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MOST(1)								       MOST(1)

       most - browse or	page through a text file

       most  [	-1 ] [ -b ] [ -C ] [ -c	] [ -d ] [ -M ]	[ -r ] [ -s ] [	-t ] [
       -u ] [ -v ] [ -w	] [ -z ] [ +/string ] [	+line-number ] [ +d ] [	+s ] [
       +u ] [ file... ]

       most  is	 a  paging program that	displays, one windowful	at a time, the
       contents	of a file on a terminal.  It pauses after each	windowful  and
       prints on the window status line	the screen the file name, current line
       number, and the percentage of the file so far displayed.

       Unlike other paging programs, most is capable of	 displaying  an	 arbi-
       trary  number  of  windows as long as each window occupies at least two
       screen lines.  Each window may contain the same	file  or  a  different
       file.   In  addition,  each  window has its own mode.  For example, one
       window may display a file with its lines	wrapped	while another  may  be
       truncating  the	lines.	Windows	 may be	`locked' together in the sense
       that if one of the locked windows  scrolls,  all	 locked	 windows  will
       scroll.	 most  is also capable of ignoring lines that are indented be-
       yond a user specified value.  This is useful when viewing computer pro-
       grams to	pick out gross features	of the code.  See the `:o' command for
       a description of	this feature.

       In addition to displaying ordinary text files, most  can	 also  display
       binary  files as	well as	files with arbitrary ascii characters.	When a
       file is read into a buffer, most	examines the first  32	bytes  of  the
       file to determine if the	file is	a binary file and then switches	to the
       appropriate mode.  However, this	feature	may be disabled	 with  the  -k
       option.	See the	description of the -b, -k, -v, and -t options for fur-
       ther details.

       Text files may contain combinations of underscore and backspace charac-
       ters  causing  a	 printer to underline or overstrike.  When most	recog-
       nizes this, it inserts the appropriate escape sequences to achieve  the
       desired	effect.	  In  addition,	 some files cause the printer to over-
       strike some characters by embedding carriage return characters  in  the
       middle of a line.  When this occurs, most displays the overstruck char-
       acter with a bold attribute.  This feature facilitates the  reading  of
       UNIX  man pages or a document produced by runoff.  In particular, view-
       ing this	document with most should illustrate  this  behavior  provided
       that  the  underline  characters	 have  not been	stripped.  This	may be
       turned off with the -v option.

       By default, lines with more characters than the terminal	width are  not
       wrapped	but are	instead	truncated. When	truncation occurs, this	is in-
       dicated by a `$'	in the far right column	of the terminal	 screen.   The
       RIGHT  and  LEFT	arrow keys may be used to view lines which extend past
       the margins of the screen.  The -w option may be	used to	override  this
       feature.	  When	a  window is wrapped, the character `\'	will appear at
       the right edge of the window.

       Commands	are listed below.

       -1     VT100 mode.  This	is meaningful only on VMS systems.   This  op-
	      tion  should  be used if the terminal is strictly	a VT100.  This
	      implies that the terminal	does not have the  ability  to	delete
	      and insert multiple lines.  VT102s and above have	this ability.

       -b     Binary  mode.   Use this switch when you want to view files con-
	      taining 8	bit characters.	 most will display the file  16	 bytes
	      per line in hexadecimal notation.	A typical line looks like:

		 01000000 40001575 9C23A020 4000168D	 ....@..u.#. @...

	      When used	with the -v option, the	same line looks	like:

		 ^A^@^@^@  @^@^U u 9C #A0    @^@^V8D	 ....@..u.#. @...

       -C     Disable color support.

       -c     Make searches case-sensitive

       -d     Omit the backslash mark used to denote a wrapped line.

       -M     Disable the use of mmap.

       -r     Default to using regexp searches

       -s     Squeeze-mode.   Replace multiple blank lines with	a single blank

       -t     Display tabs as ^I.  If this option is immediately  followed  by
	      an integer, the integer sets the tab width, e.g.,	-t4

       -u     Disable UTF-8 mode even if the locale dictates it

       +u     Force  UTF-8  mode.  By default most will	use the	current	locale
	      to determine if UTF-8 mode  should  be  used.   The  +u  and  -u
	      switches allow the behavior to be	overridden

       -v     Display  control	characters as in `^A' for control A.  Normally
	      most does	not interpret control characters.

       -w     Wrap lines

       -z     Disable gunzip-on-the-fly

	      Start up at the line containing the first	occurrence of string

	      Start up at the specified	line-number

       +d     This switch should only be used if you want the option to	delete
	      a	file while viewing it.	This makes it easier to	clean unwanted
	      files out	of a directory.	The file is deleted with the  interac-
	      tive key sequence	`:D' and then confirming with `y'.

       +s     Secure  Mode-- no	edit, cd, shell, and reading files not already
	      listed on	the command line.

       The commands take effect	immediately; it	is not	necessary  to  type  a
       carriage	 return.  In the following commands, i is a numerical argument
       (1 by default).

	      Display another windowful, or jump i windowfuls if i  is	speci-

	      Display another line, or i more lines, if	specified.

       UP_ARROW, ^, CTRL-P
	      Display previous line, or	i previous lines, if specified.

       T, ESCAPE<
	      Move to top of buffer.

       B, ESCAPE>
	      Move to bottom of	buffer.

       RIGHT_ARROW, TAB, >
	      Scroll window left 60i columns to	view lines that	are beyond the
	      right margin of the window.

       LEFT_ARROW, CTRL-B, <
	      Scroll window right 60i columns to view lines  that  are	beyond
	      the left margin of the window.

	      Skip back	i windowfuls and then print a windowful.

       R, CTRL-R
	      Redraw the window.

       J, G   If   i   is   not	 specified, then prompt	for a line number then
	      jump to that line	otherwise just jump to line i.

       %      If i is not specified, then prompt for  a	 percent  number  then
	      jump  to	that percent of	the file otherwise just	jump to	i per-
	      cent of the file.

       W, w   If  the  current	screen	width  is 80, make it  132  and	 vice-
	      versa.  For other	values,	this command is	ignored.

	      Exit from	most.  On VMS, ^Z also exits.

       h, CTRL-H, HELP,	PF2
	      Help.   Give  a  description of all the most commands.  The most
	      environment variable MOST_HELP must be set for this to be	 mean-

       f, /, CTRL-F, FIND, GOLD	PF3
	      Prompt  for  a  string  and search forward from the current line
	      for ith distinct line containing the string.  CTRL-G aborts.

       ?      Prompt for a string and search backward  for  the	 ith  distinct
	      line containing the string.  CTRL-G aborts.

       n      Search for the next i lines containing an	occurrence of the last
	      search string in the direction of	the previous search.

	      Set a mark on the	current	line for later reference.

	      Set a mark on the	current	line  but  return  to  previous	 mark.
	      This  allows the user to toggle back and forth between two posi-
	      tions in the file.

       l, L   Toggle locking for this window.  The window is locked  if	 there
	      is  a  `*'  at the left edge of the status line.	Windows	locked
	      together,	scroll together.

       CTRL-X 2, CTRL-W	2, GOLD	X
	      Split this window	in half.

	      Move to other window.

       CTRL-X 0, CTRL-W	0, GOLD	V
	      Delete this window.

       CTRL-X 1, CTRL-W	1, GOLD	O
	      Delete all other windows,	leaving	only one window.

       E, e   Edit this	file.

       $, ESC $
	      This is system dependent.	 On VMS, this causes most to  spawn  a
	      subprocess.   When  the user exits the process, most is resumed.
	      On UNIX systems, most simply suspends itself.

       :n     Skip to the next filename	given in the command  line.   Use  the
	      arrow  keys to scroll forward or backward	through	the file list.
	      `Q' quits	most and any other key selects the given file.

       :c     Toggle case sensitive search.

       :D     Delete current file.  This command is only meaningful  with  the
	      +d switch.

       :o, :O Toggle various options.  With this key sequence, most displays a
	      prompt asking the	user to	hit one	of: bdtvw.  The	`b', `t', `v',
	      and  `w'	options	 have  the  same  meaning  as the command line
	      switches.	 For example, the `w' option will toggle  wrapping  on
	      and off for the current window.

	      The  `d' option must be used with	a prefix integer i.  All lines
	      indented beyond i	columns	will not be displayed.	 For  example,
	      consider the fragment:

		 int main(int argc, char **argv)
		   int i;
		   for (i = 0; i < argc, i++)
		       fprintf(stdout,"%i: %s\n",i,argv[i]);
		   return 0;
	      The  key sequence	`1:od' will cause most to display the file ig-
	      noring all lines indented	beyond the first column.  So  for  the
	      example above, most would	display:

		 int main(int argc, char **argv)...
	      where the	`...' indicates	lines that follow are not displayed.

       CTRL-G aborts the commands requiring the	user to	type something in at a
       prompt.	The back-quote key has a special meaning here.	It is used  to
       quote  certain  characters.   This is useful when search	for the	occur-
       rence of	a string with a	control	character or a string at the beginning
       of  a line.  In the latter case,	to find	the occurrence of `The'	at the
       beginning of a line, enter `^JThe where ` quotes	the CTRL-J.

       most uses the following environment variables:

	      This  variable  sets  commonly used switches.  For example, some
	      people  prefer  to  use  most  with the -s option	so that	excess
	      blank lines are not displayed.  On VMS  this  is	normally  done
	      done in the through the	line:

		 $ define MOST_SWITCHES	"-s"

	      Either   of   these  environment variables specify an editor for
	      most to invoke to	edit a file. The value can contain %s  and  %d
	      formatting  descriptors  that  represent	the file name and line
	      number, respectively.  For example, if JED is your editor,  then
	      set MOST_EDITOR to 'jed %s -g %d'.

	      This variable may	be used	to specify an alternate	help file.

	      Set  this	 variable  to  specify the initialization file to load
	      during startup.  The default action is to	load the  system  con-
	      figuration  file	and  then a personal configuration file	called
	      .mostrc on Unix, and most.rc on other systems.

       When most starts	up, it tries to	read a system configuration  file  and
       then  a personal	configuration file. These files	may be used to specify
       key-bindings and	colors.

       To bind a key to	a particular function use the syntax:

	   setkey function-name	key-sequence

       The setkey command requires two arguments.  The function-name  argument
       specifies the function that is to be executed as	a response to the keys
       specified by the	key-sequence argument are pressed.  For	example,

	   setkey   "up"     "^P"

       indicates that when Ctrl-P is pressed then the function up is to	be ex-

       Sometimes,  it  is  necessary to	first unbind a key-sequence before re-
       binding it in order via the unsetkey function:

	   unsetkey "^F"

       Colors may be defined through the use of	the color keyword in  the  the
       configuration file using	the syntax:


       Here, OBJECT-NAME can be	any one	of the following items:

	    status	     --	the status line
	    underline	     --	underlined text
	    overstrike	     --	overstruck text
	    normal	     --	anything else

       See the sample configuration files for more information.

       Almost all of the known bugs or limitations of most are due to a	desire
       to read and interpret control characters	in files.   One	 problem  con-
       cerns the use of	backspace characters to	underscore or overstrike other
       characters.  most makes an attempt to use terminal escape sequences  to
       simulate	this behavior.	One side effect	is the one does	not always get
       what one	expects	when scrolling right and left through a	file.  When in
       doubt, use the -v and -b	options	of most.

       The  regular-expression	searches may fail to find strings that involve
       backspace/underscore used  for  highlighting.   The  regular-expression
       syntax is described in the S-Lang Library documentation.

       John E. Davis <>

       Over  the years,	many people have contributed to	most in	one way	or an-
       other, e.g., via	code patches, bug-fixes, comments, or  criticisms.   I
       am  particularly	grateful to the	very early adopters of the program who
       took a chance with a  fledgling	software  project  headed  by  someone
       learning	the underlying language.  These	include:

       Mats  Akerberg,	Henk  D. Davids, Rex O.	Livingston, and	Mark Pizzolato
       contributed to the early	VMS versions of	 most.	 In  particular,  Mark
       worked on it to get it ready for	DECUS.

       Foteos  Macrides	adapted	most for use in	cswing and gopher.  A few fea-
       tures of	the present version of most was	inspired from his work.

       I am grateful to	Robert Mills for re-writing the	search routines	to use
       regular expressions.

       Sven Oliver Moll	came up	with the idea of automatic detection of	zipped

       I would also like to thank Shinichi Hama	for his	valuable criticisms of

       Javier Kohen was	instrumental in	the support for	UTF-8.

       Thanks  to  David  W. Sanderson for adapting the	early documentation to
       nroff man page source format.

			       17 February 2019			       MOST(1)


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