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MMAP(2)			   Linux Programmer's Manual		       MMAP(2)

       mmap, munmap - map or unmap files or devices into memory

       #include	<sys/mman.h>

       void *mmap(void *addr, size_t length, int prot, int flags,
		  int fd, off_t	offset);
       int munmap(void *addr, size_t length);

       See NOTES for information on feature test macro requirements.

       mmap()  creates a new mapping in	the virtual address space of the call-
       ing process.  The starting address for the new mapping is specified  in
       addr.  The length argument specifies the	length of the mapping.

       If addr is NULL,	then the kernel	chooses	the address at which to	create
       the mapping; this is the	most portable method of	creating  a  new  map-
       ping.   If  addr	 is not	NULL, then the kernel takes it as a hint about
       where to	place the mapping; on Linux, the mapping will be created at  a
       nearby  page  boundary.	 The address of	the new	mapping	is returned as
       the result of the call.

       The contents of a file mapping (as opposed to an	anonymous mapping; see
       MAP_ANONYMOUS  below),  are  initialized	using length bytes starting at
       offset offset in	the file (or other object) referred to by the file de-
       scriptor	fd.  offset must be a multiple of the page size	as returned by

       The prot	argument describes the desired memory protection of  the  map-
       ping (and must not conflict with	the open mode of the file).  It	is ei-
       ther PROT_NONE or the bitwise OR	of one or more of the following	flags:

       PROT_EXEC  Pages	may be executed.

       PROT_READ  Pages	may be read.

       PROT_WRITE Pages	may be written.

       PROT_NONE  Pages	may not	be accessed.

       The flags argument determines whether updates to	the mapping are	 visi-
       ble to other processes mapping the same region, and whether updates are
       carried through to the underlying file.	This behavior is determined by
       including exactly one of	the following values in	flags:

       MAP_SHARED Share	 this  mapping.	 Updates to the	mapping	are visible to
		  other	processes that map this	file, and are carried  through
		  to  the  underlying  file.  The file may not actually	be up-
		  dated	until msync(2) or munmap() is called.

		  Create a private copy-on-write mapping.  Updates to the map-
		  ping	are  not  visible  to other processes mapping the same
		  file,	and are	not carried through to	the  underlying	 file.
		  It is	unspecified whether changes made to the	file after the
		  mmap() call are visible in the mapped	region.

       Both of these flags are described in POSIX.1-2001.

       In addition, zero or more of the	following values can be	ORed in	flags:

       MAP_32BIT (since	Linux 2.4.20, 2.6)
	      Put the mapping into the first 2 Gigabytes of  the  process  ad-
	      dress  space.  This flag is supported only on x86-64, for	64-bit
	      programs.	 It was	added to allow thread stacks to	 be  allocated
	      somewhere	 in the	first 2GB of memory, so	as to improve context-
	      switch performance on  some  early  64-bit  processors.	Modern
	      x86-64  processors  no  longer have this performance problem, so
	      use of  this  flag  is  not  required  on	 those	systems.   The
	      MAP_32BIT	flag is	ignored	when MAP_FIXED is set.

	      Synonym for MAP_ANONYMOUS.  Deprecated.

	      The mapping is not backed	by any file; its contents are initial-
	      ized to zero.  The fd and	offset arguments are ignored; however,
	      some  implementations  require  fd to be -1 if MAP_ANONYMOUS (or
	      MAP_ANON)	is specified, and portable applications	should	ensure
	      this.   The  use of MAP_ANONYMOUS	in conjunction with MAP_SHARED
	      is supported on Linux only since kernel 2.4.

	      This flag	is ignored.  (Long ago,	it signaled that  attempts  to
	      write  to	 the  underlying  file should fail with	ETXTBUSY.  But
	      this was a source	of denial-of-service attacks.)

	      This flag	is ignored.

	      Compatibility flag.  Ignored.

	      Don't interpret addr as a	hint: place  the  mapping  at  exactly
	      that address.  addr must be a multiple of	the page size.	If the
	      memory region specified by addr and len overlaps	pages  of  any
	      existing	mapping(s),  then  the overlapped part of the existing
	      mapping(s) will be discarded.  If	the specified  address	cannot
	      be  used,	 mmap()	 will fail.  Because requiring a fixed address
	      for a mapping is less portable, the use of this option  is  dis-

	      Used  for	stacks.	 Indicates to the kernel virtual memory	system
	      that the mapping should extend downward in memory.

       MAP_HUGETLB (since Linux	2.6.32)
	      Allocate the mapping using "huge pages."	See the	 Linux	kernel
	      source  file Documentation/vm/hugetlbpage.txt for	further	infor-

       MAP_LOCKED (since Linux 2.5.37)
	      Lock the pages of	the mapped region into memory in the manner of
	      mlock(2).	 This flag is ignored in older kernels.

       MAP_NONBLOCK (since Linux 2.5.46)
	      Only meaningful in conjunction with MAP_POPULATE.	 Don't perform
	      read-ahead: create page tables entries only for pages  that  are
	      already  present	in  RAM.  Since	Linux 2.6.23, this flag	causes
	      MAP_POPULATE to do nothing.  One day the combination of MAP_POP-
	      ULATE and	MAP_NONBLOCK may be reimplemented.

	      Do  not reserve swap space for this mapping.  When swap space is
	      reserved,	one has	the guarantee that it is  possible  to	modify
	      the  mapping.   When  swap  space	 is not	reserved one might get
	      SIGSEGV upon a write if no physical memory  is  available.   See
	      also  the	 discussion of the file	/proc/sys/vm/overcommit_memory
	      in proc(5).  In kernels before 2.6, this flag  had  effect  only
	      for private writable mappings.

       MAP_POPULATE (since Linux 2.5.46)
	      Populate	(prefault) page	tables for a mapping.  For a file map-
	      ping, this causes	read-ahead on the file.	 Later accesses	to the
	      mapping  will  not  be  blocked by page faults.  MAP_POPULATE is
	      supported	for private mappings only since	Linux 2.6.23.

       MAP_STACK (since	Linux 2.6.27)
	      Allocate the mapping at an address suitable  for	a  process  or
	      thread  stack.   This  flag is currently a no-op,	but is used in
	      the glibc	threading implementation so that if some architectures
	      require  special	treatment  for	stack allocations, support can
	      later be transparently implemented for glibc.

       MAP_UNINITIALIZED (since	Linux 2.6.33)
	      Don't clear anonymous pages.  This flag is intended  to  improve
	      performance  on  embedded	devices.  This flag is honored only if
	      the kernel was configured	with the  CONFIG_MMAP_ALLOW_UNINITIAL-
	      IZED  option.  Because of	the security implications, that	option
	      is normally enabled only	on  embedded  devices  (i.e.,  devices
	      where one	has complete control of	the contents of	user memory).

       Of  the above flags, only MAP_FIXED is specified	in POSIX.1-2001.  How-
       ever,  most  systems  also  support  MAP_ANONYMOUS  (or	 its   synonym

       Some systems document the additional flags MAP_AUTOGROW,	MAP_AUTORESRV,
       MAP_COPY, and MAP_LOCAL.

       Memory mapped by	mmap() is preserved across fork(2), with the same  at-

       A file is mapped	in multiples of	the page size.	For a file that	is not
       a multiple of the page  size,  the  remaining  memory  is  zeroed  when
       mapped, and writes to that region are not written out to	the file.  The
       effect of changing the size of the underlying file of a mapping on  the
       pages  that  correspond	to added or removed regions of the file	is un-

       The munmap() system call	deletes	the mappings for the specified address
       range,  and  causes further references to addresses within the range to
       generate	invalid	memory references.  The	region is  also	 automatically
       unmapped	 when  the  process is terminated.  On the other hand, closing
       the file	descriptor does	not unmap the region.

       The address addr	must be	a multiple of the page size.  All  pages  con-
       taining a part of the indicated range are unmapped, and subsequent ref-
       erences to these	pages will generate SIGSEGV.  It is not	 an  error  if
       the indicated range does	not contain any	mapped pages.

   Timestamps changes for file-backed mappings
       For file-backed mappings, the st_atime field for	the mapped file	may be
       updated at any time between the mmap() and the corresponding unmapping;
       the  first  reference  to a mapped page will update the field if	it has
       not been	already.

       The st_ctime and	st_mtime field for a file mapped with  PROT_WRITE  and
       MAP_SHARED  will	be updated after a write to the	mapped region, and be-
       fore a subsequent msync(2) with the MS_SYNC or MS_ASYNC	flag,  if  one

       On success, mmap() returns a pointer to the mapped area.	 On error, the
       value MAP_FAILED	(that is, (void	*) -1) is returned, and	errno  is  set
       appropriately.	On success, munmap() returns 0,	on failure -1, and er-
       rno is set (probably to EINVAL).

       EACCES A	file descriptor	refers to a non-regular	file.  Or a file  map-
	      ping  was	 requested,  but  fd  is  not  open  for  reading.  Or
	      MAP_SHARED was requested and PROT_WRITE is set, but  fd  is  not
	      open in read/write (O_RDWR) mode.	 Or PROT_WRITE is set, but the
	      file is append-only.

       EAGAIN The file has been	locked,	or too much  memory  has  been	locked
	      (see setrlimit(2)).

       EBADF  fd  is  not  a  valid file descriptor (and MAP_ANONYMOUS was not

       EINVAL We don't like addr, length, or offset (e.g., they	are too	large,
	      or not aligned on	a page boundary).

       EINVAL (since Linux 2.6.12) length was 0.

       EINVAL flags  contained neither MAP_PRIVATE or MAP_SHARED, or contained
	      both of these values.

       ENFILE The system limit on the total number  of	open  files  has  been

       ENODEV The underlying filesystem	of the specified file does not support
	      memory mapping.

       ENOMEM No memory	is available, or the process's maximum number of  map-
	      pings would have been exceeded.

       EPERM  The prot argument	asks for PROT_EXEC but the mapped area belongs
	      to a file	on a filesystem	that was mounted no-exec.

	      MAP_DENYWRITE was	set but	the object specified by	fd is open for

	      On  32-bit  architecture	together with the large	file extension
	      (i.e., using 64-bit off_t): the number of	pages used for	length
	      plus  number  of	pages  used for	offset would overflow unsigned
	      long (32 bits).

       Use of a	mapped region can result in these signals:

	      Attempted	write into a region mapped as read-only.

       SIGBUS Attempted	access to a portion of the buffer that does not	corre-
	      spond  to	the file (for example, beyond the end of the file, in-
	      cluding the case where another process has truncated the file).

       SVr4, 4.4BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

       On POSIX	systems	on which mmap(), msync(2), and munmap()	are available,
       _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES is defined in _unistd.h_ to a value greater than 0.
       (See also sysconf(3).)

       On  some	 hardware  architectures  (e.g.,  i386),  PROT_WRITE   implies
       PROT_READ.   It	is  architecture  dependent  whether PROT_READ implies
       PROT_EXEC or not.  Portable programs should  always  set	 PROT_EXEC  if
       they intend to execute code in the new mapping.

       The  portable  way  to create a mapping is to specify addr as 0 (NULL),
       and omit	MAP_FIXED from flags.  In this case, the  system  chooses  the
       address	for  the  mapping; the address is chosen so as not to conflict
       with any	existing mapping, and will not be 0.  If the MAP_FIXED flag is
       specified,  and	addr  is  0  (NULL), then the mapped address will be 0

       Certain flags constants are  defined  only  if  either  _BSD_SOURCE  or
       _SVID_SOURCE is defined.	 (Requiring _GNU_SOURCE	also suffices, and re-
       quiring that macro specifically would have  been	 more  logical,	 since
       these   flags   are  all	 Linux-specific.)   The	 relevant  flags  are:
       MAP_32BIT, MAP_ANONYMOUS	(and  the  synonym  MAP_ANON),	MAP_DENYWRITE,

   C library/kernel ABI	differences
       This page describes the interface provided by the glibc mmap()  wrapper
       function.   Originally, this function invoked a system call of the same
       name.  Since kernel 2.4,	 that  system  call  has  been	superseded  by
       mmap2(2),  and  nowadays	 the  glibc  mmap()  wrapper  function invokes
       mmap2(2)	with a suitably	adjusted value for offset.

       On Linux	there are no  guarantees  like	those  suggested  above	 under
       MAP_NORESERVE.	By  default,  any  process can be killed at any	moment
       when the	system runs out	of memory.

       In kernels before 2.6.7,	the MAP_POPULATE flag has effect only if  prot
       is specified as PROT_NONE.

       SUSv3  specifies	 that  mmap() should fail if length is 0.  However, in
       kernels before 2.6.12, mmap() succeeded in this case:  no  mapping  was
       created	and the	call returned addr.  Since kernel 2.6.12, mmap() fails
       with the	error EINVAL for this case.

       POSIX specifies that the	system shall always zero fill any partial page
       at the end of the object	and that system	will never write any modifica-
       tion of the object beyond its end.  On Linux, when you  write  data  to
       such  partial  page  after the end of the object, the data stays	in the
       page cache even after the file is closed	and unmapped and  even	though
       the  data  is never written to the file itself, subsequent mappings may
       see the modified	content.  In some cases, this could be fixed by	 call-
       ing  msync(2)  before the unmap takes place; however, this doesn't work
       on tmpfs	(for example, when using POSIX shared memory  interface	 docu-
       mented in shm_overview(7)).

       The  following  program	prints part of the file	specified in its first
       command-line argument to	standard output.  The range  of	 bytes	to  be
       printed	is  specified  via  offset and length values in	the second and
       third command-line arguments.  The program creates a memory mapping  of
       the required pages of the file and then uses write(2) to	output the de-
       sired bytes.

   Program source
       #include	<sys/mman.h>
       #include	<sys/stat.h>
       #include	<fcntl.h>
       #include	<stdio.h>
       #include	<stdlib.h>
       #include	<unistd.h>

       #define handle_error(msg) \
	   do {	perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)

       main(int	argc, char *argv[])
	   char	*addr;
	   int fd;
	   struct stat sb;
	   off_t offset, pa_offset;
	   size_t length;
	   ssize_t s;

	   if (argc < 3	|| argc	> 4) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "%s file	offset [length]\n", argv[0]);

	   fd =	open(argv[1], O_RDONLY);
	   if (fd == -1)

	   if (fstat(fd, &sb) == -1)	       /* To obtain file size */

	   offset = atoi(argv[2]);
	   pa_offset = offset &	~(sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE) - 1);
	       /* offset for mmap() must be page aligned */

	   if (offset >= sb.st_size) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "offset is past end of file\n");

	   if (argc == 4) {
	       length =	atoi(argv[3]);
	       if (offset + length > sb.st_size)
		   length = sb.st_size - offset;
		       /* Can't	display	bytes past end of file */

	   } else {    /* No length arg	==> display to end of file */
	       length =	sb.st_size - offset;

	   addr	= mmap(NULL, length + offset - pa_offset, PROT_READ,
		       MAP_PRIVATE, fd,	pa_offset);
	   if (addr == MAP_FAILED)

	   s = write(STDOUT_FILENO, addr + offset - pa_offset, length);
	   if (s != length) {
	       if (s ==	-1)

	       fprintf(stderr, "partial	write");


       getpagesize(2), mincore(2), mlock(2), mmap2(2), mprotect(2), mremap(2),
       msync(2),  remap_file_pages(2),	setrlimit(2),  shmat(2),  shm_open(3),

       The descriptions	of the following files in  proc(5):  /proc/[pid]/maps,
       /proc/[pid]/map_files, and /proc/[pid]/smaps.

       B.O. Gallmeister, POSIX.4, O'Reilly, pp.	128-129	and 389-391.

       This  page  is  part of release 3.74 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest	  version     of     this    page,    can    be	   found    at

Linux				  2014-08-19			       MMAP(2)


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