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MOUSED(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		     MOUSED(8)

     moused -- pass mouse data to the console driver

     moused [-DPRacdfs]	[-I file] [-F rate] [-r	resolution] [-S	baudrate]
	    [-VH [-U distance -L distance]] [-A	exp[,offset]] [-a X[,Y]]
	    [-C	threshold] [-m N=M] [-w	N] [-z target] [-t mousetype]
	    [-l	level] [-3 [-E timeout]] [-T distance[,time[,after]]] -p port

     moused [-Pd] -p port -i info

     The moused	utility	and the	console	driver work together to	support	mouse
     operation in the text console and user programs.  They virtualize the
     mouse and provide user programs with mouse	data in	the standard format
     (see sysmouse(4)).

     The mouse daemon listens to the specified port for	mouse data, interprets
     and then passes it	via ioctls to the console driver.  The mouse daemon
     reports translation movement, button press/release	events and movement of
     the roller	or the wheel if	available.  The	roller/wheel movement is re-
     ported as "Z" axis	movement.

     The console driver	will display the mouse pointer on the screen and pro-
     vide cut and paste	functions if the mouse pointer is enabled in the vir-
     tual console via vidcontrol(1).  If sysmouse(4) is	opened by the user
     program, the console driver also passes the mouse data to the device so
     that the user program will	see it.

     If	the mouse daemon receives the signal SIGHUP, it	will reopen the	mouse
     port and reinitialize itself.  Useful if the mouse	is attached/detached
     while the system is suspended.

     If	the mouse daemon receives the signal SIGUSR1, it will stop passing
     mouse events.  Sending the	signal SIGUSR1 again will resume passing mouse
     events.  Useful if	your typing on a laptop	is interrupted by accidentally
     touching the mouse	pad.

     The following options are available:

     -3	     Emulate the third (middle)	button for 2-button mice.  It is emu-
	     lated by pressing the left	and right physical buttons simultane-

     -C	threshold
	     Set double	click speed as the maximum interval in msec between
	     button clicks.  Without this option, the default value of 500
	     msec will be assumed.  This option	will have effect only on the
	     cut and paste operations in the text mode console.	 The user pro-
	     gram which	is reading mouse data via sysmouse(4) will not be af-

     -D	     Lower DTR on the serial port.  This option	is valid only if
	     mousesystems is selected as the protocol type.  The DTR line may
	     need to be	dropped	for a 3-button mouse to	operate	in the
	     mousesystems mode.

     -E	timeout
	     When the third button emulation is	enabled	(see above), the
	     moused utility waits timeout msec at most before deciding whether
	     two buttons are being pressed simultaneously.  The	default	time-
	     out is 100	msec.

     -F	rate
	     Set the report rate (reports/sec) of the device if	supported.

     -L	distance
	     When "Virtual Scrolling" is enabled, the -L option	can be used to
	     set the distance (in pixels) that the mouse must move before a
	     scroll event is generated.	 This effectively controls the
	     scrolling speed.  The default distance is 2 pixels.

     -H	     Enable "Horizontal	Virtual	Scrolling".  With this option set,
	     holding the middle	mouse button down will cause motion to be in-
	     terpreted as horizontal scrolling.	 Use the -U option to set the
	     distance the mouse	must move before the scrolling mode is acti-
	     vated and the -L option to	set the	scrolling speed.  This option
	     may be used with or without the -V	option.

     -I	file
	     Write the process id of the moused	utility	in the specified file.
	     Without this option, the process id will be stored	in

     -P	     Do	not start the Plug and Play COM	device enumeration procedure
	     when identifying the serial mouse.	 If this option	is given to-
	     gether with the -i	option,	the moused utility will	not be able to
	     print useful information for the serial mouse.

     -R	     Lower RTS on the serial port.  This option	is valid only if
	     mousesystems is selected as the protocol type by the -t option
	     below.  It	is often used with the -D option above.	 Both RTS and
	     DTR lines may need	to be dropped for a 3-button mouse to operate
	     in	the mousesystems mode.

     -S	baudrate
	     Select the	baudrate for the serial	port (1200 to 9600).  Not all
	     serial mice support this option.

     -T	distance[,time[,after]]
	     Terminate drift.  Use this	option if mouse	pointer	slowly wanders
	     when mouse	is not moved.  Movements up to distance	(for example
	     4)	pixels (X+Y) in	time msec (default 500)	are ignored, except
	     during after msec (default	4000) since last real mouse movement.

     -V	     Enable "Virtual Scrolling".  With this option set,	holding	the
	     middle mouse button down will cause motion	to be interpreted as
	     scrolling.	 Use the -U option to set the distance the mouse must
	     move before the scrolling mode is activated and the -L option to
	     set the scrolling speed.

     -U	distance
	     When "Virtual Scrolling" is enabled, the -U option	can be used to
	     set the distance (in pixels) that the mouse must move before the
	     scrolling mode is activated.  The default distance	is 3 pixels.

     -A	exp[,offset]
	     Apply exponential (dynamic) acceleration to mouse movements: the
	     faster you	move the mouse,	the more it will be accelerated.  That
	     means that	small mouse movements are not accelerated, so they are
	     still very	accurate, while	a faster movement will drive the
	     pointer quickly across the	screen.

	     The exp value specifies the exponent, which is basically the
	     amount of acceleration.  Useful values are	in the range 1.1 to
	     2.0, but it depends on your mouse hardware	and your personal
	     preference.  A value of 1.0 means no exponential acceleration.  A
	     value of 2.0 means	squared	acceleration (i.e. if you move the
	     mouse twice as fast, the pointer will move	four times as fast on
	     the screen).  Values beyond 2.0 are possible but not recommended.
	     A good value to start is probably 1.5.

	     The optional offset value specifies the distance at which the ac-
	     celeration	begins.	 The default is	1.0, which means that the ac-
	     celeration	is applied to movements	larger than one	unit.  If you
	     specify a larger value, it	takes more speed for the acceleration
	     to	kick in, i.e. the speed	range for small	and accurate movements
	     is	wider.	Usually	the default should be sufficient, but if
	     you're not	satisfied with the behaviour, try a value of 2.0.

	     Note that the -A option interacts badly with the X	server's own
	     acceleration, which doesn't work very well	anyway.	 Therefore it
	     is	recommended to switch it off if	necessary: "xset m 1".

     -a	X[,Y]
	     Accelerate	or decelerate the mouse	input.	This is	a linear ac-
	     celeration	only.  Values less than	1.0 slow down movement,	values
	     greater than 1.0 speed it up.  Specifying only one	value sets the
	     acceleration for both axes.

	     You can use the -a	and -A options at the same time	to have	the
	     combined effect of	linear and exponential acceleration.

     -c	     Some mice report middle button down events	as if the left and
	     right buttons are being pressed.  This option handles this.

     -d	     Enable debugging messages.

     -f	     Do	not become a daemon and	instead	run as a foreground process.
	     Useful for	testing	and debugging.

     -i	info
	     Print specified information and quit.  Available pieces of	infor-
	     mation are:

	     port      Port (device file) name,	i.e. /dev/cuau0, /dev/mse0 and
	     if	       Interface type: serial, bus, inport or ps/2.
	     type      Protocol	type.  It is one of the	types listed under the
		       -t option below or sysmouse if the driver supports the
		       sysmouse	data format standard.
	     model     Mouse model.  The moused	utility	may not	always be able
		       to identify the model.
	     all       All of the above	items.	Print port, interface, type
		       and model in this order in one line.

	     If	the moused utility cannot determine the	requested information,
	     it	prints "unknown" or "generic".

     -l	level
	     Specifies at which	level moused should operate the	mouse driver.
	     Refer to Operation	Levels in psm(4) for more information on this.

     -m	N=M  Assign the	physical button	M to the logical button	N.  You	may
	     specify as	many instances of this option as you like.  More than
	     one physical button may be	assigned to a logical button at	the
	     same time.	 In this case the logical button will be down, if ei-
	     ther of the assigned physical buttons is held down.  Do not put
	     space around `='.

     -p	port
	     Use port to communicate with the mouse.

     -r	resolution
	     Set the resolution	of the device; in Dots Per Inch, or low,
	     medium-low, medium-high or	high.  This option may not be sup-
	     ported by all the device.

     -s	     Select a baudrate of 9600 for the serial line.  Not all serial
	     mice support this option.

     -t	type
	     Specify the protocol type of the mouse attached to	the port.  You
	     may explicitly specify a type listed below, or use	auto to	let
	     the moused	utility	automatically select an	appropriate protocol
	     for the given mouse.  If you entirely omit	this option in the
	     command line, -t auto is assumed.	Under normal circumstances,
	     you need to use this option only if the moused utility is not
	     able to detect the	protocol automatically (see Configuring	Mouse

	     Note that if a protocol type is specified with this option, the
	     -P	option above is	implied	and Plug and Play COM device enumera-
	     tion procedure will be disabled.

	     Also note that if your mouse is attached to the PS/2 mouse	port,
	     you should	always choose auto or ps/2, regardless of the brand
	     and model of the mouse.  Likewise,	if your	mouse is attached to
	     the bus mouse port, choose	auto or	busmouse.  Serial mouse	proto-
	     cols will not work	with these mice.

	     For the USB mouse,	the protocol must be auto.  No other protocol
	     will work with the	USB mouse.

	     Valid types for this option are listed below.

	     For the serial mouse:
	     microsoft	      Microsoft	serial mouse protocol.	Most 2-button
			      serial mice use this protocol.
	     intellimouse     Microsoft	IntelliMouse protocol.	Genius Net-
			      Mouse, ASCII Mie Mouse, Logitech MouseMan+ and
			      FirstMouse+ use this protocol too.  Other	mice
			      with a roller/wheel may be compatible with this
	     mousesystems     MouseSystems 5-byte protocol.  3-button mice may
			      use this protocol.
	     mmseries	      MM Series	mouse protocol.
	     logitech	      Logitech mouse protocol.	Note that this is for
			      old Logitech models.  mouseman or	intellimouse
			      should be	specified for newer models.
	     mouseman	      Logitech MouseMan	and TrackMan protocol.	Some
			      3-button mice may	be compatible with this	proto-
			      col.  Note that MouseMan+	and FirstMouse+	use
			      intellimouse protocol rather than	this one.
	     glidepoint	      ALPS GlidePoint protocol.
	     thinkingmouse    Kensington ThinkingMouse protocol.
	     mmhitab	      Hitachi tablet protocol.
	     x10mouseremote   X10 MouseRemote.
	     kidspad	      Genius Kidspad and Easypad protocol.
	     versapad	      Interlink	VersaPad protocol.
	     gtco_digipad     GTCO Digipad protocol.

	     For the bus and InPort mouse:
	     busmouse	      This is the only protocol	type available for the
			      bus and InPort mouse and should be specified for
			      any bus mice and InPort mice, regardless of the

	     For the PS/2 mouse:
	     ps/2	      This is the only protocol	type available for the
			      PS/2 mouse and should be specified for any PS/2
			      mice, regardless of the brand.

	     For the USB mouse,	auto is	the only protocol type available for
	     the USB mouse and should be specified for any USB mice, regard-
	     less of the brand.

     -w	N    Make the physical button N	act as the wheel mode button.  While
	     this button is pressed, X and Y axis movement is reported to be
	     zero and the Y axis movement is mapped to Z axis.	You may	fur-
	     ther map the Z axis movement to virtual buttons by	the -z option

     -z	target
	     Map Z axis	(roller/wheel) movement	to another axis	or to virtual
	     buttons.  Valid target maybe:
	     y	  X or Y axis movement will be reported	when the Z axis	move-
		  ment is detected.
	     N	  Report down events for the virtual buttons N and N+1 respec-
		  tively when negative and positive Z axis movement is de-
		  tected.  There do not	need to	be physical buttons N and N+1.
		  Note that mapping to logical buttons is carried out after
		  mapping from the Z axis movement to the virtual buttons is
	     N1	N2
		  Report down events for the virtual buttons N1	and N2 respec-
		  tively when negative and positive Z axis movement is de-
	     N1	N2 N3 N4
		  This is useful for the mouse with two	wheels of which	the
		  second wheel is used to generate horizontal scroll action,
		  and for the mouse which has a	knob or	a stick	which can de-
		  tect the horizontal force applied by the user.

		  The motion of	the second wheel will be mapped	to the buttons
		  N3, for the negative direction, and N4, for the positive di-
		  rection.  If the buttons N3 and N4 actually exist in this
		  mouse, their actions will not	be detected.

		  Note that horizontal movement	or second roller/wheel move-
		  ment may not always be detected, because there appears to be
		  no accepted standard as to how it is encoded.

		  Note also that some mice think left is the negative horizon-
		  tal direction; others	may think otherwise.  Moreover,	there
		  are some mice	whose two wheels are both mounted vertically,
		  and the direction of the second vertical wheel does not
		  match	the first one.

   Configuring Mouse Daemon
     The first thing you need to know is the interface type of the mouse you
     are going to use.	It can be determined by	looking	at the connector of
     the mouse.	 The serial mouse has a	D-Sub female 9-	or 25-pin connector.
     The bus and InPort	mice have either a D-Sub male 9-pin connector or a
     round DIN 9-pin connector.	 The PS/2 mouse	is equipped with a small,
     round DIN 6-pin connector.	 Some mice come	with adapters with which the
     connector can be converted	to another.  If	you are	to use such an
     adapter, remember the connector at	the very end of	the mouse/adapter pair
     is	what matters.  The USB mouse has a flat	rectangular connector.

     The next thing to decide is a port	to use for the given interface.	 For
     the bus, InPort and PS/2 mice, there is little choice: the	bus and	InPort
     mice always use /dev/mse0,	and the	PS/2 mouse is always at	/dev/psm0.
     There may be more than one	serial port to which the serial	mouse can be
     attached.	Many people often assign the first, built-in serial port
     /dev/cuau0	to the mouse.  You can attach multiple USB mice	to your	system
     or	to your	USB hub.  They are accessible as /dev/ums0, /dev/ums1, and so

     You may want to create a symbolic link /dev/mouse pointing	to the real
     port to which the mouse is	connected, so that you can easily distinguish
     which is your "mouse" port	later.

     The next step is to guess the appropriate protocol	type for the mouse.
     The moused	utility	may be able to automatically determine the protocol
     type.  Run	the moused utility with	the -i option and see what it says.
     If	the command can	identify the protocol type, no further investigation
     is	necessary on your part.	 You may start the daemon without explicitly
     specifying	a protocol type	(see EXAMPLES).

     The command may print sysmouse if the mouse driver	supports this protocol

     Note that the type	and model printed by the -i option do not necessarily
     match the product name of the pointing device in question,	but they may
     give the name of the device with which it is compatible.

     If	the -i option yields nothing, you need to specify a protocol type to
     the moused	utility	by the -t option.  You have to make a guess and	try.
     There is rule of thumb:

     1.	  The bus and InPort mice always use busmouse protocol regardless of
	  the brand of the mouse.
     2.	  The ps/2 protocol should always be specified for the PS/2 mouse re-
	  gardless of the brand	of the mouse.
     3.	  You must specify the auto protocol for the USB mouse.
     4.	  Most 2-button	serial mice support the	microsoft protocol.
     5.	  3-button serial mice may work	with the mousesystems protocol.	 If it
	  does not, it may work	with the microsoft protocol although the third
	  (middle) button will not function.  3-button serial mice may also
	  work with the	mouseman protocol under	which the third	button may
	  function as expected.
     6.	  3-button serial mice may have	a small	switch to choose between "MS"
	  and "PC", or "2" and "3".  "MS" or "2" usually mean the microsoft
	  protocol.  "PC" or "3" will choose the mousesystems protocol.
     7.	  If the mouse has a roller or a wheel,	it may be compatible with the
	  intellimouse protocol.

     To	test if	the selected protocol type is correct for the given mouse, en-
     able the mouse pointer in the current virtual console,

	   vidcontrol -m on

     start the mouse daemon in the foreground mode,

	   moused -f -p	<selected_port>	-t <selected_protocol>

     and see if	the mouse pointer travels correctly according to the mouse
     movement.	Then try cut & paste features by clicking the left, right and
     middle buttons.  Type ^C to stop the command.

   Multiple Mice
     As	many instances of the mouse daemon as the number of mice attached to
     the system	may be run simultaneously; one instance	for each mouse.	 This
     is	useful if the user wants to use	the built-in PS/2 pointing device of a
     laptop computer while on the road,	but wants to use a serial mouse	when
     s/he attaches the system to the docking station in	the office.  Run two
     mouse daemons and tell the	application program (such as the X Window
     System) to	use sysmouse(4), then the application program will always see
     mouse data	from either mouse.  When the serial mouse is not attached, the
     corresponding mouse daemon	will not detect	any movement or	button state
     change and	the application	program	will only see mouse data coming	from
     the daemon	for the	PS/2 mouse.  In	contrast when both mice	are attached
     and both of them are moved	at the same time in this configuration,	the
     mouse pointer will	travel across the screen just as if movement of	the
     mice is combined all together.

     /dev/consolectl  device to	control	the console
     /dev/mse%d	      bus and InPort mouse driver
     /dev/psm%d	      PS/2 mouse driver
     /dev/sysmouse    virtualized mouse	driver
     /dev/ttyv%d      virtual consoles
     /dev/ums%d	      USB mouse	driver
		      process id of the	currently running moused utility
		      UNIX-domain stream socket	for X10	MouseRemote events

	   moused -p /dev/cuau0	-i type

     Let the moused utility determine the protocol type	of the mouse at	the
     serial port /dev/cuau0.  If successful, the command will print the	type,
     otherwise it will say "unknown".

	   moused -p /dev/cuau0
	   vidcontrol -m on

     If	the moused utility is able to identify the protocol type of the	mouse
     at	the specified port automatically, you can start	the daemon without the
     -t	option and enable the mouse pointer in the text	console	as above.

	   moused -p /dev/mouse	-t microsoft
	   vidcontrol -m on

     Start the mouse daemon on the serial port /dev/mouse.  The	protocol type
     microsoft is explicitly specified by the -t option.

	   moused -p /dev/mouse	-m 1=3 -m 3=1

     Assign the	physical button	3 (right button) to the	logical	button 1 (log-
     ical left)	and the	physical button	1 (left) to the	logical	button 3 (log-
     ical right).  This	will effectively swap the left and right buttons.

	   moused -p /dev/mouse	-t intellimouse	-z 4

     Report negative Z axis movement (i.e., mouse wheel) as the	button 4
     pressed and positive Z axis movement (i.e., mouse wheel) as the button 5

     If	you add

	   ALL ALL = NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/killall	-USR1 moused

     to	your /usr/local/etc/sudoers file, and bind

	   killall -USR1 moused

     to	a key in your window manager, you can suspend mouse events on your
     laptop if you keep	brushing over the mouse	pad while typing.

     kill(1), vidcontrol(1), xset(1), keyboard(4), mse(4), psm(4), screen(4),
     sysmouse(4), ums(4)

     The moused	utility	partially supports "Plug and Play External COM Device
     Specification" in order to	support	PnP serial mice.  However, due to var-
     ious degrees of conformance to the	specification by existing serial mice,
     it	does not strictly follow the version 1.0 of the	standard.  Even	with
     this less strict approach,	it may not always determine an appropriate
     protocol type for the given serial	mouse.

     The moused	utility	first appeared in FreeBSD 2.2.

     The moused	utility	was written by Michael Smith <>.
     This manual page was written by Mike Pritchard <>.	The
     command and manual	page have since	been updated by	Kazutaka Yokota

     Many pad devices behave as	if the first (left) button were	pressed	if the
     user "taps" the surface of	the pad.  In contrast, some ALPS GlidePoint
     and Interlink VersaPad models treat the tapping action as fourth button
     events.  Use the option "-m 1=4" for these	models to obtain the same ef-
     fect as the other pad devices.

     Cut and paste functions in	the virtual console assume that	there are
     three buttons on the mouse.  The logical button 1 (logical	left) selects
     a region of text in the console and copies	it to the cut buffer.  The
     logical button 3 (logical right) extends the selected region.  The	logi-
     cal button	2 (logical middle) pastes the selected text at the text	cursor
     position.	If the mouse has only two buttons, the middle, `paste' button
     is	not available.	To obtain the paste function, use the -3 option	to em-
     ulate the middle button, or use the -m option to assign the physical
     right button to the logical middle	button:	"-m 2=3".

BSD				 May 15, 2008				   BSD


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