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MAKEFS(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		     MAKEFS(8)

     makefs -- create a	file system image from a directory tree

     makefs [-t	fs-type] [-o fs-options] [-d debug-mask] [-B byte-order]
	    [-S	sector-size] [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size]
	    [-s	image-size] [-b	free-blocks] [-f free-files] [-F specfile]
	    [-x] [-N userdb-dir] image-file directory

     The utility makefs	creates	a file system image into image-file from the
     directory tree directory.	No special devices or privileges are required
     to	perform	this task.

     The options are as	follows:

     -t	fs-type
	   Create an fs-type file system image.	 The following file system
	   types are supported:

		 ffs  BSD fast file system (default).

     -o	fs-options
	   Set file system specific options.  fs-options is a comma separated
	   list	of options.  Valid file	system specific	options	are detailed

     -d	debug-mask
	   Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are
	   set in debug-mask.  XXX: document these

     -B	byte-order
	   Set the byte	order of the image to byte-order.  Valid byte orders
	   are `4321', `big' or	`be' for big endian, and `1234', `little' or
	   `le'	for little endian.  Some file systems may have a fixed byte
	   order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.

     -S	sector-size
	   Set the file	system sector size to sector-size.  Defaults to	512.

     -M	minimum-size
	   Set the minimum size	of the file system image to minimum-size.

     -m	maximum-size
	   Set the maximum size	of the file system image to maximum-size.  An
	   error will be raised	if the target file system needs	to be larger
	   than	this to	accommodate the	provided directory tree.

     -s	image-size
	   Set the size	of the file system image to image-size.

     -b	free-blocks
	   Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks	free blocks exist in the im-
	   age.	 An optional `%' suffix	may be provided	to indicate that
	   free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated	image size

     -f	free-files
	   Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in
	   the image.  An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that
	   free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated	image size

     -F	specfile
	   Use specfile	as an mtree(8) `specfile' specification.

	   If a	specfile entry exists in the underlying	file system, its per-
	   missions and	modification time will be used unless specifically
	   overridden by the specfile.	An error will be raised	if the type of
	   entry in the	specfile conflicts with	that of	an existing entry.

	   In the opposite case	(where a specfile entry	does not have an entry
	   in the underlying file system) the following	occurs:	If the spec-
	   file	entry is marked	optional, the specfile entry is	ignored.  Oth-
	   erwise, the entry will be created in	the image, and it is necessary
	   to specify at least the following parameters	in the specfile: type,
	   mode, gname or gid, and uname or uid, device	(in the	case of	block
	   or character	devices), and link (in the case	of symbolic links).
	   If time isn't provided, the current time will be used.  If flags
	   isn't provided, the current file flags will be used.	 Missing regu-
	   lar file entries will be created as zero-length files.

     -x	   Exclude file	system nodes not explcitly listed in the specfile.

     -N	dbdir
	   Use the user	database text file master.passwd and group database
	   text	file group from	dbdir, rather than using the results from the
	   system's getpwnam(3)	and getgrnam(3)	(and related) library calls.

     Where sizes are specified,	a decimal number of bytes is expected.	Two or
     more numbers may be separated by an "x" to	indicate a product.  Each num-
     ber may have one of the following optional	suffixes:
	   b	Block; multiply	by 512
	   k	Kilo; multiply by 1024 (1 KB)
	   m	Mega; multiply by 1048576 (1 MB)
	   g	Giga; multiply by 1073741824 (1	GB)
	   t	Tera; multiply by 1099511627776	(1 TB)
	   w	Word; multiply by the number of	bytes in an integer

   FFS-specific	options
     ffs images	have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword,	an equals sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are	supported:

	   avgfilesize	 Expected average file size
	   avgfpdir	 Expected number of files per directory
	   bsize	 Block size
	   density	 Bytes per inode
	   fsize	 Fragment size
	   maxbpg	 Maximum blocks	per file in a cylinder group
	   minfree	 Minimum % free
	   optimization	 Optimization preference; one of `space' or `time'.
	   extent	 Maximum extent	size
	   maxbpcg	 Maximum total number of blocks	in a cylinder group
	   version	 UFS version. 1	for FFS	(default), 2 for UFS2

     mtree(8), newfs(8)

     The makefs	utility	appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

     Luke Mewburn <>.

BSD				March 30, 2003				   BSD


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