e. expand	the value before assigning it
	     to	the variable.  Normally, expansion is not done until the vari-
	     able is referenced.

     !=	     Expand the	value and pass it to the shell for execution and as-
	     sign the result to	the variable.  Any newlines in the result are
	     replaced with spaces.

     Any whitespace before the assigned	value is removed; if the value is be-
     ing appended, a single space is inserted between the previous contents of
     the variable and the appended value.

     Variables are expanded by surrounding the variable	name with either curly
     braces (`{}') or parentheses (`()') and preceding it with a dollar	sign
     (`$').  If	the variable name contains only	a single letter, the surround-
     ing braces	or parentheses are not required.  This shorter form is not

     Variable substitution occurs at two distinct times, depending on where
     the variable is being used.  Variables in dependency lines	are expanded
     as	the line is read.  Variables in	shell commands are expanded when the
     shell command is executed.

     The four different	classes	of variables (in order of increasing prece-
     dence) are:

     Environment variables
	     Variables defined as part of make's environment.

     Global variables
	     Variables defined in the makefile or in included makefiles.

     Command line variables
	     Variables defined as part of the command line.

     Local variables
	     Variables that are	defined	specific to a certain target.  The
	     seven local variables are as follows:

	     .ALLSRC   The list	of all sources for this	target;	also known as

	     .ARCHIVE  The name	of the archive file; also known	as `!'.

	     .IMPSRC   The name/path of	the source from	which the target is to
		       be transformed (the "implied" source); also known as

	     .MEMBER   The name	of the archive member; also known as `%'.

	     .OODATE   The list	of sources for this target that	were deemed
		       out-of-date; also known as `?'.

	     .PREFIX   The file	prefix of the file, containing only the	file
		       portion,	no suffix or preceding directory components;
		       also known as `*'.

	     .TARGET   The name	of the target; also known as `@'.

	     The shorter forms `@', `!', `_', `%', `?',	`_', and `*' are per-
	     mitted for	backward compatibility and are not recommended.	 The
	     six variables `@F', `@D', `_F', `_D', `*F', and `*D' are permit-
	     ted for compatibility with	AT&T System V UNIX makefiles and are
	     not recommended.

	     Four of the local variables may be	used in	sources	on dependency
	     lines because they	expand to the proper value for each target on
	     the line.	These variables	are `.TARGET', `.PREFIX', `.ARCHIVE',
	     and `.MEMBER'.

     In	addition, make sets or knows about the following internal variables or
     environment variables:

     $		A single dollar	sign `$', i.e. `$$' expands to a single	dollar

     MAKE	The name that make was executed	with (argv[0]).

     .CURDIR	A path to the directory	where make was executed.  The make
		utility	sets .CURDIR to	the canonical path given by getcwd(3).

     .OBJDIR	A path to the directory	where the targets are built.  At
		startup, make searches for an alternate	directory to place
		target files.  It will attempt to change into this special di-
		rectory	and will search	this directory for makefiles not found
		in the current directory.  The following directories are tried
		in order:

		1.   ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}/`pwd`
		2.   ${MAKEOBJDIR}
		3.   obj.${MACHINE}
		4.   obj
		5.   /usr/obj/`pwd`

		The first directory that make successfully changes into	is
		used.  If either MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX or MAKEOBJDIR	is set in the
		environment but	make is	unable to change into the correspond-
		ing directory, then the	current	directory is used without
		checking the remainder of the list.  If	they are undefined and
		make is	unable to change into any of the remaining three di-
		rectories, then	the current directory is used.

		The environment	variable MAKEFLAGS may contain anything	that
		may be specified on make's command line.  Its contents are
		stored in make's .MAKEFLAGS variable.  Anything	specified on
		make's command line is appended	to the .MAKEFLAGS variable
		which is then entered into the environment as MAKEFLAGS	for
		all programs which make	executes.

     MFLAGS	A synonym for .MAKEFLAGS provided for backward compatibility.

     PWD	Alternate path to the current directory.  Supported if built
		with WANT_ENV_PWD defined.  make normally sets `.CURDIR' to
		the canonical path given by getcwd(3).	However, if the	envi-
		ronment	variable PWD is	set and	gives a	path to	the current
		directory, then	make sets `.CURDIR' to the value of PWD	in-
		stead.	PWD is always set to the value of `.OBJDIR' for	all
		programs which make executes.

     .TARGETS	List of	targets	make is	currently building.

     .INCLUDES	See .INCLUDES special target.

     .LIBS	See .LIBS special target.

     MACHINE	Name of	the machine architecture make is running on, obtained
		from the MACHINE environment variable, or through uname(3) if
		not defined.

		Name of	the machine architecture make was compiled for,	de-
		fined at compilation time.

     VPATH	Makefiles may assign a colon-delimited list of directories to
		VPATH.	These directories will be searched for source files by
		make after make	has finished parsing all input makefiles.

     Variable expansion	may be modified	to select or modify each word of the
     variable (where a "word" is whitespace-delimited sequence of characters).
     The general format	of a variable expansion	is as follows:


     Each modifier begins with a colon and one of the following	special	char-
     acters.  The colon	may be escaped with a backslash	(`\').

		 The C modifier	is just	like the S modifier except that	the
		 old and new strings, instead of being simple strings, are an
		 extended regular expression (see re_format(7))	and an
		 ed(1)-style replacement string.  Normally, the	first occur-
		 rence of the pattern in each word of the value	is changed.
		 The `1' modifier causes the substitution to apply to at most
		 one word; the `g' modifier causes the substitution to apply
		 to as many instances of the search pattern as occur in	the
		 word or words it is found in.	Note that `1' and `g' are or-
		 thogonal; the former specifies	whether	multiple words are po-
		 tentially affected, the latter	whether	multiple substitutions
		 can potentially occur within each affected word.

     E		 Replaces each word in the variable with its suffix.

     H		 Replaces each word in the variable with everything but	the
		 last component.

     L		 Converts variable to lower-case letters.

     Mpattern	 Select	only those words that match the	rest of	the modifier.
		 The standard shell wildcard characters	(`*', `?', and `[]')
		 may be	used.  The wildcard characters may be escaped with a
		 backslash (`\').

     Npattern	 This is identical to M, but selects all words which do	not
		 match the rest	of the modifier.

     Q		 Quotes	every shell meta-character in the variable, so that it
		 can be	passed safely through recursive	invocations of make.

     R		 Replaces each word in the variable with everything but	its

		 Modify	the first occurrence of	old_string in each word	of the
		 variable's value, replacing it	with new_string.  If a `g' is
		 appended to the last slash of the pattern, all	occurrences in
		 each word are replaced.  If old_string	begins with a caret
		 (`^'),	old_string is anchored at the beginning	of each	word.
		 If old_string ends with a dollar sign (`$'), it is anchored
		 at the	end of each word.  Inside new_string, an ampersand
		 (`&') is replaced by old_string.  Any character may be	used
		 as a delimiter	for the	parts of the modifier string.  The an-
		 choring, ampersand, and delimiter characters may be escaped
		 with a	backslash (`\').

		 Variable expansion occurs in the normal fashion inside	both
		 old_string and	new_string with	the single exception that a
		 backslash is used to prevent the expansion of a dollar	sign
		 (`$'),	not a preceding	dollar sign as is usual.

     T		 Replaces each word in the variable with its last component.

		 This is the AT&T System V UNIX	style variable substitution.
		 It must be the	last modifier specified.  If old_string	or
		 new_string do not contain the pattern matching	character %
		 then it is assumed that they are anchored at the end of each
		 word, so only suffixes	or entire words	may be replaced.  Oth-
		 erwise	% is the substring of old_string to be replaced	in

     U		 Converts variable to upper-case letters.

     Directives, conditionals, and for loops reminiscent of the	C programming
     language are provided in make.  All such structures are identified	by a
     line beginning with a single dot (`.') character.	The following direc-
     tives are supported:

     .include _file_

     .include "file"
	     Include the specified makefile.  Variables	between	the angle
	     brackets or double	quotes are expanded to form the	file name.  If
	     angle brackets are	used, the included makefile is expected	to be
	     in	the system makefile directory.	If double quotes are used, the
	     including makefile's directory and	any directories	specified us-
	     ing the -I	option are searched before the system makefile direc-

     .undef variable
	     Un-define the specified global variable.  Only global variables
	     may be un-defined.

     .error message
	     Terminate processing of the makefile immediately.	The filename
	     of	the makefile, the line on which	the error was encountered and
	     the specified message are printed to standard output and make
	     terminates	with exit code 1.  Variables in	the message are	ex-

     Conditionals are used to determine	which parts of the Makefile to
     process.  They are	used similarly to the conditionals supported by	the C
     pre-processor.  The following conditionals	are supported:

     .if [!]expression [operator expression ...]
	     Test the value of an expression.

     .ifdef [!]variable	[operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifmake [!]target [operator target	...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .ifnmake [!]target	[operator target ...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .else   Reverse the sense of the last conditional.

     .elif [!]expression [operator expression ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.if'.

     .elifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.ifdef'.

     .elifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.ifndef'.

     .elifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.ifmake'.

     .elifnmake	[!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of `.else' followed by `.ifnmake'.

     .endif  End the body of the conditional.

     The operator may be any one of the	following:

     ||	    logical OR

     &&	    Logical AND; of higher precedence than `||'.

     As	in C, make will	only evaluate a	conditional as far as is necessary to
     determine its value.  Parentheses may be used to change the order of
     evaluation.  The boolean operator `!' may be used to logically negate an
     entire conditional.  It is	of higher precedence than `&&'.

     The value of expression may be any	of the following:

     defined	 Takes a variable name as an argument and evaluates to true if
		 the variable has been defined.

     make	 Takes a target	name as	an argument and	evaluates to true if
		 the target was	specified as part of make's command line or
		 was declared the default target (either implicitly or explic-
		 itly, see .MAIN) before the line containing the conditional.

     empty	 Takes a variable, with	possible modifiers, and	evaluates to
		 true if the expansion of the variable would result in an
		 empty string.

     exists	 Takes a file name as an argument and evaluates	to true	if the
		 file exists.  The file	is searched for	on the system search
		 path (see .PATH).

     target	 Takes a target	name as	an argument and	evaluates to true if
		 the target has	been defined.

     An	expression may also be an arithmetic or	string comparison.  Variable
     expansion is performed on both sides of the comparison, after which the
     integral values are compared.  A value is interpreted as hexadecimal if
     it	is preceded by 0x, otherwise it	is decimal; octal numbers are not sup-
     ported.  The standard C relational	operators are all supported.  If after
     variable expansion, either	the left or right hand side of a `==' or `!='
     operator is not an	integral value,	then string comparison is performed
     between the expanded variables.  If no relational operator	is given, it
     is	assumed	that the expanded variable is being compared against 0.

     When make is evaluating one of these conditional expressions, and it en-
     counters a	word it	doesn't	recognize, either the "make" or	"defined" ex-
     pression is applied to it,	depending on the form of the conditional.  If
     the form is `.ifdef' or `.ifndef',	the "defined" expression is applied.
     Similarly,	if the form is `.ifmake' or `.ifnmake',	the "make" expression
     is	applied.

     If	the conditional	evaluates to true the parsing of the makefile contin-
     ues as before.  If	it evaluates to	false, the following lines are
     skipped.  In both cases this continues until a `.else' or `.endif'	is

     For loops are typically used to apply a set of rules to a list of files.
     The syntax	of a for loop is:

     .for variable in expression

     After the for expression is evaluated, it is split	into words.  The iter-
     ation variable is successively set	to each	word, and substituted in the
     make-rules	inside the body	of the for loop.

     Comments begin with a hash	(`#') character, anywhere but in a shell com-
     mand line,	and continue to	the end	of the line.

     .IGNORE	 Ignore	any errors from	the commands associated	with this tar-
		 get, exactly as if they all were preceded by a	dash (`-').

     .MAKE	 Execute the commands associated with this target even if the
		 -n or -t options were specified.  Normally used to mark re-
		 cursive make's.

     .NOTMAIN	 Normally make selects the first target	it encounters as the
		 default target	to be built if no target was specified.	 This
		 source	prevents this target from being	selected.

     .OPTIONAL	 If a target is	marked with this attribute and make can't fig-
		 ure out how to	create it, it will ignore this fact and	assume
		 the file isn't	needed or already exists.

     .PRECIOUS	 When make is interrupted, it removes any partially made tar-
		 gets.	This source prevents the target	from being removed.

     .SILENT	 Do not	echo any of the	commands associated with this target,
		 exactly as if they all	were preceded by an at sign (`@').

     .USE	 Turn the target into make's version of	a macro.  When the
		 target	is used	as a source for	another	target,	the other tar-
		 get acquires the commands, sources, and attributes (except
		 for .USE) of the source.  If the target already has commands,
		 the .USE target's commands are	appended to them.

     .WAIT	 If special .WAIT source is appears in a dependency line, the
		 sources that precede it are made before the sources that suc-
		 ceed it in the	line.  Loops are not being detected and	tar-
		 gets that form	loops will be silently ignored.

     Special targets may not be	included with other targets, i.e. they must be
     the only target specified.

     .BEGIN	 Any command lines attached to this target are executed	before
		 anything else is done.

     .DEFAULT	 This is sort of a .USE	rule for any target (that was used
		 only as a source) that	make can't figure out any other	way to
		 create.  Only the shell script	is used.  The .IMPSRC variable
		 of a target that inherits .DEFAULT's commands is set to the
		 target's own name.

     .END	 Any command lines attached to this target are executed	after
		 everything else is done.

     .IGNORE	 Mark each of the sources with the .IGNORE attribute.  If no
		 sources are specified,	this is	the equivalent of specifying
		 the -i	option.

     .INCLUDES	 A list	of suffixes that indicate files	that can be included
		 in a source file.  The	suffix must have already been declared
		 with .SUFFIXES; any suffix so declared	will have the directo-
		 ries on its search path (see .PATH) placed in the .INCLUDES
		 special variable, each	preceded by a -I flag.

     .INTERRUPT	 If make is interrupted, the commands for this target will be

     .LIBS	 This does for libraries what .INCLUDES	does for include
		 files,	except that the	flag used is -L.

     .MAIN	 If no target is specified when	make is	invoked, this target
		 will be built.	 This is always	set, either explicitly,	or im-
		 plicitly when make selects the	default	target,	to give	the
		 user a	way to refer to	the default target on the command

     .MAKEFLAGS	 This target provides a	way to specify flags for make when the
		 makefile is used.  The	flags are as if	typed to the shell,
		 though	the -f option will have	no effect.

		 Disable parallel mode.

		 Same as above,	for compatibility with other pmake variants.

     .ORDER	 The named targets are made in sequence.

     .PATH	 The sources are directories which are to be searched for
		 files not found in the	current	directory.  If no sources are
		 specified, any	previously specified directories are deleted.
		 Where possible, use of	.PATH is preferred over	use of the
		 VPATH variable.

		 The sources are directories which are to be searched for suf-
		 fixed files not found in the current directory.  The make
		 utility first searches	the suffixed search path, before re-
		 verting to the	default	path if	the file is not	found there.
		 This form is required for .LIBS and .INCLUDES to work.

     .PHONY	 Apply the .PHONY attribute to any specified sources.  Targets
		 with this attribute are always	considered to be out of	date.

     .PRECIOUS	 Apply the .PRECIOUS attribute to any specified	sources.  If
		 no sources are	specified, the .PRECIOUS attribute is applied
		 to every target in the	file.

     .SILENT	 Apply the .SILENT attribute to	any specified sources.	If no
		 sources are specified,	the .SILENT attribute is applied to
		 every command in the file.

     .SUFFIXES	 Each source specifies a suffix	to make.  If no	sources	are
		 specified, any	previous specified suffices are	deleted.

     Older versions of make used MAKE instead of MAKEFLAGS.  This was removed
     for POSIX compatibility.  The internal variable MAKE is set to the	same
     value as .MAKE; support for this may be removed in	the future.

     Most of the more esoteric features	of make	should probably	be avoided for
     greater compatibility.

     The make utility uses the following environment variables,	if they	exist:

     .depend			 list of dependencies
     Makefile			 list of dependencies
     makefile			 list of dependencies
     obj			 object	directory			 system	makefile (processed before any other
				 file, including makefile and Makefile)
     /usr/share/mk		 system	makefile directory
     /usr/share/doc/psd/12.make	 PMake tutorial
     /usr/obj			 default MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX directory.

     The determination of .OBJDIR is contorted to the point of absurdity.

     In	the presence of	several	.MAIN special targets, make silently ignores
     all but the first.

     .TARGETS is not set to the	default	target when make is invoked without a
     target name and no	.MAIN special target exists.

     The evaluation of expression in a test is very simple-minded.  Currently,
     the only form that	works is `.if ${VAR} op	something' For instance, you
     should write tests	as `.if	${VAR} = string' not the other way around,
     which doesn't work.

     For loops are expanded before tests, so a fragment	such as:

     .if ${TMACHINE} = ${MACHINE}
     won't work, and should be rewritten the other way around.

     mkdep(1), make.conf(5)

     PMake - A Tutorial.  in /usr/share/doc/psd/12.make

     A make command appeared in	Version	7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD				March 19, 1994				   BSD


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