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GROFF_MS(7)	       Miscellaneous Information Manual		   GROFF_MS(7)

       groff_ms	- groff	ms macros

       groff -ms [ options... ]	[ files... ]
       groff -m	ms [ options...	] [ files... ]

       This  manual  page  describes the GNU version of	the ms macros, part of
       the groff typesetting system.  The ms macros are	mostly compatible with
       the  documented behavior	of the 4.3 BSD Unix ms macros (see Differences
       from troff ms below for details).  The ms macros	are suitable  for  re-
       ports, letters, books, and technical documentation.

       The  ms	macro package expects files to have a certain amount of	struc-
       ture.  The simplest documents can begin with a paragraph	macro and con-
       sist of text separated by paragraph macros or even blank	lines.	Longer
       documents have a	structure as follows:

       Document	type
	      If you use the RP	(report) macro at the beginning	of  the	 docu-
	      ment,  groff  prints the cover page information on its own page;
	      otherwise	it prints the information on the first page with  your
	      document	text  immediately  following.	Other document formats
	      found in AT&T troff are specific to AT&T or  Berkeley,  and  are
	      not supported in groff ms.

       Format and layout
	      By setting number	registers, you can change your document's type
	      (font and	size), margins,	 spacing,  headers  and	 footers,  and
	      footnotes.   See	Document  control registers below for more de-

       Cover page
	      A	cover page consists of a title,	and  optionally	 the  author's
	      name and institution, an abstract, and the date.	See Cover page
	      macros below for more details.

       Body   Following	the cover page is your document.  It consists of para-
	      graphs, headings,	and lists.

       Table of	contents
	      Longer  documents	usually	include	a table	of contents, which you
	      can add by placing the TC	macro at the end of your document.

   Document control registers
       The following table lists the document control number  registers.   For
       the sake	of consistency,	set registers related to margins at the	begin-
       ning of your document, or just after the	RP macro.

       Margin settings

	      Reg.	    Definition	       Effective    Default
	       PO     Page offset (left	mar-   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length	       next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length     next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin      next page    1i

	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin   next page    1i

       Text settings

	      Reg.	    Definition	       Effective    Default
	       PS     Point size	       next para.   10p
	       VS     Line spacing (leading)   next para.   12p

       Paragraph settings

	      Reg.	    Definition		Effective    Default
	       PI    Initial indent		next para.   5n
	       PD    Space between paragraphs	next para.   0.3v
	       QI    Quoted paragraph indent	next para.   5n

       Footnote	settings

	      Reg.     Definition	 Effective     Default
	       FL    Footnote length   next footnote   LL*5/6
	       FI    Footnote indent   next footnote   2n
	       FF    Footnote format   next footnote   0

       Other settings

	       Reg.	     Definition		Effective   Default
	       MINGW	Minimum	width between	next page   2n

   Cover page macros
       Use the following macros	to create a cover page for  your  document  in
       the order shown.

       .RP [no]
	      Specifies	 the report format for your document.  The report for-
	      mat creates a separate cover page.   With	 no  RP	 macro,	 groff
	      prints a subset of the cover page	on page	1 of your document.

	      If  you  use the optional	no argument, groff prints a title page
	      but does not repeat any of the title  page  information  (title,
	      author, abstract,	etc.) on page 1	of the document.

       .P1    (P-one) Prints the header	on page	1.  The	default	is to suppress
	      the header.

       .DA [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the	arguments to the macro
	      if  any,	on  the	 title page (if	specified) and in the footers.
	      This is the default for nroff.

       .ND [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the	arguments to the macro
	      if any, on the title page	(if specified) but not in the footers.
	      This is the default for troff.

       .TL    Specifies	the document title.  Groff collects text following the
	      TL  macro	 into the title, until reaching	the author name	or ab-

       .AU    Specifies	the author's name.  You	can specify  multiple  authors
	      by using an AU macro for each author.

       .AI    Specifies	 the  author's	institution.  You can specify multiple

       .AB [no]
	      Begins the abstract.  The	default	is to print the	word ABSTRACT,
	      centered	and  in	 italics, above	the text of the	abstract.  The
	      option no	suppresses this	heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

       Use the PP macro	to create indented paragraphs, and  the	 LP  macro  to
       create paragraphs with no initial indent.

       The  QP macro indents all text at both left and right margins.  The ef-
       fect is identical to the	HTML <BLOCKQUOTE> element.  The	next paragraph
       or heading returns margins to normal.

       The  XP	macro  produces	 an exdented paragraph.	 The first line	of the
       paragraph begins	at the left margin, and	subsequent lines are  indented
       (the opposite of	PP).

       Use headings to create a	hierarchical structure for your	document.  The
       ms macros print headings	in bold	using the same font family  and	 point
       size as the body	text.

       The following heading macros are	available:

       .NH xx Numbered	heading.  The argument xx is either a numeric argument
	      to indicate the level of the heading, or S xx xx "..."   to  set
	      the  section  number  explicitly.	 If you	specify	heading	levels
	      out of sequence, such  as	 invoking  .NH 3  after	 .NH 1,	 groff
	      prints a warning on standard error.

       .SH    Unnumbered subheading.

       The  ms	macros	provide	a variety of methods to	highlight or emphasize

       .B [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in bold type.  If	you specify  a	second
	      argument,	 groff	prints	it in the previous font	after the bold
	      text, with no intervening	space (this allows you to set punctua-
	      tion after the highlighted text without highlighting the punctu-
	      ation).  Similarly, it prints the	third argument (if any)	in the
	      previous font before the first argument.	For example,

		     .B	foo ) (

	      prints (foo).

	      If  you give this	macro no arguments, groff prints all text fol-
	      lowing in	bold until the next highlighting, paragraph, or	 head-
	      ing macro.

       .R [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in roman (or regular) type.  It operates
	      similarly	to the B macro otherwise.

       .I [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in italic	type.  It  operates  similarly
	      to the B macro otherwise.

       .CW [txt	[post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its	 first argument	in a constant width face.  It operates
	      similarly	to the B macro otherwise.

       .BI [txt	[post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in bold italic type.  It operates	 simi-
	      larly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BX [txt]
	      Prints  its  argument and	draws a	box around it.	If you want to
	      box a string that	contains spaces, use a digit-width space (\0).

       .UL [txt	[post]]
	      Prints its first argument	with an	underline.  If you  specify  a
	      second  argument,	groff prints it	in the previous	font after the
	      underlined text, with no intervening space.

       .LG    Prints all text following	in larger type (2 points  larger  than
	      the  current point size) until the next font size, highlighting,
	      paragraph, or heading macro.  You	can specify this macro	multi-
	      ple times	to enlarge the point size as needed.

       .SM    Prints all text following	in smaller type	(2 points smaller than
	      the current point	size) until the	next type size,	 highlighting,
	      paragraph,  or heading macro.  You can specify this macro	multi-
	      ple times	to reduce the point size as needed.

       .NL    Prints all text following	in the normal point size (that is, the
	      value of the PS register).

	      Print the	enclosed text as a superscript.

       You  may	need to	indent sections	of text.  A typical use	for indents is
       to create nested	lists and sublists.

       Use the RS and RE macros	to start and end a section of  indented	 text,
       respectively.  The PI register controls the amount of indent.

       You  can	 nest indented sections	as deeply as needed by using multiple,
       nested pairs of RS and RE.

       The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:

       .IP [marker [width]]

	      The marker is usually a  bullet  character  \(bu	for  unordered
	      lists,  a	number (or auto-incrementing number register) for num-
	      bered lists, or a	word or	phrase for  indented  (glossary-style)

	      The  width  specifies the	indent for the body of each list item.
	      Once specified, the indent remains the same for all  list	 items
	      in the document until specified again.

   Tab stops
       Use the ta request to set tab stops as needed.  Use the TA macro	to re-
       set tabs	to the default (every 5n).  You	can redefine the TA  macro  to
       create a	different set of default tab stops.

   Displays and	keeps
       Use displays to show text-based examples	or figures (such as code list-
       ings).  Displays	turn off filling, so lines of code  can	 be  displayed
       as-is without inserting br requests in between each line.  Displays can
       be kept on a single page, or allowed to break across pages.   The  fol-
       lowing table shows the display types available.

		   Display macro		Type of	display
		With keep      No keep
	      .DS L	       .LD	 Left-justified.
	      .DS I [indent]   .ID	 Indented (default indent in
					 the DI	register).
	      .DS B	       .BD	 Block-centered	(left-justi-
					 fied, longest line centered).
	      .DS C	       .CD	 Centered.

	      .DS R	       .RD	 Right-justified.

       Use the DE macro	to end any display type.

       To  keep	 text together on a page, such as a paragraph that refers to a
       table (or list, or other	item) immediately following, use the KS	and KE
       macros.	 The  KS  macro	 begins	a block	of text	to be kept on a	single
       page, and the KE	macro ends the block.

       You can specify a floating keep using the KF and	 KE  macros.   If  the
       keep  cannot  fit  on the current page, groff holds the contents	of the
       keep and	allows text following the keep (in the source file) to fill in
       the remainder of	the current page.  When	the page breaks, whether by an
       explicit	bp request or by reaching the end of the  page,	 groff	prints
       the  floating  keep  at	the  top  of the new page.  This is useful for
       printing	large graphics or tables that do not need  to  appear  exactly
       where specified.

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The -ms macros support the standard groff preprocessors:	tbl, pic, eqn,
       and refer.  Mark	text meant for preprocessors by	enclosing it in	 pairs
       of tags as follows:

       .TS [H] and .TE
	      Denotes  a  table, to be processed by the	tbl preprocessor.  The
	      optional H argument instructs groff to create a  running	header
	      with  the	 information  up  to  the  TH macro.  Groff prints the
	      header at	the beginning of the table; if the table runs onto an-
	      other page, groff	prints the header on the next page as well.

       .PS and .PE
	      Denotes a	graphic, to be processed by the	pic preprocessor.  You
	      can create a pic file by hand, using the AT&T pic	manual	avail-
	      able  on	the Web	as a reference,	or by using a graphics program
	      such as xfig.

       .EQ [align] and .EN
	      Denotes an equation, to be processed by  the  eqn	 preprocessor.
	      The optional align argument can be C, L, or I to center (the de-
	      fault), left-justify, or indent the equation.

       .[ and .]
	      Denotes a	reference, to be processed by the refer	 preprocessor.
	      The  GNU refer(1)	manual page provides a comprehensive reference
	      to the preprocessor and the format of  the  bibliographic	 data-

       The  ms	macros	provide	a flexible footnote system.  You can specify a
       numbered	footnote by using the \** escape, followed by the text of  the
       footnote	enclosed by FS and FE macros.

       You  can	specify	symbolic footnotes by placing the mark character (such
       as \(dg for the dagger character) in the	body  text,  followed  by  the
       text of the footnote enclosed by	FS \(dg	and FE macros.

       You can control how groff prints	footnote numbers by changing the value
       of the FF register as follows:

	      0	     Prints the	footnote number	as a superscript; indents  the
		     footnote (default).

	      1	     Prints  the number	followed by a period (like 1.) and in-
		     dents the footnote.

	      2	     Like 1, without an	indent.

	      3	     Like 1, but prints	the footnote number as a hanging para-

       You can use footnotes safely within keeps and displays, but avoid using
       numbered	footnotes within floating keeps.  You can set a	second \** be-
       tween a \** and its corresponding .FS; as long as each .FS occurs after
       the corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS	are in the same	 order
       as the corresponding occurrences	of \**.

   Headers and footers
       There are two ways to define headers and	footers:

       o  Use  the  strings  LH, CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right
	  headers; use LF, CF, and RF to set the left, center, and right foot-
	  ers.	 This works best for documents that do not distinguish between
	  odd and even pages.

       o  Use the OH and EH macros to define headers  for  the	odd  and  even
	  pages;  and  OF and EF macros	to define footers for the odd and even
	  pages.  This is more flexible	than defining the individual  strings.
	  The syntax for these macros is as follows:

		 .OH 'left'center'right'

	  You can replace the quote (')	marks with any character not appearing
	  in the header	or footer text.

       You control margins using a set of number registers.  The following ta-
       ble lists the register names and	defaults:

	      Reg.	    Definition	       Effective    Default
	       PO     Page offset (left	mar-   next page    1i
	       LL     Line length	       next para.   6i
	       LT     Header/footer length     next para.   6i
	       HM     Top (header) margin      next page    1i
	       FM     Bottom (footer) margin   next page    1i

       Note that there is no right margin setting.  The	 combination  of  page
       offset  and line	length provide the information necessary to derive the
       right margin.

   Multiple columns
       The ms macros can set text in as	many columns as	will reasonably	fit on
       the  page.   The	 following  macros are available.  All of them force a
       page break if a multi-column mode is already set.  However, if the cur-
       rent mode is single-column, starting a multi-column mode	does not force
       a page break.

       .1C    Single-column mode.

       .2C    Two-column mode.

       .MC [width [gutter]]
	      Multi-column mode.  If you specify no arguments, it  is  equiva-
	      lent  to	the  2C	 macro.	 Otherwise, width is the width of each
	      column and gutter	is the space between columns.  The MINGW  num-
	      ber register is the default gutter width.

   Creating a table of contents
       Wrap text that you want to appear in the	table of contents in XS	and XE
       macros.	Use the	TC macro to print the table of contents	at the end  of
       the document, resetting the page	number to i (Roman numeral 1).

       You can manually	create a table of contents by specifying a page	number
       as the first argument to	XS.   Add  subsequent  entries	using  the  XA
       macro.  For example:

	      .XS 1
	      .XA 2
	      A	Brief History of the Universe
	      .XA 729
	      Details of Galactic Formation

       Use  the	PX macro to print a manually-generated table of	contents with-
       out resetting the page number.

       If you give the argument	no to either PX	or TC, groff suppresses	print-
       ing the title specified by the \*[TOC] string.

       The groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original
       AT&T code.  Since they take  advantage  of  the	extended  features  in
       groff, they cannot be used with AT&T troff.  Other differences include:

       o  The  internals  of  groff  ms	 differ	from the internals of Unix ms.
	  Documents that depend	upon implementation details of Unix ms may not
	  format properly with groff ms.

       o  The  error-handling  policy  of groff	ms is to detect	and report er-
	  rors,	rather than silently to	ignore them.

       o  Bell Labs localisms are not implemented.

       o  Berkeley localisms, in particular the	TM and CT macros, are not  im-

       o  Groff	 ms  does not work in compatibility mode (e.g. with the	-C op-

       o  There	is no support for typewriter-like devices.

       o  Groff	ms does	not provide cut	marks.

       o  Multiple line	spacing	is not supported (use a	larger vertical	 spac-
	  ing instead).

       o  Some	Unix ms	documentation says that	the CW and GW number registers
	  can be used to control the column width  and	gutter	width  respec-
	  tively.  These number	registers are not used in groff	ms.

       o  Macros  that	cause a	reset (paragraphs, headings, etc.)  may	change
	  the indent.  Macros that change  the	indent	do  not	 increment  or
	  decrement  the indent, but rather set	it absolutely.	This can cause
	  problems for documents that define additional	macros of  their  own.
	  The  solution	is to use not the in request but instead the RS	and RE

       o  The number register GS is set	to 1 by	the groff ms  macros,  but  is
	  not  used  by	 the Unix ms macros.  Documents	that need to determine
	  whether they are being formatted with	Unix ms	or groff ms should use
	  this number register.

       You  can	redefine the following strings to adapt	the groff ms macros to
       languages other than English:

			     String	   Default Value
			   REFERENCES	 References
			   TOC		 Table of Contents
			   MONTH1	 January
			   MONTH2	 February
			   MONTH3	 March
			   MONTH4	 April
			   MONTH5	 May
			   MONTH6	 June
			   MONTH7	 July
			   MONTH8	 August
			   MONTH9	 September
			   MONTH10	 October
			   MONTH11	 November
			   MONTH12	 December

       The \*- string produces an em dash -- like this.

   Text	Settings
       The FAM string sets the default font family.  If	this string  is	 unde-
       fined at	initialization,	it is set to Times.

       The point size, vertical	spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for foot-
       notes are controlled by the number registers FPS, FVS, and FPD; at ini-
       tialization  these  are	set to \n(PS-2,	\n[FPS]+2, and \n(PD/2 respec-
       tively.	If any of these	registers are defined  before  initialization,
       the initialization macro	does not change	them.

       The  hyphenation	 flags	(as set	by the hy request) are set from	the HY
       register; the default is	14.

       Improved	accent marks (as originally defined in Berkeley's ms  version)
       are available by	specifying the AM macro	at the beginning of your docu-
       ment.  You can place an accent over most	characters by  specifying  the
       string  defining	the accent directly after the character.  For example,
       n\*~ produces an	n with a tilde over it.

       The following conventions are used for names  of	 macros,  strings  and
       number  registers.   External names available to	documents that use the
       groff ms	macros contain only uppercase letters and digits.

       Internally the macros are divided into modules; naming conventions  are
       as follows:

       o  Names	used only within one module are	of the form module*name.

       o  Names	 used  outside the module in which they	are defined are	of the
	  form module@name.

       o  Names	associated with	a  particular  environment  are	 of  the  form
	  environment:name; these are used only	within the par module.

       o  name does not	have a module prefix.

       o  Constructed	names  used  to	 implement  arrays  are	 of  the  form

       Thus the	groff ms macros	reserve	the following names:

       o  Names	containing the characters *, @,	and :.

       o  Names	containing only	uppercase letters and digits.

       /usr/share/tmac/ms.tmac (a wrapper file for s.tmac)

       groff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1),  Groff:  The  GNU
       Implementation of troff by Trent	Fisher and Werner Lemberg.

       Original	 manual	 page  by James	Clark et al; rewritten by Larry	Kollar

Groff Version 1.19		11 October 2002			   GROFF_MS(7)


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