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MANDOC(1)		FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		     MANDOC(1)

     mandoc -- format manual pages

     mandoc [-ac] [-I os=name] [-K encoding] [-mdoc | -man] [-O	options]
	    [-T	output]	[-W level] [file ...]

     The mandoc	utility	formats	manual pages for display.

     By	default, mandoc	reads mdoc(7) or man(7)	text from stdin	and produces
     -T	locale output.

     The options are as	follows:

     -a	     If	the standard output is a terminal device and -c	is not speci-
	     fied, use less(1) to paginate the output, just like man(1)	would.

     -c	     Copy the formatted	manual pages to	the standard output without
	     using less(1) to paginate them.  This is the default.  It can be
	     specified to override -a.

     -I	os=name
	     Override the default operating system name	for the	mdoc(7)	Os and
	     for the man(7) TH macro.

     -K	encoding
	     Specify the input encoding.  The supported	encoding arguments are
	     us-ascii, iso-8859-1, and utf-8.  If not specified, autodetection
	     uses the first match in the following list:

	     1.	  If the first three bytes of the input	file are the UTF-8
		  byte order mark (BOM,	0xefbbbf), input is interpreted	as

	     2.	  If the first or second line of the input file	matches	the
		  emacs	mode line format

			.\" -*-	[...;] coding: encoding; -*-

		  then input is	interpreted according to encoding.

	     3.	  If the first non-ASCII byte in the file introduces a valid
		  UTF-8	sequence, input	is interpreted as utf-8.

	     4.	  Otherwise, input is interpreted as iso-8859-1.

     -mdoc | -man
	     With -mdoc, all input files are interpreted as mdoc(7).  With
	     -man, all input files are interpreted as man(7).  By default, the
	     input language is automatically detected for each file: if	the
	     first macro is Dd or Dt, the mdoc(7) parser is used; otherwise,
	     the man(7)	parser is used.	 With other arguments, -m is silently

     -O	options
	     Comma-separated output options.  See the descriptions of the in-
	     dividual output formats for supported options.

     -T	output
	     Select the	output format.	Supported values for the output	argu-
	     ment are ascii, html, the default of locale, man, markdown, pdf,
	     ps, tree, and utf8.

	     The special -T lint mode only parses the input and	produces no
	     output.  It implies -W all	and redirects parser messages, which
	     usually appear on standard	error output, to standard output.

     -W	level
	     Specify the minimum message level to be reported on the standard
	     error output and to affect	the exit status.  The level can	be
	     base, style, warning, error, or unsupp.  The base level automati-
	     cally derives the operating system	from the contents of the Os
	     macro, from the -Ios command line option, or from the uname(3)
	     return value.  The	levels openbsd and netbsd are variants of base
	     that bypass autodetection and request validation of base system
	     conventions for a particular operating system.  The level all is
	     an	alias for base.	 By default, mandoc is silent.	See EXIT
	     STATUS and	DIAGNOSTICS for	details.

	     The special option	-W stop	tells mandoc to	exit after parsing a
	     file that causes warnings or errors of at least the requested
	     level.  No	formatted output will be produced from that file.  If
	     both a level and stop are requested, they can be joined with a
	     comma, for	example	-W error,stop.

     file    Read from the given input file.  If multiple files	are specified,
	     they are processed	in the given order.  If	unspecified, mandoc
	     reads from	standard input.

     The options -fhklw	are also supported and are documented in man(1).  In
     -f	and -k mode, mandoc also supports the options -CMmOSs described	in the
     apropos(1)	manual.	 The options -fkl are mutually exclusive and override
     each other.

   ASCII Output
     Use -T ascii to force text	output in 7-bit	ASCII character	encoding docu-
     mented in the ascii(7) manual page, ignoring the locale(1)	set in the en-

     Font styles are applied by	using back-spaced encoding such	that an	under-
     lined character `c' is rendered as	`_\[bs]c', where `\[bs]' is the	back-
     space character number 8.	Emboldened characters are rendered as
     `c\[bs]c'.	 This markup is	typically converted to appropriate terminal
     sequences by the pager or ul(1).  To remove the markup, pipe the output
     to	col(1) -b instead.

     The special characters documented in mandoc_char(7) are rendered best-ef-
     fort in an	ASCII equivalent.  In particular, opening and closing `single
     quotes' are represented as	characters number 0x60 and 0x27, respectively,
     which agrees with all ASCII standards from	1965 to	the latest revision
     (2012) and	which matches the traditional way in which roff(7) formatters
     represent single quotes in	ASCII output.  This correct ASCII rendering
     may look strange with modern Unicode-compatible fonts because contrary to
     ASCII, Unicode uses the code point	U+0060 for the grave accent only,
     never for an opening quote.

     The following -O arguments	are accepted:

	     The left margin for normal	text is	set to indent blank characters
	     instead of	the default of five for	mdoc(7)	and seven for man(7).
	     Increasing	this is	not recommended; it may	result in degraded
	     formatting, for example overfull lines or ugly line breaks.  When
	     output is to a pager on a terminal	that is	less than 66 columns
	     wide, the default is reduced to three columns.

     mdoc    Format man(7) input files in mdoc(7) output style.	 This prints
	     the operating system name rather than the page title on the right
	     side of the footer	line, and it implies -O	indent=5.  One useful
	     application is for	checking that -T man output formats in the
	     same way as the mdoc(7) source it was generated from.

	     If	the formatted manual page is opened in a pager,	go to the def-
	     inition of	the term rather	than showing the manual	page from the
	     beginning.	 If no term is specified, reuse	the first command line
	     argument that is not a section number.  If	that argument is in
	     apropos(1)	key=val	format,	only the val is	used rather than the
	     argument as a whole.  This	is useful for commands like `man -akO
	     tag Ic=ulimit' to search for a keyword and	jump right to its def-
	     inition in	the matching manual pages.

	     The output	width is set to	width instead of the default of	78.
	     When output is to a pager on a terminal that is less than 79 col-
	     umns wide,	the default is reduced to one less than	the terminal
	     width.  In	any case, lines	that are output	in literal mode	are
	     never wrapped and may exceed the output width.

   HTML	Output
     Output produced by	-T html	conforms to HTML5 using	optional self-closing
     tags.  Default styles use only CSS1.  Equations rendered from eqn(7)
     blocks use	MathML.

     The file /usr/share/misc/mandoc.css documents style-sheet classes avail-
     able for customising output.  If a	style-sheet is not specified with -O
     style, -T html defaults to	simple output (via an embedded style-sheet)
     readable in any graphical or text-based web browser.

     Non-ASCII characters are rendered as hexadecimal Unicode character	refer-

     The following -O arguments	are accepted:

	     Omit the <!DOCTYPE> declaration and the <html>, <head>, and
	     <body> elements and only emit the subtree below the <body>	ele-
	     ment.  The	style argument will be ignored.	 This is useful	when
	     embedding manual content within existing documents.

	     The string	fmt, for example, ../src/%I.html, is used as a tem-
	     plate for linked header files (usually via	the In macro).	In-
	     stances of	`%I' are replaced with the include filename.  The de-
	     fault is not to present a hyperlink.

	     The string	fmt, for example, ../html%S/%N.%S.html,	is used	as a
	     template for linked manuals (usually via the Xr macro).  In-
	     stances of	`%N' and `%S' are replaced with	the linked manual's
	     name and section, respectively.  If no section is included, sec-
	     tion 1 is assumed.	 The default is	not to present a hyperlink.
	     If	two formats are	given and a file %N.%S exists in the current
	     directory,	the first format is used; otherwise, the second	format
	     is	used.

	     The file style.css	is used	for an external	style-sheet.  This
	     must be a valid absolute or relative URI.

	     Same syntax and semantics as for ASCII Output.  This is imple-
	     mented by passing a file:// URI ending in a fragment identifier
	     to	the pager rather than passing merely a file name.  When	using
	     this argument, use	a pager	supporting such	URIs, for example

		MANPAGER='lynx -force_html' man	-T html	-O tag=MANPAGER	man
		MANPAGER='w3m -T text/html' man	-T html	-O tag=toc mandoc

	     Consequently, for HTML output, this argument does not work	with
	     more(1) or	less(1).  For example, `MANPAGER=less man -T html -O
	     tag=toc mandoc' does not work because less(1) does	not support
	     file:// URIs.

     toc     If	an input file contains at least	two non-standard sections,
	     print a table of contents near the	beginning of the output.

   Locale Output
     By	default, mandoc	automatically selects UTF-8 or ASCII output according
     to	the current locale(1).	If any of the environment variables LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, or LANG are set and the first one that is set selects the UTF-8
     character encoding, it produces UTF-8 Output; otherwise, it falls back to
     ASCII Output.  This output	mode can also be selected explicitly with -T

   Man Output
     Use -T man	to translate mdoc(7) input into	man(7) output format.  This is
     useful for	distributing manual sources to legacy systems lacking mdoc(7)
     formatters.  Embedded eqn(7) and tbl(7) code is not supported.

     If	the input format of a file is man(7), the input	is copied to the out-
     put.  The parser is also run, and as usual, the -W	level controls which
     DIAGNOSTICS are displayed before copying the input	to the output.

   Markdown Output
     Use -T markdown to	translate mdoc(7) input	to the markdown	format con-
     forming to	John Gruber's 2004 specification: The output	also
     almost conforms to	the CommonMark: specification.

     The character set used for	the markdown output is ASCII.  Non-ASCII char-
     acters are	encoded	as HTML	entities.  Since that is not possible in lit-
     eral font contexts, because these are rendered as code spans and code
     blocks in the markdown output, non-ASCII characters are transliterated to
     ASCII approximations in these contexts.

     Markdown is a very	weak markup language, so all semantic markup is	lost,
     and even part of the presentational markup	may be lost.  Do not use this
     as	an intermediate	step in	converting to HTML; instead, use -T html di-

     The man(7), tbl(7), and eqn(7) input languages are	not supported by -T
     markdown output mode.

   PDF Output
     PDF-1.1 output may	be generated by	-T pdf.	 See PostScript	Output for -O
     arguments and defaults.

   PostScript Output
     PostScript	"Adobe-3.0" Level-2 pages may be generated by -T ps.  Output
     pages default to letter sized and are rendered in the Times font family,
     11-point.	Margins	are calculated as 1/9 the page length and width.
     Line-height is 1.4m.

     Special characters	are rendered as	in ASCII Output.

     The following -O arguments	are accepted:

	     The paper size name may be	one of a3, a4, a5, legal, or letter.
	     You may also manually specify dimensions as NNxNN,	width by
	     height in millimetres.  If	an unknown value is encountered,
	     letter is used.

   UTF-8 Output
     Use -T utf8 to force text output in UTF-8 multi-byte character encoding,
     ignoring the locale(1) settings in	the environment.  See ASCII Output re-
     garding font styles and -O	arguments.

     On	operating systems lacking locale or wide character support, and	on
     those where the internal character	representation is not UCS-4, mandoc
     always falls back to ASCII	Output.

   Syntax tree output
     Use -T tree to show a human readable representation of the	syntax tree.
     It	is useful for debugging	the source code	of manual pages.  The exact
     format is subject to change, so don't write parsers for it.

     The first paragraph shows meta data found in the mdoc(7) prologue,	on the
     man(7) TH line, or	the fallbacks used.

     In	the tree dump, each output line	shows one syntax tree node.  Child
     nodes are indented	with respect to	their parent node.  The	columns	are:

     1.	  For macro nodes, the macro name; for text and	tbl(7) nodes, the con-
	  tent.	 There is a special format for eqn(7) nodes.
     2.	  Node type (text, elem, block,	head, body, body-end, tail, tbl, eqn).
     3.	  Flags:
	  -   An opening parenthesis if	the node is an opening delimiter.
	  -   An asterisk if the node starts a new input line.
	  -   The input	line number (starting at one).
	  -   A	colon.
	  -   The input	column number (starting	at one).
	  -   A	closing	parenthesis if the node	is a closing delimiter.
	  -   A	full stop if the node ends a sentence.
	  -   BROKEN if	the node is a block broken by another block.
	  -   NOSRC if the node	is not in the input file, but automatically
	      generated	from macros.
	  -   NOPRT if the node	is not supposed	to generate output for any
	      output format.

     The following -O argument is accepted:

     noval   Skip validation and show the unvalidated syntax tree.  This can
	     help to find out whether a	given behaviour	is caused by the
	     parser or by the validator.  Meta data is not available in	this

     LC_CTYPE  The character encoding locale(1).  When Locale Output is	se-
	       lected, it decides whether to use ASCII or UTF-8	output format.
	       It never	affects	the interpretation of input files.

     MANPAGER  Any non-empty value of the environment variable MANPAGER	is
	       used instead of the standard pagination program,	less(1); see
	       man(1) for details.  Only used if -a or -l is specified.

     PAGER     Specifies the pagination	program	to use when MANPAGER is	not
	       defined.	 If neither PAGER nor MANPAGER is defined, less(1) is
	       used.  Only used	if -a or -l is specified.

     The mandoc	utility	exits with one of the following	values,	controlled by
     the message level associated with the -W option:

     0	     No	base system convention violations, style suggestions, warn-
	     ings, or errors occurred, or those	that did were ignored because
	     they were lower than the requested	level.
     1	     At	least one base system convention violation or style suggestion
	     occurred, but no warning or error,	and -W base or -W style	was
     2	     At	least one warning occurred, but	no error, and -W warning or a
	     lower level was requested.
     3	     At	least one parsing error	occurred, but no unsupported feature
	     was encountered, and -W error or a	lower level was	requested.
     4	     At	least one unsupported feature was encountered, and -W unsupp
	     or	a lower	level was requested.
     5	     Invalid command line arguments were specified.  No	input files
	     have been read.
     6	     An	operating system error occurred, for example exhaustion	of
	     memory, file descriptors, or process table	entries.  Such errors
	     may cause mandoc to exit at once, possibly	in the middle of pars-
	     ing or formatting a file.

     Note that selecting -T lint output	mode implies -W	all.

     To	page manuals to	the terminal:

	   $ mandoc -l mandoc.1	man.1 apropos.1	makewhatis.8

     To	produce	HTML manuals with /usr/share/misc/mandoc.css as	the style-

	   $ mandoc -T html -O style=/usr/share/misc/mandoc.css	mdoc.7 >

     To	check over a large set of manuals:

	   $ mandoc -T lint `find /usr/src -name \*\.[1-9]`

     To	produce	a series of PostScript manuals for A4 paper:

	   $ mandoc -T ps -O paper=a4 mdoc.7 man.7 >

     Convert a modern mdoc(7) manual to	the older man(7) format, for use on
     systems lacking an	mdoc(7)	parser:

	   $ mandoc -T man foo.mdoc >

     Messages displayed	by mandoc follow this format:

	   mandoc: file:line:column: level: message: macro arguments (os)

     The first three fields identify the file name, line number, and column
     number of the input file where the	message	was triggered.	The line and
     column numbers start at 1.	 Both are omitted for messages referring to an
     input file	as a whole.  All level and message strings are explained be-
     low.  The name of the macro triggering the	message	and its	arguments are
     omitted where meaningless.	 The os	operating system specifier is omitted
     for messages that are relevant for	all operating systems.	Fatal messages
     about invalid command line	arguments or operating system errors, for ex-
     ample when	memory is exhausted, may also omit the file and	level fields.

     Message levels have the following meanings:

     syserr   An operating system error	occurred.  There isn't necessarily
	      anything wrong with the input files.  Output may all the same be
	      missing or incomplete.

     badarg   Invalid command line arguments were specified.  No input files
	      have been	read and no output is produced.

     unsupp   An input file uses unsupported low-level roff(7) features.  The
	      output may be incomplete and/or misformatted, so using GNU troff
	      instead of mandoc	to process the file may	be preferable.

     error    Indicates	a risk of information loss or severe misformatting, in
	      most cases caused	by serious syntax errors.

     warning  Indicates	a risk that the	information shown or its formatting
	      may mismatch the author's	intent in minor	ways.  Additionally,
	      syntax errors are	classified at least as warnings, even if they
	      do not usually cause misformatting.

     style    An input file uses dubious or discouraged	style.	This is	not a
	      complaint	about the syntax, and probably neither formatting nor
	      portability are in danger.  While	great care is taken to avoid
	      false positives on the higher message levels, the	style level
	      tries to reduce the probability that issues go unnoticed,	so it
	      may occasionally issue bogus suggestions.	 Please	use your good
	      judgement	to decide whether any particular style suggestion re-
	      ally justifies a change to the input file.

     base     A	convention used	in the base system of a	specific operating
	      system is	not adhered to.	 These are not markup mistakes,	and
	      neither the quality of formatting	nor portability	are in danger.
	      Messages of the base level are printed with the more intuitive
	      style level tag.

     Messages of the base, style, warning, error, and unsupp levels are	hidden
     unless their level, or a lower level, is requested	using a	-W option or
     -T	lint output mode.

     As	indicated below, all base and some style checks	are only performed if
     a specific	operating system name occurs in	the arguments of the -W	com-
     mand line option, of the Os macro,	of the -Ios command line option, or,
     if	neither	are present, in	the return value of the	uname(3) function.

   Conventions for base	system manuals
     Mdocdate found
     (mdoc, NetBSD) The	Dd macro uses CVS Mdocdate keyword substitution, which
     is	not supported by the NetBSD base system.  Consider using the conven-
     tional "Month dd, yyyy" format instead.

     Mdocdate missing
     (mdoc, OpenBSD) The Dd macro does not use CVS Mdocdate keyword substitu-
     tion, but using it	is conventionally expected in the OpenBSD base system.

     unknown architecture
     (mdoc, OpenBSD, NetBSD) The third argument	of the Dt macro	does not match
     any of the	architectures this operating system is running on.

     operating system explicitly specified
     (mdoc, OpenBSD, NetBSD) The Os macro has an argument.  In the base	sys-
     tem, it is	conventionally left blank.

     RCS id missing
     (OpenBSD, NetBSD) The manual page lacks the comment line with the RCS
     identifier	generated by CVS OpenBSD or NetBSD keyword substitution	as
     conventionally used in these operating systems.

   Style suggestions
     legacy man(7) date	format
     (mdoc) The	Dd macro uses the legacy man(7)	date format "yyyy-dd-mm".
     Consider using the	conventional mdoc(7) date format "Month	dd, yyyy" in-

     normalizing date format to: ...
     (mdoc, man) The Dd	or TH macro provides an	abbreviated month name or a
     day number	with a leading zero.  In the formatted output, the month name
     is	written	out in full and	the leading zero is omitted.

     lower case	character in document title
     (mdoc, man) The title is still used as given in the Dt or TH macro.

     duplicate RCS id
     A single manual page contains two copies of the RCS identifier for	the
     same operating system.  Consider deleting the later instance and moving
     the first one up to the top of the	page.

     possible typo in section name
     (mdoc) Fuzzy string matching revealed that	the argument of	an Sh macro is
     similar, but not identical	to a standard section name.

     unterminated quoted argument
     (roff) Macro arguments can	be enclosed in double quote characters such
     that space	characters and macro names contained in	the quoted argument
     need not be escaped.  The closing quote of	the last argument of a macro
     can be omitted.  However, omitting	it is not recommended because it makes
     the code harder to	read.

     useless macro
     (mdoc) A Bt, Tn, or Ud macro was found.  Simply delete it:	it serves no
     useful purpose.

     consider using OS macro
     (mdoc) A string was found in plain	text or	in a Bx	macro that could be
     represented using Ox, Nx, Fx, or Dx.

     errnos out	of order
     (mdoc, NetBSD) The	Er items in a Bl list are not in alphabetical order.

     duplicate errno
     (mdoc, NetBSD) A Bl list contains two consecutive It entries describing
     the same Er number.

     referenced	manual not found
     (mdoc) An Xr macro	references a manual page that was not found.  When
     running with -W base, the search is restricted to the base	system,	by de-
     fault to /usr/share/man:/usr/X11R6/man.  This path	can be configured at
     compile time using	the MANPATH_BASE preprocessor macro.  When running
     with -W style, the	search is done along the full search path as described
     in	the man(1) manual page,	respecting the -m and -M command line options,
     the MANPATH environment variable, the man.conf(5) file and	falling	back
     to	the default of /usr/share/man:/usr/X11R6/man:/usr/local/man, also con-
     figurable at compile time using the MANPATH_DEFAULT preprocessor macro.

     trailing delimiter
     (mdoc) The	last argument of an Ex,	Fo, Nd,	Nm, Os,	Sh, Ss,	St, or Sx
     macro ends	with a trailing	delimiter.  This is usually bad	style and of-
     ten indicates typos.  Most	likely,	the delimiter can be removed.

     no	blank before trailing delimiter
     (mdoc) The	last argument of a macro that supports trailing	delimiter ar-
     guments is	longer than one	byte and ends with a trailing delimiter.  Con-
     sider inserting a blank such that the delimiter becomes a separate	argu-
     ment, thus	moving it out of the scope of the macro.

     fill mode already enabled,	skipping
     (man) A fi	request	occurs even though the document	is still in fill mode,
     or	already	switched back to fill mode.  It	has no effect.

     fill mode already disabled, skipping
     (man) An nf request occurs	even though the	document already switched to
     no-fill mode and did not switch back to fill mode yet.  It	has no effect.

     input text	line longer than 80 bytes
     Consider breaking the input text line at one of the blank characters be-
     fore column 80.

     verbatim "--", maybe consider using \(em
     (mdoc) Even though	the ASCII output device	renders	an em-dash as "--",
     that is not a good	way to write it	in an input file because it renders
     poorly on all other output	devices.

     function name without markup
     (mdoc) A word followed by an empty	pair of	parentheses occurs on a	text
     line.  Consider using an Fn or Xr macro.

     whitespace	at end of input	line
     (mdoc, man, roff) Whitespace at the end of	input lines is almost never
     semantically significant -- but in	the odd	case where it might be,	it is
     extremely confusing when reviewing	and maintaining	documents.

     bad comment style
     (roff) Comment lines start	with a dot, a backslash, and a double-quote
     character.	 The mandoc utility treats the line as a comment line even
     without the backslash, but	leaving	out the	backslash might	not be porta-

   Warnings related to the document prologue
     missing manual title, using UNTITLED
     (mdoc) A Dt macro has no arguments, or there is no	Dt macro before	the
     first non-prologue	macro.

     missing manual title, using ""
     (man) There is no TH macro, or it has no arguments.

     missing manual section, using ""
     (mdoc, man) A Dt or TH macro lacks	the mandatory section argument.

     unknown manual section
     (mdoc) The	section	number in a Dt line is invalid,	but still used.

     filename/section mismatch
     (mdoc, man) The name of the input file being processed is known and its
     file name extension starts	with a non-zero	digit, but the Dt or TH	macro
     contains a	section	argument that starts with a different non-zero digit.
     The section argument is used as provided anyway.  Consider	checking
     whether the file name or the argument need	a correction.

     missing date, using ""
     (mdoc, man) The document was parsed as mdoc(7) and	it has no Dd macro, or
     the Dd macro has no arguments or only empty arguments; or the document
     was parsed	as man(7) and it has no	TH macro, or the TH macro has less
     than three	arguments or its third argument	is empty.

     cannot parse date,	using it verbatim
     (mdoc, man) The date given	in a Dd	or TH macro does not follow the	con-
     ventional format.

     date in the future, using it anyway
     (mdoc, man) The date given	in a Dd	or TH macro is more than a day ahead
     of	the current system time(3).

     missing Os	macro, using ""
     (mdoc) The	default	or current system is not shown in this case.

     late prologue macro
     (mdoc) A Dd or Os macro occurs after some non-prologue macro, but still
     takes effect.

     prologue macros out of order
     (mdoc) The	prologue macros	are not	given in the conventional order	Dd,
     Dt, Os.  All three	macros are used	even when given	in another order.

   Warnings regarding document structure
     .so is fragile, better use	ln(1)
     (roff) Including files only works when the	parser program runs with the
     correct current working directory.

     no	document body
     (mdoc, man) The document body contains neither text nor macros.  An empty
     document is shown,	consisting only	of a header and	a footer line.

     content before first section header
     (mdoc, man) Some macros or	text precede the first Sh or SH	section
     header.  The offending macros and text are	parsed and added to the	top
     level of the syntax tree, outside any section block.

     first section is not NAME
     (mdoc) The	argument of the	first Sh macro is not `NAME'.  This may	con-
     fuse makewhatis(8)	and apropos(1).

     NAME section without Nm before Nd
     (mdoc) The	NAME section does not contain any Nm child macro before	the
     first Nd macro.

     NAME section without description
     (mdoc) The	NAME section lacks the mandatory Nd child macro.

     description not at	the end	of NAME
     (mdoc) The	NAME section does contain an Nd	child macro, but other content
     follows it.

     bad NAME section content
     (mdoc) The	NAME section contains plain text or macros other than Nm and

     missing comma before name
     (mdoc) The	NAME section contains an Nm macro that is neither the first
     one nor preceded by a comma.

     missing description line, using ""
     (mdoc) The	Nd macro lacks the required argument.  The title line of the
     manual will end after the dash.

     description line outside NAME section
     (mdoc) An Nd macro	appears	outside	the NAME section.  The arguments are
     printed anyway and	the following text is used for apropos(1), but none of
     that behaviour is portable.

     sections out of conventional order
     (mdoc) A standard section occurs after another section it usually pre-
     cedes.  All section titles	are used as given, and the order of sections
     is	not changed.

     duplicate section title
     (mdoc) The	same standard section title occurs more	than once.

     unexpected	section
     (mdoc) A standard section header occurs in	a section of the manual	where
     it	normally isn't useful.

     cross reference to	self
     (mdoc) An Xr macro	refers to a name and section matching the section of
     the present manual	page and a name	mentioned in an	Nm macro in the	NAME
     or	SYNOPSIS section, or in	an Fn or Fo macro in the SYNOPSIS.  Consider
     using Nm or Fn instead of Xr.

     unusual Xr	order
     (mdoc) In the SEE ALSO section, an	Xr macro with a	lower section number
     follows one with a	higher number, or two Xr macros	referring to the same
     section are out of	alphabetical order.

     unusual Xr	punctuation
     (mdoc) In the SEE ALSO section, punctuation between two Xr	macros differs
     from a single comma, or there is trailing punctuation after the last Xr

     AUTHORS section without An	macro
     (mdoc) An AUTHORS sections	contains no An macros, or only empty ones.
     Probably, there are author	names lacking markup.

   Warnings related to macros and nesting
     obsolete macro
     (mdoc) See	the mdoc(7) manual for replacements.

     macro neither callable nor	escaped
     (mdoc) The	name of	a macro	that is	not callable appears on	a macro	line.
     It	is printed verbatim.  If the intention is to call it, move it to its
     own input line; otherwise,	escape it by prepending	`\&'.

     skipping paragraph	macro
     In	mdoc(7)	documents, this	happens
     -	 at the	beginning and end of sections and subsections
     -	 right before non-compact lists	and displays
     -	 at the	end of items in	non-column, non-compact	lists
     -	 and for multiple consecutive paragraph	macros.
     In	man(7) documents, it happens
     -	 for empty P, PP, and LP macros
     -	 for IP	macros having neither head nor body arguments
     -	 for br	or sp right after SH or	SS

     moving paragraph macro out	of list
     (mdoc) A list item	in a Bl	list contains a	trailing paragraph macro.  The
     paragraph macro is	moved after the	end of the list.

     skipping no-space macro
     (mdoc) An input line begins with an Ns macro, or the next argument	after
     an	Ns macro is an isolated	closing	delimiter.  The	macro is ignored.

     blocks badly nested
     (mdoc) If two blocks intersect, one should	completely contain the other.
     Otherwise,	rendered output	is likely to look strange in any output	for-
     mat, and rendering	in SGML-based output formats is	likely to be outright
     wrong because such	languages do not support badly nested blocks at	all.
     Typical examples of badly nested blocks are "Ao Bo	Ac Bc" and "Ao Bq Ac".
     In	these examples,	Ac breaks Bo and Bq, respectively.

     nested displays are not portable
     (mdoc) A Bd, D1, or Dl display occurs nested inside another Bd display.
     This works	with mandoc, but fails with most other implementations.

     moving content out	of list
     (mdoc) A Bl list block contains text or macros before the first It	macro.
     The offending children are	moved before the beginning of the list.

     first macro on line
     Inside a Bl -column list, a Ta macro occurs as the	first macro on a line,
     which is not portable.

     line scope	broken
     (man) While parsing the next-line scope of	the previous macro, another
     macro is found that prematurely terminates	the previous one.  The previ-
     ous, interrupted macro is deleted from the	parse tree.

   Warnings related to missing arguments
     skipping empty request
     (roff, eqn) The macro name	is missing from	a macro	definition request, or
     an	eqn(7) control statement or operation keyword lacks its	required argu-

     conditional request controls empty	scope
     (roff) A conditional request is only useful if any	of the following fol-
     lows it on	the same logical input line:
     -	 The `\{' keyword to open a multi-line scope.
     -	 A request or macro or some text, resulting in a single-line scope.
     -	 The immediate end of the logical line without any intervening white-
	 space,	resulting in next-line scope.
     Here, a conditional request is followed by	trailing whitespace only, and
     there is no other content on its logical input line.  Note	that it
     doesn't matter whether the	logical	input line is split across multiple
     physical input lines using	`\' line continuation characters.  This	is one
     of	the rare cases where trailing whitespace is syntactically significant.
     The conditional request controls a	scope containing whitespace only, so
     it	is unlikely to have a significant effect, except that it may control a
     following el clause.

     skipping empty macro
     (mdoc) The	indicated macro	has no arguments and hence no effect.

     empty block
     (mdoc, man) A Bd, Bk, Bl, D1, Dl, MT, RS, or UR block contains nothing in
     its body and will produce no output.

     empty argument, using 0n
     (mdoc) The	required width is missing after	Bd or Bl -offset or -width.

     missing display type, using -ragged
     (mdoc) The	Bd macro is invoked without the	required display type.

     list type is not the first	argument
     (mdoc) In a Bl macro, at least one	other argument precedes	the type argu-
     ment.  The	mandoc utility copes with any argument order, but some other
     mdoc(7) implementations do	not.

     missing -width in -tag list, using	8n
     (mdoc) Every Bl macro having the -tag argument requires -width, too.

     missing utility name, using ""
     (mdoc) The	Ex -std	macro is called	without	an argument before Nm has
     first been	called with an argument.

     missing function name, using ""
     (mdoc) The	Fo macro is called without an argument.	 No function name is

     empty head	in list	item
     (mdoc) In a Bl -diag, -hang, -inset, -ohang, or -tag list,	an It macro
     lacks the required	argument.  The item head is left empty.

     empty list	item
     (mdoc) In a Bl -bullet, -dash, -enum, or -hyphen list, an It block	is
     empty.  An	empty list item	is shown.

     missing argument, using next line
     (mdoc) An It macro	in a Bd	-column	list has no arguments.	While mandoc
     uses the text or macros of	the following line, if any, for	the cell,
     other formatters may misformat the	list.

     missing font type,	using \fR
     (mdoc) A Bf macro has no argument.	 It switches to	the default font.

     unknown font type,	using \fR
     (mdoc) The	Bf argument is invalid.	 The default font is used instead.

     nothing follows prefix
     (mdoc) A Pf macro has no argument,	or only	one argument and no macro fol-
     lows on the same input line.  This	defeats	its purpose; in	particular,
     spacing is	not suppressed before the text or macros following on the next
     input line.

     empty reference block
     (mdoc) An Rs macro	is immediately followed	by an Re macro on the next in-
     put line.	Such an	empty block does not produce any output.

     missing section argument
     (mdoc) An Xr macro	lacks its second, section number argument.  The	first
     argument, i.e. the	name, is printed, but without subsequent parentheses.

     missing -std argument, adding it
     (mdoc) An Ex or Rv	macro lacks the	required -std argument.	 The mandoc
     utility assumes -std even when it is not specified, but other implementa-
     tions may not.

     missing option string, using ""
     (man) The OP macro	is invoked without any argument.  An empty pair	of
     square brackets is	shown.

     missing resource identifier, using	""
     (man) The MT or UR	macro is invoked without any argument.	An empty pair
     of	angle brackets is shown.

     missing eqn box, using ""
     (eqn) A diacritic mark or a binary	operator is found, but there is	noth-
     ing to the	left of	it.  An	empty box is inserted.

   Warnings related to bad macro arguments
     duplicate argument
     (mdoc) A Bd or Bl macro has more than one -compact, more than one
     -offset, or more than one -width argument.	 All but the last instances of
     these arguments are ignored.

     skipping duplicate	argument
     (mdoc) An An macro	has more than one -split or -nosplit argument.	All
     but the first of these arguments are ignored.

     skipping duplicate	display	type
     (mdoc) A Bd macro has more	than one type argument;	the first one is used.

     skipping duplicate	list type
     (mdoc) A Bl macro has more	than one type argument;	the first one is used.

     skipping -width argument
     (mdoc) A Bl -column, -diag, -ohang, -inset, or -item list has a -width
     argument.	That has no effect.

     wrong number of cells
     In	a line of a Bl -column list, the number	of tabs	or Ta macros is	less
     than the number expected from the list header line	or exceeds the ex-
     pected number by more than	one.  Missing cells remain empty, and all
     cells exceeding the number	of columns are joined into one single cell.

     unknown AT&T UNIX version
     (mdoc) An At macro	has an invalid argument.  It is	used verbatim, with
     "AT&T UNIX	" prefixed to it.

     comma in function argument
     (mdoc) An argument	of an Fa or Fn macro contains a	comma; it should prob-
     ably be split into	two arguments.

     parenthesis in function name
     (mdoc) The	first argument of an Fc	or Fn macro contains an	opening	or
     closing parenthesis; that's probably wrong, parentheses are added auto-

     unknown library name
     (mdoc, not	on OpenBSD) An Lb macro	has an unknown name argument and will
     be	rendered as "library "name"".

     invalid content in	Rs block
     (mdoc) An Rs block	contains plain text or non-% macros.  The bogus	con-
     tent is left in the syntax	tree.  Formatting may be poor.

     invalid Boolean argument
     (mdoc) An Sm macro	has an argument	other than on or off.  The invalid ar-
     gument is moved out of the	macro, which leaves the	macro empty, causing
     it	to toggle the spacing mode.

     argument contains two font	escapes
     (roff) The	second argument	of a char request contains more	than one font
     escape sequence.  A wrong font may	remain active after using the charac-

     unknown font, skipping request
     (man, tbl)	A roff(7) ft request or	a tbl(7) f layout modifier has an un-
     known font	argument.

     odd number	of characters in request
     (roff) A tr request contains an odd number	of characters.	The last char-
     acter is mapped to	the blank character.

   Warnings related to plain text
     blank line	in fill	mode, using .sp
     (mdoc) The	meaning	of blank input lines is	only well-defined in non-fill
     mode: In fill mode, line breaks of	text input lines are not supposed to
     be	significant.  However, for compatibility with groff, blank lines in
     fill mode are formatted like sp requests.	To request a paragraph break,
     use Pp instead of a blank line.

     tab in filled text
     (mdoc, man) The meaning of	tab characters is only well-defined in non-
     fill mode:	In fill	mode, whitespace is not	supposed to be significant on
     text input	lines.	As an implementation dependent choice, tab characters
     on	text lines are passed through to the formatters	in any case.  Given
     that the text before the tab character will be filled, it is hard to pre-
     dict which	tab stop position the tab will advance to.

     new sentence, new line
     (mdoc) A new sentence starts in the middle	of a text line.	 Start it on a
     new input line to help formatters produce correct spacing.

     invalid escape sequence
     (roff) An escape sequence has an invalid opening argument delimiter,
     lacks the closing argument	delimiter, the argument	is of an invalid form,
     or	it is a	character escape sequence with an invalid name.	 If the	argu-
     ment is incomplete, \* and	\n expand to an	empty string, \B to the	digit
     `0', and \w to the	length of the incomplete argument.  All	other invalid
     escape sequences are ignored.

     undefined escape, printing	literally
     (roff) In an escape sequence, the first character right after the leading
     backslash is invalid.  That character is printed literally, which is
     equivalent	to ignoring the	backslash.

     undefined string, using ""
     (roff) If a string	is used	without	being defined before, its value	is im-
     plicitly set to the empty string.	However, defining strings explicitly
     before use	keeps the code more readable.

   Warnings related to tables
     tbl line starts with span
     (tbl) The first cell in a table layout line is a horizontal span (`s').
     Data provided for this cell is ignored, and nothing is printed in the

     tbl column	starts with span
     (tbl) The first line of a table layout specification requests a vertical
     span (`^').  Data provided	for this cell is ignored, and nothing is
     printed in	the cell.

     skipping vertical bar in tbl layout
     (tbl) A table layout specification	contains more than two consecutive
     vertical bars.  A double bar is printed, all additional bars are dis-

   Errors related to tables
     non-alphabetic character in tbl options
     (tbl) The table options line contains a character other than a letter,
     blank, or comma where the beginning of an option name is expected.	 The
     character is ignored.

     skipping unknown tbl option
     (tbl) The table options line contains a string of letters that does not
     match any known option name.  The word is ignored.

     missing tbl option	argument
     (tbl) A table option that requires	an argument is not followed by an
     opening parenthesis, or the opening parenthesis is	immediately followed
     by	a closing parenthesis.	The option is ignored.

     wrong tbl option argument size
     (tbl) A table option argument contains an invalid number of characters.
     Both the option and the argument are ignored.

     empty tbl layout
     (tbl) A table layout specification	is completely empty, specifying	zero
     lines and zero columns.  As a fallback, a single left-justified column is

     invalid character in tbl layout
     (tbl) A table layout specification	contains a character that can neither
     be	interpreted as a layout	key character nor as a layout modifier,	or a
     modifier precedes the first key.  The invalid character is	discarded.

     unmatched parenthesis in tbl layout
     (tbl) A table layout specification	contains an opening parenthesis, but
     no	matching closing parenthesis.  The rest	of the input line, starting
     from the parenthesis, has no effect.

     ignoring excessive	spacing	in tbl layout
     (tbl) A spacing modifier in a table layout	is unreasonably	large.	The
     default spacing of	3n is used instead.

     tbl without any data cells
     (tbl) A table does	not contain any	data cells.  It	will probably produce
     no	output.

     ignoring data in spanned tbl cell
     (tbl) A table cell	is marked as a horizontal span (`s') or	vertical span
     (`^') in the table	layout,	but it contains	data.  The data	is ignored.

     ignoring extra tbl	data cells
     (tbl) A data line contains	more cells than	the corresponding layout line.
     The data in the extra cells is ignored.

     data block	open at	end of tbl
     (tbl) A data block	is opened with T{, but never closed with a matching
     T}.  The remaining	data lines of the table	are all	put into one cell, and
     any remaining cells stay empty.

   Errors related to roff, mdoc, and man code
     duplicate prologue	macro
     (mdoc) One	of the prologue	macros occurs more than	once.  The last	in-
     stance overrides all previous ones.

     skipping late title macro
     (mdoc) The	Dt macro appears after the first non-prologue macro.  Tradi-
     tional formatters cannot handle this because they write the page header
     before parsing the	document body.	Even though this technical restriction
     does not apply to mandoc, traditional semantics is	preserved.  The	late
     macro is discarded	including its arguments.

     input stack limit exceeded, infinite loop?
     (roff) Explicit recursion limits are implemented for the following	fea-
     tures, in order to	prevent	infinite loops:
     -	 expansion of nested escape sequences including	expansion of strings
	 and number registers,
     -	 expansion of nested user-defined macros,
     -	 and so	file inclusion.
     When a limit is hit, the output is	incorrect, typically losing some con-
     tent, but the parser can continue.

     skipping bad character
     (mdoc, man, roff) The input file contains a byte that is not a printable
     ascii(7) character.  The message mentions the character number.  The of-
     fending byte is replaced with a question mark (`?').  Consider editing
     the input file to replace the byte	with an	ASCII transliteration of the
     intended character.

     skipping unknown macro
     (mdoc, man, roff) The first identifier on a request or macro line is nei-
     ther recognized as	a roff(7) request, nor as a user-defined macro,	nor,
     respectively, as an mdoc(7) or man(7) macro.  It may be mistyped or un-
     supported.	 The request or	macro is discarded including its arguments.

     skipping request outside macro
     (roff) A shift or return request occurs outside any macro definition and
     has no effect.

     skipping insecure request
     (roff) An input file attempted to run a shell command or to read or write
     an	external file.	Such attempts are denied for security reasons.

     skipping item outside list
     (mdoc, eqn) An It macro occurs outside any	Bl list, or an eqn(7) above
     delimiter occurs outside any pile.	 It is discarded including its argu-

     skipping column outside column list
     (mdoc) A Ta macro occurs outside any Bl -column block.  It	is discarded
     including its arguments.

     skipping end of block that	is not open
     (mdoc, man, eqn, tbl, roff) Various syntax	elements can only be used to
     explicitly	close blocks that have previously been opened.	An mdoc(7)
     block closing macro, a man(7) ME, RE or UE	macro, an eqn(7) right delim-
     iter or closing brace, or the end of an equation, table, or roff(7) con-
     ditional request is encountered but no matching block is open.  The of-
     fending request or	macro is discarded.

     fewer RS blocks open, skipping
     (man) The RE macro	is invoked with	an argument, but less than the speci-
     fied number of RS blocks is open.	The RE macro is	discarded.

     inserting missing end of block
     (mdoc, tbl) Various mdoc(7) macros	as well	as tables require explicit
     closing by	dedicated macros.  A block that	doesn't	support	bad nesting
     ends before all of	its children are properly closed.  The open child
     nodes are closed implicitly.

     appending missing end of block
     (mdoc, man, eqn, tbl, roff) At the	end of the document, an	explicit
     mdoc(7) block, a man(7) next-line scope or	MT, RS or UR block, an equa-
     tion, table, or roff(7) conditional or ignore block is still open.	 The
     open block	is closed implicitly.

     escaped character not allowed in a	name
     (roff) Macro, string and register identifiers consist of printable, non-
     whitespace	ASCII characters.  Escape sequences and	characters and strings
     expressed in terms	of them	cannot form part of a name.  The first argu-
     ment of an	am, as,	de, ds,	nr, or rr request, or any argument of an rm
     request, or the name of a request or user defined macro being called, is
     terminated	by an escape sequence.	In the cases of	as, ds,	and nr,	the
     request has no effect at all.  In the cases of am,	de, rr,	and rm,	what
     was parsed	up to this point is used as the	arguments to the request, and
     the rest of the input line	is discarded including the escape sequence.
     When parsing for a	request	or a user-defined macro	name to	be called,
     only the escape sequence is discarded.  The characters preceding it are
     used as the request or macro name,	the characters following it are	used
     as	the arguments to the request or	macro.

     using macro argument outside macro
     (roff) The	escape sequence	\$ occurs outside any macro definition and ex-
     pands to the empty	string.

     argument number is	not numeric
     (roff) The	argument of the	escape sequence	\$ is not a digit; the escape
     sequence expands to the empty string.

     NOT IMPLEMENTED: Bd -file
     (mdoc) For	security reasons, the Bd macro does not	support	the -file ar-
     gument.  By requesting the	inclusion of a sensitive file, a malicious
     document might otherwise trick a privileged user into inadvertently dis-
     playing the file on the screen, revealing the file	content	to bystanders.
     The argument is ignored including the file	name following it.

     skipping display without arguments
     (mdoc) A Bd block macro does not have any arguments.  The block is	dis-
     carded, and the block content is displayed	in whatever mode was active
     before the	block.

     missing list type,	using -item
     (mdoc) A Bl macro fails to	specify	the list type.

     argument is not numeric, using 1
     (roff) The	argument of a ce request is not	a number.

     argument is not a character
     (roff) The	first argument of a char request is neither a single ASCII
     character nor a single character escape sequence.	The request is ignored
     including all its arguments.

     missing manual name, using	""
     (mdoc) The	first call to Nm, or any call in the NAME section, lacks the
     required argument.

     uname(3) system call failed, using	UNKNOWN
     (mdoc) The	Os macro is called without arguments, and the uname(3) system
     call failed.  As a	workaround, mandoc can be compiled with

     unknown standard specifier
     (mdoc) An St macro	has an unknown argument	and is discarded.

     skipping request without numeric argument
     (roff, eqn) An it request or an eqn(7) size or gsize statement has	a non-
     numeric or	negative argument or no	argument at all.  The invalid request
     or	statement is ignored.

     excessive shift
     (roff) The	argument of a shift request is larger than the number of argu-
     ments of the macro	that is	currently being	executed.  All macro arguments
     are deleted and \n(.$ is set to zero.

     NOT IMPLEMENTED: .so with absolute	path or	".."
     (roff) For	security reasons, mandoc allows	so file	inclusion requests
     only with relative	paths and only without ascending to any	parent direc-
     tory.  By requesting the inclusion	of a sensitive file, a malicious docu-
     ment might	otherwise trick	a privileged user into inadvertently display-
     ing the file on the screen, revealing the file content to bystanders.
     mandoc only shows the path	as it appears behind so.

     .so request failed
     (roff) Servicing a	so request requires reading an external	file, but the
     file could	not be opened.	mandoc only shows the path as it appears be-
     hind so.

     skipping all arguments
     (mdoc, man, eqn, roff) An mdoc(7) Bt, Ed, Ef, Ek, El, Lp, Pp, Re, Rs, or
     Ud	macro, an It macro in a	list that don't	support	item heads, a man(7)
     LP, P, or PP macro, an eqn(7) EQ or EN macro, or a	roff(7)	br, fi,	or nf
     request or	`..' block closing request is invoked with at least one	argu-
     ment.  All	arguments are ignored.

     skipping excess arguments
     (mdoc, man, roff) A macro or request is invoked with too many arguments:
       -   Fo, MT, PD, RS, UR, ft, or sp with more than	one argument
       -   An with another argument after -split or -nosplit
       -   RE with more	than one argument or with a non-integer	argument
       -   OP or a request of the de family with more than two arguments
       -   Dt with more	than three arguments
       -   TH with more	than five arguments
       -   Bd, Bk, or Bl with invalid arguments
     The excess	arguments are ignored.

   Unsupported features
     input too large
     (mdoc, man) Currently, mandoc cannot handle input files larger than its
     arbitrary size limit of 2^31 bytes	(2 Gigabytes).	Since useful manuals
     are always	small, this is not a problem in	practice.  Parsing is aborted
     as	soon as	the condition is detected.

     unsupported control character
     (roff) An ASCII control character supported by other roff(7) implementa-
     tions but not by mandoc was found in an input file.  It is	replaced by a
     question mark.

     unsupported escape	sequence
     (roff) An input file contains an escape sequence supported	by GNU troff
     or	Heirloom troff but not by mandoc, and it is likely that	this will
     cause information loss or considerable misformatting.

     unsupported roff request
     (roff) An input file contains a roff(7) request supported by GNU troff or
     Heirloom troff but	not by mandoc, and it is likely	that this will cause
     information loss or considerable misformatting.

     eqn delim option in tbl
     (eqn, tbl)	The options line of a table defines equation delimiters.  Any
     equation source code contained in the table will be printed unformatted.

     unsupported table layout modifier
     (tbl) A table layout specification	contains an `m'	modifier.  The modi-
     fier is discarded.

     ignoring macro in table
     (tbl, mdoc, man) A	table contains an invocation of	an mdoc(7) or man(7)
     macro or of an undefined macro.  The macro	is ignored, and	its arguments
     are handled as if they were a text	line.

     skipping tbl in -Tman mode
     (mdoc, tbl) An input file contains	the TS macro.  This message is only
     generated in -T man output	mode, where tbl(7) input is not	supported.

     skipping eqn in -Tman mode
     (mdoc, eqn) An input file contains	the EQ macro.  This message is only
     generated in -T man output	mode, where eqn(7) input is not	supported.

   Bad command line arguments
     bad command line argument
     The argument following one	of the -IKMmOTW	command	line options is	in-
     valid, or a file given as a command line argument cannot be opened.

     duplicate command line argument
     The -I command line option	was specified twice.

     option has	a superfluous value
     An	argument to the	-O option has a	value but does not accept one.

     missing option value
     An	argument to the	-O option has no argument but requires one.

     bad option	value
     An	argument to the	-O indent or width option has an invalid value.

     duplicate option value
     The same -O option	is specified more than once.

     no	such tag
     The -O tag	option was specified but the tag was not found in any of the
     displayed manual pages.

     -Tmarkdown	unsupported for	man(7) input
     (man) The -T markdown option was specified	but an input file uses the
     man(7) language.  No output is produced for that input file.

     apropos(1), man(1), eqn(7), man(7), mandoc_char(7), mdoc(7), roff(7),

     The mandoc	utility	first appeared in OpenBSD 4.8.	The option -I appeared
     in	OpenBSD	5.2, and -aCcfhKklMSsw in OpenBSD 5.7.

     The mandoc	utility	was written by Kristaps	Dzonsons <> and
     is	maintained by Ingo Schwarze <>.

FreeBSD	13.0			August 14, 2021			  FreeBSD 13.0


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